The Agitators were a political movement as well as elected representatives of soldiers, including the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell, during the English Civil War. They were also known as adjutators. Many of the ideas of the movement were later adopted by the Levellers.


Agitators, or adjutators, was the name given to representatives elected in 1647 by the different regiments of the English Parliamentary army. The word really means an agent, but it was confused with "adjutant," often called "agitant," a title familiar to the soldiers, and thus the form "adjutator" came into use.[1]

Early in 1647 the Long Parliament wished either to disband many of the regiments or to send them to Ireland. The soldiers, whose pay was largely in arrears, refused to accept either alternative, and eight of the cavalry regiments elected agitators, called at first commissioners, who laid their grievances before the three generals, and whose letter was read in the House of Commons on the 30 April 1647. The other regiments followed the example of the cavalry (nicknamed Ironsides), and the agitators, who belonged to the lower ranks of the army, were supported by many of the officers, who showed their sympathy by signing 'Declaration of the army.[1]

Cromwell and other generals succeeded to some extent in pacifying the troops by promising the payment of arrears for eight weeks at once; but before the return of the generals to London parliament had again decided to disband the army, and soon afterwards fixed the 1 June as the date on which this process was to begin.[1]

Again alarmed, the agitators decided to resist; a mutiny occurred in one regiment and the attempt at disbandment failed.[1] Then followed the seizure of King Charles I by Cornet Joyce. The Agitators, with two officers from each regiment and the Generals formed a new body called the Army Council which after a meeting near Newmarket, Suffolk on Friday 4 June 1647 issued "A Solemne Engagement of the Army, under the Command of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax" to Parliament on 8 June making their concerns known, and also the constitution of the Army Council so that Parliament would understand that the discontent was army-wide and had the support of both officers and other ranks.[1] This Engagement was read out to the army at a general meeting on 5 June.

A few weeks later, there was another meeting while the army was camped at Thriplow Heath near Royston, the soldiers refused the offers made by Parliament, and the agitators demanded a march towards London and the "purging" of the House of Commons, which did not happen. Subsequent events are part of the general history of England. Gradually the agitators ceased to exist, but many of their ideas were adopted by the Levellers, who may perhaps be regarded as their successors. Gardiner says of them, "Little as it was intended at the time, nothing was more calculated than the existence of this elected body of agitators to give to the army that distinctive political and religious character which it ultimately bore".[1]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, p. 377.


  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Agitators" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 377. Endnotes:
    • S. R. Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, vols. iii. and iv. (London, 1905).
A. J. Muste

Abraham Johannes Muste ( MUS-tee; January 8, 1885 – February 11, 1967) was a Dutch-born American clergyman and political activist. Muste is best remembered for his work in the labor movement, pacifist movement, antiwar movement, and the Civil Rights Movement.


Agitation may refer to:

Agitation (action), putting into motion by shaking or stirring, often to achieve mixing

An emotional state of excitement or restlessness

Psychomotor agitation, an extreme form of the above, which can be part of a mental illness or a side effect of anti-psychotic medication

Agitation (dementia), a symptom of dementia

Political agitation or demonstration (protest), political activities in which an agitator urges people to do something

Agitation and Propaganda against the State, a former criminal offence in communist Albania

Anti-Soviet agitation, a former criminal offence in the Soviet Union

Agitator (device)

An agitator is a device or mechanism to put something into motion by shaking or stirring. There are several types of agitation machines, including washing machine agitators (which rotate back and forth) and magnetic agitators (which contain a magnetic bar rotating in a magnetic field). Agitators can come in many sizes and varieties, depending on the application.

In general, agitators usually consist of an impeller and a shaft. An impeller is a rotor located within a tube or conduit attached to the shaft. It helps enhance the pressure in order for the flow of a fluid be done. Modern industrial agitators incorporate process control to maintain better control over the mixing process.

Agitator (film)

Agitator (荒ぶる魂たち, Araburu tamashii-tachi, also known as The Outlaw Souls) is a 2001 Japanese film directed by Takashi Miike.

Bill White (neo-Nazi)

William Alexander White (born May 29, 1977) is the leader of the American National Socialist Workers' Party, and former administrator of, a now-defunct website dedicated to anti-communist thought, and far-right interpretations of anti-Zionist and anti-capitalist speech.

White came to public attention in 1996 in a front-page article in The Washington Post after he posted allegations about the stepmother of a girl he said was being abused. In 1999 he expressed support for Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, killers of twelve students and a teacher in the Columbine High School massacre, because according to White, they were being oppressed by the United States education system. In 2005, The New York Times quoted White as having "laughed" when United States district court judge Joan Lefkow's husband and mother were murdered He told The Roanoke Times that he looked forward to "further killings of Jews and their sympathizers." White is skeptical of the Holocaust, saying "claims that ... the gas chambers were part of a 'Holocaust' of 'six million,' were invented almost entirely by the Soviet Union, and were later adopted by the Jewish communities of the Western nations." The Anti-Defamation League quotes White saying "there was no Holocaust" and describes what it calls "White's Holocaust denial rhetoric".In 2008, White was arrested for alleged threats to a federal juror. On December 18, 2009, White was found guilty on four counts, one of which was later dismissed by the judge. In 2010 the ACLU filed a brief asking the court to reverse White's convictions on those three charges. A federal district court overturned the convictions on First Amendment grounds and White was released in April 2011. In 2012, the prosecution appealed the decision and White fled the country, violating his supervised release, and was arrested in Mexico.

