Agostino Lanzillo

Agostino Lanzillo (31 October 1886 – 3 March 1952) was an Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader who later became a member of Benito Mussolini's fascist movement.

Agostino Lanzillo
Member of the Italian Parliament
for Lombardy
In office
24 May 1924 – 21 January 1929
Personal details
Born31 October 1886
Reggio Calabria, Italy
Died3 March 1952 (aged 65)
Milan
Political partyNational Fascist Party
Alma materUniversity of Rome

Early life

Agostino Lanzillo was born in Reggio Calabria on 31 October 1886 to Salvatore and Giuseppina (Cosile) Lanzillo. Agostino attended primary school and secondary school in his hometown. He acquired a Law degree from the University of Rome and wrote his thesis on the socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.[1]

Political career

Revolutionary syndicalist period

Lanzillo was drawn to revolutionary syndicalism and became a follower of George Sorel. Lanzillo wrote:

The importance of Sorel in socialist historiography is in my opinion close to that of Marx and Engels

— Agostino Lanzillo, Giorgio Sorel nella storiografia, Il divenire sociale[2]

Lanzillo corresponded personally with Sorel,[3] and published in 1910 the first biography of Sorel.[4] Lanzillo also contributed to the syndicalist journals Avanguardia Socialista and Il divenire sociale.

National syndicalist period

In 1909, George Sorel started collaborating with the French nationalist-monarchist movement Action Française, creating national syndicalism. While many in the Italian Left attacked Sorel and reproached him for his close links with Action Française, Italian revolutionary syndicalists supported Sorel. Lanzillo, for example, defended his master in a series of articles published in Il divenire sociale. Later, Lanzillo wrote to the national syndicalist journal La lupa. From 1912, Lanzillo published under Benito Mussolini editorship, contributing to Avanti!, Utopia and Il Popolo d'Italia.[5]

Fascist period

Lanzillo was among the founders of the fascist movement,[6] and was a member of National Fascist Party.

Lanzillo was a member of Italian Chamber of Deputies (a house of Italian Parliament), in the 27th parliamentary session (24 May 1924 – 21 January 1929).[7]

Lanzillo was also a member of the one-party National Council of Corporations in 1931.

Academic career

In 1921 Lanzillo was a lecturer in political economy at University of Rome. In 1922 he became a Professor of Political Economy at the Royal University of Milan and in 1923 he became a professor at the University of Cagliari.[8] Later, Lanzillo was appointed rector of Royal Advanced Institute of Economics and Commerce in Venice.

Writings of Lanzillo

  • La disfatta del socialismo: Critica della guerra e del socialismo. Florence: Libreria della Voce, 1919.
  • Le Mouvement ouvrier en Italie. Paris: Revière, n. d. [1910].

References

  1. ^ Levy, C. (1995). "Lanzillo, Agostino". In A. Thomas Lane (ed.). Biographical Dictionary of European Labor Leaders. volume 1. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29899-8.
  2. ^ Lanzillo, Agostino (1 August 1910). "Giorgio Sorel nella storiografia" [George Sorel in historiography]. Il divenire sociale (in Italian): 220.
    Quoted in Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Asheri, Maia (1994). The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-691-03289-0.
  3. ^ Riley, Dylan (2010). The Civic Foundations of Fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain, and Romania, 1870-1945. Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780801894275.
  4. ^ Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Asheri, Maia (1994). The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-691-03289-0. The first biography of Sorel, by Agostino Lanzillo, appeared in Italy in 1910.
  5. ^ Levy, C. (1995). "Lanzillo, Agostino". In A. Thomas Lane (ed.). Biographical Dictionary of European Labor Leaders. volume 1. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29899-8.
  6. ^ Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Asheri, Maia (1994). The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-691-03289-0. The Fascist movement was founded by Mussolini in Milan at a meeting in the Piazza San Sepolcro on 23 March 1919. Among the founding members were several eminent revolutionary syndicalist leaders such as Agostino Lanzillo.
  7. ^ "Agostino Lanzillo". Camera dei deputati Portale Storico (in Italian). Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  8. ^ Levy, C. (1995). "Lanzillo, Agostino". In A. Thomas Lane (ed.). Biographical Dictionary of European Labor Leaders. volume 1. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29899-8.
Ca' Foscari

Ca' Foscari, the palace of the Foscari family, is a Gothic building on the waterfront of the Grand Canal in the Dorsoduro sestiere of Venice, Italy.

