Agrarian reform

Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. Agrarian reform can include credit measures, training, extension, land consolidations, etc. The World Bank evaluates agrarian reform using five dimensions: (1) stocks and market liberalization, (2) land reform (including the development of land markets), (3) agro-processing and input supply channels, (4) urban finance, (5) market institutions.[1]

Ben Cousins defines the difference between agrarian reform and land reform as follows:

Land reform… is concerned with rights in land, and their character, strength and distribution, while… [agrarian reform] focuses not only on these but also a broader set of issues: the class character of the relations of production and distribution in farming and related enterprises, and how these connect to the wider class structure. It is thus concerned economic and political power and the relations between them…[2]

Along similar lines, a 2003 World Bank report states,

…A key precondition for land reform to be feasible and effective in improving beneficiaries' livelihoods is that such programs fit into a broader policy aimed at reducing poverty and establishing a favourable environment for the development of productive smallholder agriculture by beneficiaries.[3]

Examples of other issues include "tenure security" for "farm workers, labour tenants, … farm dwellers… [and] tenant peasants", which makes these workers and tenants better prospects for receiving private-sector loans;[4] "infrastructure and support services";[5] government support of "forms of rural enterprise" that are "complementary" to agriculture;[6] and increased community participation of government decisions in rural areas.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Csaba Csaki and John Nash, The Agrarian Economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, World Bank Discussion Paper 387, Washington, DC, 1998.
  2. ^ Ben Cousins, Agrarian reform and the 'two economies': transforming South Africa's countryside, draft of Chapter 9 in Ruth Hall and Lungisile Ntsebeza, eds., The Land Question in South Africa: The Challenge of Transformation and Redistribution, HSRC Press, Cape Town, South Africa (2007).
  3. ^ World Bank, Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction, World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003. Quoted in Cousins, op. cit., p. 11.
  4. ^ Cousins, op. cit., p.4–5, 7, 10–11
  5. ^ Cousins, op. cit., p.12
  6. ^ a b Cousins, op. cit., p.14

External links

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Agrarian law

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Various attempts to reform agrarian laws were part of the socio-political struggle between the patricians and plebeians known as the Conflict of the Orders.

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program

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Department of Agrarian Reform (Philippines)

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Originally owned by the Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas, it is now owned by the Cojuangco family who acquired the hacienda in the late 1950s. The estate's incorporators, who control 70 percent of Hacienda Luisita's stock shares, are Pedro Cojuangco, Josephine C. Reyes's heirs, Teresita C. Lopa's heirs, José Cojuangco, Jr., and María Paz C. Teopaco, all siblings of the late former President Corazón C. Aquino who, on the day she became President of the Philippines, bequeathed her shares to her children and the Daughters of Charity and other non-profit organizations. The remaining 30 percent of the stock shares was given to farm workers under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program's stock distribution option scheme.

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Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria

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Land reform in Egypt

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Land reform in the Philippines

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The Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (Arabic: وزارة الزراعة والإصلاح الزراعي‎) is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for agriculture affairs in Syria.

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