Filler (packaging)

Fillers (or filling machines) are used for packaging, mainly for food/beverage but for other products as well. These are used to fill either a bottle or a pouch, depending on the product.

There are several types of fillers used by the packaging industry. The following are the most common:

Auger/agitator filling machines: designed to fill dry mixes, such as flour and sugar. The fillers have a hopper shaped like a cone that holds the mix and puts it in a pouch using an auger conveyor that is controlled by the agitator. The mix is filled in a pouch that is made of paper or poly that is formed in a collar and the pouch gets sealed by a series of heaters and dies. The interface with the process supplying the powder is of prime importance to ensure an efficient filling.

Flow filling machines: designed for liquids, oils, and thin food products. These fillers are designed when they fill a bottle or tub that enters the machine, the ejects the open bottle back onto another conveyor for sealing.

Tablet fillers: These are designed for products that are counted by pieces instead of weight. These are designed for small bottles (similar to some of the flow fillers), but the hopper of the filler is set up to permit scan counting of tablets or candy pieces.

Positive displacement pump fillers: positive displacement, pump filling machines easily handle a wide range of container sizes, fill volumes and product types. While originally designed for filling creams, gels and lotions these fillers also handle water thin and heavy paste products. Some of the products this machine easily fills are cosmetic creams, heavy sauces, thick shampoo and hair conditioners, honey, hair gels, paste cleaners, and car wax.

Vertical form fill sealing machine

Fyodor Sergeyev

Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev (Russian: Фёдор Андре́евич Серге́ев, Ukrainian: Федір Андрійович Сергєєв; March 19, 1883 – July 24, 1921), better known as Comrade Artyom (това́рищ Артём), was a Russian revolutionary, Soviet politician, agitator, and journalist. He was a close friend of Sergei Kirov and Joseph Stalin. Sergeyev was an ideologist of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic.

Grind Line

The Grind Line refers to a former forward line for the National Hockey League's Detroit Red Wings. Red Wings head coach Scotty Bowman modeled it after the Crash Line of the 1995 Stanley Cup champion New Jersey Devils.Originally, the Grind Line in Detroit consisted of three players, Kris Draper, Joe Kocur, and Kirk Maltby, during the Red Wings heyday in the late-1990s. Draper played the centre position and was known for his speed and ability to win face-offs. Maltby played left wing and served as a checking forward and agitator in the Wings' left wing lock defensive scheme. Kocur played right wing and served as a physical presence and team enforcer.During the 1997 Stanley Cup Finals, the line was effective against the Philadelphia Flyers famous "Legion of Doom" line that featured Eric Lindros, John LeClair, and Mikael Renberg. After the 1998 season, Darren McCarty replaced Joe Kocur as the third linemate. The line was effective at "grinding" and wearing against the opposition's top scoring line by providing an enforcing presence, helping the team win four Stanley Cups.After the 2004–05 NHL lockout in 2005, McCarty's contract was bought out by the team in an effort to make them compliant with the newly implemented salary cap. This broke up one of the most famous lines in Detroit Red Wings history.In the 2007–2008 season, the Detroit Red Wings re-signed Darren McCarty, and after a brief stint with the Grand Rapids Griffins, he rejoined the Detroit Red Wings for the end of the regular season and the playoffs. In his first game back on March 29, 2008 versus the St. Louis Blues, head coach Mike Babcock sent out his starting line of Darren McCarty, Kris Draper, and Kirk Maltby, reuniting the "Grind Line" once again. Since then, McCarty, Maltby and Draper have retired.

Iddog ap Mynio

Iddog ap Mynio, also known as Iddog Cordd Prydain is a character in the early Welsh tale The Dream of Rhonabwy. He was the messenger at the Battle of Camlann and, in a bid to halt peace talks, twisted both Arthur's and Medrawd's words so as to cause strife between them. It was as a result of his actions that the battle was waged. As a result, he was given the nickname Iddog, Agitator of BritainIddog did penance at Y Llech Las for seven years to recompense for this act before being shown mercy by Arthur and accepted into his retinue once again. He serves under Arthur during an unnamed battle against the Saxons and befriends Rhonabwy, a warrior from Powys.


The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651). It was committed to popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law and religious tolerance. The hallmark of Leveller thought was its populism, as shown by its emphasis on equal natural rights, and their practice of reaching the public through pamphlets, petitions and vocal appeals to the crowd. Its ideas were presented in its manifesto "Agreement of the People". In contrast to the Diggers, the Levellers opposed common ownership, except in cases of mutual agreement of the property owners. The Levellers came to prominence at the end of the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and were most influential before the start of the Second Civil War (1648–1649). Leveller views and support were found in the populace of the City of London and in some regiments in the New Model Army.

