Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. Agrarian reform can include credit measures, training, extension, land consolidations, etc. The World Bank evaluates agrarian reform using five dimensions: (1) stocks and market liberalization, (2) land reform (including the development of land markets), (3) agro-processing and input supply channels, (4) urban finance, (5) market institutions.
Ben Cousins defines the difference between agrarian reform and land reform as follows:
Land reform… is concerned with rights in land, and their character, strength and distribution, while… [agrarian reform] focuses not only on these but also a broader set of issues: the class character of the relations of production and distribution in farming and related enterprises, and how these connect to the wider class structure. It is thus concerned economic and political power and the relations between them…
Along similar lines, a 2003 World Bank report states,
…A key precondition for land reform to be feasible and effective in improving beneficiaries' livelihoods is that such programs fit into a broader policy aimed at reducing poverty and establishing a favourable environment for the development of productive smallholder agriculture by beneficiaries.
Examples of other issues include "tenure security" for "farm workers, labour tenants, … farm dwellers… [and] tenant peasants", which makes these workers and tenants better prospects for receiving private-sector loans; "infrastructure and support services"; government support of "forms of rural enterprise" that are "complementary" to agriculture; and increased community participation of government decisions in rural areas.
Abd al-Karim al-Jundi (Arabic: عبد الكريم الجندي) (b. 1932 – 2 March 1969) was a Syrian officer and a founding member of the Ba'ath Party's Military Committee which took over power in the country after the 1963 military coup. He also served as minister of agrarian reform, and commander of the national security bureau.Agrarian law
Agrarian laws (from the Latin ager, meaning "land") were laws among the Romans regulating the division of the public lands, or ager publicus.
Various attempts to reform agrarian laws were part of the socio-political struggle between the patricians and plebeians known as the Conflict of the Orders.Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program
The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, more commonly known as CARP, is an agrarian reform law of the Philippines whose legal basis is the Republic Act No. 6657, otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL). It is the redistribution of private and public agricultural lands to help the beneficiaries survive as small independent farmers, regardless of the “tenurial” arrangement. Its goals are to provide landowners equality in terms of income and opportunities, empower land owner beneficiaries to have an equitable land ownership, enhance the agricultural production and productivity, provide employment to more agricultural workers, and put an end to conflicts regarding land ownership.Department of Agrarian Reform (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Agrarian Reform (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Repormang Pansakahan, abbreviated as DAR or KRP) is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the redistribution of agrarian land in the Philippines.Florencio Abad
Florencio Barsana Abad (born July 13, 1954) is a Filipino lawyer and politician. Having held many cabinet-level ranks in the past, he was appointed by President Benigno Aquino III as Secretary of the Philippine Department of Budget and Management. Abad held various cabinet-level positions in the past, particularly as Secretary of the Department of Education and Secretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform.Hacienda Luisita
Hacienda Luisita is a 6,453-hectare sugar plantation located in the province of Tarlac, Philippines. The hacienda spans 11 villages in three towns of Tarlac province. Most of the original farmworkers reside in 10 villages – Barangays Balete, Cutcut (or Sta. Catalina), Lourdes (formerly Texas), Mapalacsiao (formerly Luisita), Asturias, and Bantog in Tarlac City; Barangay Motrico in La Paz town; and Barangays Parang (formerly San Sebastian), Mabilog (formerly Pasajes) and Pando in Concepcion town. The original estate includes the Central Azucarera de Tarlac (CAT) sugar mill and a golf course. The eleventh village is Barangay Central in Tarlac City which houses the CAT sugar mill, the St. Martin de Porres Hospital and the Our Lady of Lourdes Church. It features Luisita Golf and Country Club, a golf course and Las Haciendas de Luisita Subdivision, a 5-interconnected luxury subdivision.
Originally owned by the Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas, it is now owned by the Cojuangco family who acquired the hacienda in the late 1950s. The estate's incorporators, who control 70 percent of Hacienda Luisita's stock shares, are Pedro Cojuangco, Josephine C. Reyes's heirs, Teresita C. Lopa's heirs, José Cojuangco, Jr., and María Paz C. Teopaco, all siblings of the late former President Corazón C. Aquino who, on the day she became President of the Philippines, bequeathed her shares to her children and the Daughters of Charity and other non-profit organizations. The remaining 30 percent of the stock shares was given to farm workers under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program's stock distribution option scheme.Heherson Alvarez
Heherson "Sonny" Turingan Alvarez is a politician from the Philippines. He has served as a member of the House of Representatives of the Philippines and the Senate of the Philippines. He also was Secretary of Agrarian Reform, and Minister of Agrarian Reform.Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária
The Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária - INCRA (National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform) is a federal government authority of the public administration of Brazil. INCRA administers the land reform issues.