It was built for the doge Francesco Foscari in 1453, and designed by the architect Bartolomeo Bon. It is now the main seat of Ca' Foscari University of Venice.

The palace is located on the widest bend of the Grand Canal. Here, during the annual Regata Storica (Historical Regatta), held on the first Sunday in September, a floating wooden structure known as La Machina is placed (from this structure the Venetian authorities watch at the race); this also the site of the finishing line, and the venue for prize-giving.

Giornale degli economisti e annali di economia

The Giornale degli economisti e Annali di economia, established in Padua in 1875, is an Italian academic journal of economics. It publishes research articles in English and Italian. The owner of the publication is Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi and it is published by Egea, the University's publishing house.

Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (Italian: fascismo italiano), also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Revolutionary Fascist Party (PFR) founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) which was renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945. Italian Fascism is also associated with the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.

Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism, national syndicalism, revolutionary nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists also claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.Italian Fascism promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, especially classical liberalism that Mussolini and Fascist leaders denounced as "the debacle of individualism", but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction. Fascism was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but it was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernised Italy.While Fascism in Italy did not initially espouse the explicit Nordicism and antisemitism inherent to Nazi ideology, racist overtones were present in Fascist thought and policies from the beginning of Fascist rule of Italy. As Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany grew politically closer in the latter half of the 1930s, Italian laws and policies became explicitly antisemitic, including the passage of the Italian Racial Laws. When the Fascists were in power, they persecuted the Greek speakers in Italy.

List of syndicalists

This is a list of notable syndicalists, grouped by nationality.

National syndicalism

National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism. National syndicalism developed in France, and then spread to Italy, Spain, Portugal ,Romania and Japan.

Sorelianism

Sorelianism is advocacy for or support of the ideology and thinking of French revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel. Sorelians oppose bourgeois democracy, the developments of the 18th century, the secular spirit, and the French Revolution, while supporting classical tradition. A revisionist of Marxism, Sorel believed that the victory of the proletariat in class struggle could be achieved only through the power of myth and a general strike. To Sorel, the aftermath of class conflict would involve rejuvenation of both the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.With the seeming failure of Syndicalism, in 1910 he announced his abandonment of socialist literature and claimed in 1914, using an aphorism of Benedetto Croce that "socialism is dead" due to the "decomposition of Marxism". Sorel became a supporter of Maurrassian integral nationalism beginning in 1909, which he considered as having similar moral aims to syndicalism despite being enemies materially. In this sense, Sorelianism is considered to be a precursor to fascism. However, he became disillusioned with these ideas with World War I, and from 1918 until his death in 1922 he would be a supporter of the then Russian revolution and Communism, which he considered a revival for Syndicalism.

Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a radical current in the labor movement and was most active in the early 20th century. Its main idea is worker-based local organization and advancement through strikes. According to the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, it predominated in the revolutionary left in the decade preceding World War I as Marxism was mostly reformist at that time. Major syndicalist organizations included the General Confederation of Labor in France, the National Confederation of Labor in Spain, the Italian Syndicalist Union, the Free Workers' Union of Germany, and the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation. The Industrial Workers of the World, the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union and the Canadian One Big Union, though they did not regard themselves as syndicalists, are considered by most historians to belong to this current. A number of syndicalist organizations were and still are to this day linked in the International Workers' Association, but some of its member organizations left for the International Confederation of Labor, formed in 2018.

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