The Levellers were not a political party in the modern sense of the term; they did not all conform to a specific manifesto. They were organised at the national level, with offices in a number of London inns and taverns such as The Rosemary Branch in Islington, which got its name from the sprigs of rosemary that Levellers wore in their hats as a sign of identification. From July 1648 to September 1649, they published a newspaper, The Moderate, and were pioneers in the use of petitions and pamphleteering to political ends. They identified themselves by sea-green ribbons worn on their clothing. After Pride's Purge and the execution of Charles I, power lay in the hands of the Grandees in the Army (and to a lesser extent with the Rump Parliament). The Levellers, along with all other opposition groups, were marginalised by those in power and their influence waned. By 1650, they were no longer a serious threat to the established order.

Mud agitator

A Mud Agitator is used in surface mud systems to suspend solids and maintain homogeneous mixture throughout the system. A mechanical agitator is driven by an explosion-proof motor, coupled to a gear box that drives the impeller shaft. The impellers (turbines) transform mechanical power into fluid circulation or agitation. The objective is to obtain a uniform suspension of all solids.

My Autobiography (Mussolini)

My Autobiography is a book by Benito Mussolini. It is a dictated, narrative autobiography recounting the author's youth, his years as an agitator and journalist, his experiences in World War I, the formation and revolutionary struggles of the Fascist Party, the March on Rome, and his early years in power. It was first published in 1928; Richard Washburn Child, together with Luigi Barzini, Jr., served as the book's ghostwriter.

Pest (ice hockey)

A pest in ice hockey is a player who attempts to antagonize opponent players either by physical play or verbal incitation. Pests employ legal, illegal, or borderline tactics to accomplish their goals. Some common tactics include trash talk or slashing and hooking while referees are not looking. They may employ the tactic of goading opponents into a fight but then backing off in order to draw a penalty against them. Some pests may not only use these tactics against opposing skaters, but opposing goaltenders as well. Pest and agitator are sometimes used synonymously, as both are usually characterized by short bursts of intensity and speed with the intention of creating havoc. The pest characterization has been used derogatorily, as a player who incites anger in the opposition but is unwilling to directly confront the result of their actions by engaging in fighting, as would an enforcer. George McPhee, former general manager of the Washington Capitals and current general manager of the Vegas Golden Knights, said, "Pests are really the guys who have no courage. They start stuff and don't back it up."

Prophets of Deceit

Prophets of Deceit (A Study of the Techniques of the American Agitator) is a 1949 book co-written by the German sociologist Leo Löwenthal and the Polish-Jewish scholar Norbert Guterman. The authors analyze and define media appeals specific to American pro-fascist and anti-Semite agitators of the 1940s, such as the application of psychosocial manipulation for political ends. The book details psychological deceits that idealogues or authoritarians commonly used. The techniques are grouped under the headings "Discontent", "The Opponent", "The Movement" and "The Leader".

The authors demonstrate repetitive patterns commonly utilized, such as turning unfocused social discontent towards a targeted enemy. The agitator positions himself as a unifying presence: he is the ideal, the only leader capable of freeing his audience from the perceived enemy. Yet, as the authors demonstrate, he is a shallow person who creates social or racial disharmony, thereby reinforcing that his leadership is needed. The authors believed fascist tendencies in America were at an early stage in the 1940s, but warned a time might come when Americans could and would be "susceptible to ... [the] psychological manipulation" of a rabble rouser.Prophets of Deceit was published by Harper and Brothers as the first in a multi-volume series edited by Max Horkheimer and Samuel Flowerman for the American Jewish Committee's "Studies in Prejudice Series". It was well received by critics and political analysts, and was considered a valuable contribution to mid-20th century studies of prejudice.

Putney Debates

The Putney Debates were a series of discussions between members of the New Model Army – a number of the participants being Levellers – concerning the makeup of a new constitution for Britain.

After seizing the City of London from Presbyterian opponents in August 1647, the New Model Army had set up its headquarters at Putney, in the county of Surrey (now in South West London). The debates began on 28 October 1647 at the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, but moved to the nearby lodgings of Thomas Grosvenor, Quartermaster General of Foot, the following day. The debates lasted until 11 November.


Rigonce (pronounced [ˈɾiːɡɔntsɛ], German: Riegelsdorf) is a settlement in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia. The area was traditionally part of Styria. It is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Lower Sava Statistical Region.

Swill milk scandal

The Swill milk scandal was a major adulterated food scandal in New York in the 1850s. The New York Times reported an estimate that in one year 8,000 infants died from swill milk.

The Agitator

The Agitator is a 1945 British drama film directed by John Harlow and starring William Hartnell, Mary Morris and John Laurie. Its plot follows a young mechanic who unexpectedly inherits the large firm where he works and tries to run it according to his socialist political beliefs. It was based on the novel Peter Pettinger by William Riley.

Washing machine

A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry. The term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners. The user adds laundry detergent which is sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water.

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