Its headquarters is at "Edifício Palácio do Desenvolvimento" at Brasília, Federal District.Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria
The National Institute for Agrarian Reform (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria, INRA) was an agency of the Cuban Government that was formed to institute the Agrarian Reform Law of 1959.
INRA also implemented the Second Agrarian Reform Law of 1963. It oversaw the development of the rural infrastructure.
Che Guevara was appointed the first leader of the Institute.Jaunauce Manor
Jaunauce Manor (Latvian: Jaunauces muižas pils; German: Schloss Neu-Autz) is a manor house in Jaunauce parish in Saldus municipality in the historical region of Courland, in western Latvia. It was built in the early 19th century for Count Karl Johann Friedrich von Medem, who bequeathed the estate to his daughter Caroline and her husband Ferdinand von der Ropp in 1827. It belonged to the von der Ropp family until the agrarian reform in 1920. The building has housed the Jaunauce primary school since 1931. Jaunace Manor is one of the best preserved examples of late classicism architecture in Latvia.Land reform in Cuba
The agrarian reform laws of Cuba sought to break up large landholdings and redistribute land to those peasants who worked it, to cooperatives, and the state. Laws relating to land reform were implemented in a series of laws passed between 1959 and 1963 after the Cuban Revolution. Che Guevara was named head of the INRA as minister of industries and oversaw the land reform policies.Land reform in Egypt
The post-revolution Egyptian Land Reform was an effort to change land ownership practices in Egypt following the 1952 Revolution launched by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers Movement.Land reform in the Philippines
Land reform in the Philippines has long been a contentious issue rooted in the Philippines's Spanish Colonial Period. Some efforts began during the American Colonial Period with renewed efforts during the Commonwealth, following independence, during Martial Law and especially following the People Power Revolution in 1986. The current law, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, was passed following the revolution and recently extended until 2014Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (Syria)
The Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (Arabic: وزارة الزراعة والإصلاح الزراعي) is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for agriculture affairs in Syria.Quezon Memorial station
Quezon Memorial Station is an under-construction station of the Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 7 located within the Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City.
Close landmarks include the Quezon Memorial Circle, Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center, Department of Agriculture Building, Quezon City Hall, Department of Agrarian Reform Building, the National Housing Authority and PTV Complex.Rafael V. Mariano
Rafael "Ka Paeng" Vitriolo Mariano (born October 24, 1956) is a Filipino politician. He was a member of the House of Representatives for Anakpawis serving from 2004 to 2013. He is also the chairman of the farmers militant group Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (KMP).On May 31, 2016, after being nominated by the National Democratic Front, it was announced that Mariano will be joining the Cabinet of President Rodrigo Duterte as Secretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform. He assumed the secretaryship on June 30, 2016 replacing Virgilio de los Reyes. His appointment as Secretary of Agrarian Reform was rejected by the Commission of Appointments on September 6, 2017 making him the 4th member of the Duterte Cabinet to be rejected by the CA, after former foreign secretary Perfecto Yasay Jr., former environment secretary Gina Lopez, and former social welfare secretary Judy Taguiwalo.Secretariat of Agrarian Reform (Mexico)
The Mexican Secretariat of Agrarian Reform (Spanish: Secretaría de la Reforma Agraria, SRA) was a Secretariat in the cabinet of Mexico. It was created under the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration, where Article 41 corresponds to the exercise of the functions and powers expressly stated in Article 27 of the Constitution of Mexico, which establishes the right of farm workers to own the land they work on.
By 2013, the Secretariat of Agrarian Reform was replaced by the Secretariat of Agrarian, Land, and Urban Development.Secretary of Agrarian Reform (Philippines)
The Secretary of Agrarian Reform (Filipino: Kalihim ng Repormang Pansakahan) is the head of the Department of Agrarian Reform and is a member of the President’s Cabinet.
John R. Castriciones was appointed Secretary on December 1, 2017 and confirmed by the Commission on Appointments on May 30, 2018. Virgilio de los Reyes
Virgilio "Gil" R. de los Reyes is a Filipino lawyer, educator and government administrator. He served as Secretary of Agrarian Reform under the administration of President Benigno Aquino III. Prior to assuming his post, he was Vice Dean of the De La Salle University College of Law, teaching constitutional law.