Aging of Japan

The aging of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations, with Japan being purported to have the highest proportion of elderly citizens. Japan is experiencing a “super-aging” society both in rural and urban areas.[1] According to 2014 estimates, 33.0% of the Japanese population is above the age of 60, 25.9% are aged 65 or above, and 12.5% are aged 75 or above.[2] People aged 65 and older in Japan make up a quarter of its total population, estimated to reach a third by 2050.[3]

Japan had a post war baby boom between 1947 and 1949. The law of 1948 led to easy access to abortions, followed by a prolonged period of low fertility, resulting in the aging population of Japan.[4] The dramatic aging of Japanese society as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and high life expectancy is expected to continue. Japan's population began to decline in 2011.[5] In 2014, Japan's population was estimated at 127 million; this figure is expected to shrink to 107 million (16%) by 2040 and to 97 million (24%) by 2050 should the current demographic trend continue.[6]

Japanese citizens largely view Japan as comfortable and modern, resulting in no sense of a population crisis.[5] The government of Japan has responded to concerns about the stress that demographic changes place on the economy and social services with policies intended to restore the fertility rate and make the elderly more active in society.[7]

Japan Population by Age 1920-2010 with Projection to 2060
Japan's population from 1920 to 2010, with population projections out to 2060

Aging dynamics

The number of Japanese people with ages 65 years or older nearly quadrupled in the last forty years, to 33 million in 2014, accounting for 26% of Japan's population. In the same period, the number of children (aged 14 and younger) decreased from 24.3% of the population in 1975 to 12.8% in 2014.[2] The number of elderly people surpassed the number of children in 1997, and sales of adult diapers surpassed diapers for babies in 2014.[8] This change in the demographic makeup of Japanese society, referred to as population ageing (kōreikashakai, 高齢化社会),[9] has taken place in a shorter span of time than in any other country.

According to projections of the population with the current fertility rate, over 65s will account for 40% of the population by 2060,[10][11] and the total population will fall by a third from 128 million in 2010 to 87 million in 2060.[12] Economists at Tohoku University established a countdown to national extinction, which estimates that Japan will have only one remaining child in 4205.[13] These predictions prompted a pledge by Prime Minister Shinzō Abe to halt population decline at 100 million.[7][8]

Causes

Bdrates of Japan since 1950
Japan's birth and death rates since 1950. The drop in 1966 was due to it being a "hinoe uma" year which is viewed as ill-omened in the Japanese Zodiac.[14]

The aging of the Japanese population is a result of one of the world's lowest fertility rates combined with the highest life expectancy.

High life expectancy

The reason for Japan's growing aging population is because of high life expectancy. Japan's life expectancy in 2016 was 85 years.[15] The life expectancy is 81.7 for males and 88.5 for females.[16] Since Japan's overall population is shrinking due to low fertility rates, the aging population is rapidly increasing.[17]

Factors such as improved nutrition, advanced medical and pharmacological technologies reduced the prevalence of diseases, improving living conditions. Moreover, peace and prosperity following World War II was integral to the massive economic growth of post-war Japan, leading to longer lifespans.[17] Proportion of health care spending has dramatically increased as Japan's older population spends time in hospitals and visits physicians. 2.9% people aged 75–79 were in a hospital and 13.4% visited physicians on any given day in 2011.[18]

Life expectancy at birth has increased rapidly from the end of World War II, when the average was 54 years for women and 50 for men, as a result of improvements in medicine and nutrition, and the percentage of the population aged 65 years and older has increased steadily from the 1950s. The advancement of life expectancy translated into a depressed mortality rate until the 1980s, but mortality has increased again to 10.1 per 1000 people in 2013, the highest since 1950.[2]

Low fertility rate

Non marital by countries
The percentage of births to unmarried women in selected countries, 1980 and 2007.[19] As can be seen in the figure, Japan has not followed the trend of Western countries of children born outside of marriage to the same degree.

Japan's total fertility rate (the number of children born to each woman in her lifetime) has been below the replacement threshold of 2.1 since 1974 and reached a historic low of 1.26 in 2005.[2] Experts believe that signs of a slight recovery reflect the expiration of a "tempo effect," as fertility rates accommodate a major shift in the timing and number of children, rather than any positive change.[20] As of 2016, the TFR was 1.41 children born/woman.[16]

Economy and culture

A range of economic and cultural factors contributed to the decline in childbirth during the late 20th century: later and fewer marriages, higher education, urbanization, increase in nuclear family households (rather than extended family), poor work–life balance, increased participation of women in the workforce, a decline in wages and lifetime employment along with a high gender pay gap, small living spaces, and the high cost of raising a child.[21][22][23][24]

Many young people face economic insecurity due to a lack of regular employment. About 40% of Japan's labor force is non-regular, including part-time and temporary workers.[25] Non-regular employees earn about 53 percent less than regular ones on a comparable monthly basis, according to the Labor Ministry.[26] Young men in this group are less likely to consider marriage or to be married.[27][28]

Although most married couples have two or more children,[29] a growing number of young people postpone or entirely reject marriage and parenthood. Conservative gender roles often mean that women are expected to stay home with the children, rather than work.[30] Between 1980 and 2010, the percentage of the population who had never married increased from 22% to almost 30%, even as the population continued to age,[2] and by 2035 one in four men will not marry during their childbearing years.[31] The Japanese sociologist Masahiro Yamada coined the term parasite singles (パラサイトシングル parasaito shinguru) for unmarried men in their late 20s and 30s who continue to live with their parents.[32]

Fatigue and overworked

Yoshoku Sake Co. conducted a survey among working women between 20 to 39 years old in Japan in 2017. More than 60% of women answered that they cannot relax (over-tension, fatigue). They are not interested in wasting time to pursue love relationships (renai) that lead to nowhere. The amount of work and responsibility has increased over the years while their physical strength declines with age. Women answered the cause of fatigue in the poll as: 1. Human relations of work (50.2%), 2. Content of work (44.5%), 3. Temperature and humidity (35.2%), 4. Work hours, overtime work and other workloads (30.8%), 5. Financial circumstances, financial unrest (27.2%). The survey by Yoshoku Sake Co. found that nearly 60% of people suffer from 1. chronic fatigue or 2. feel tired to love because of the feeling was or got cold 3. the lover or family irritated by little things.[33]

Women joined the scores of men who are overworked employees and too tired for dating. When women do have enough energy to go on a date, 1 in 4 women said they fell asleep during the date. Still 80% of the female respondents said they want a husband to settle down. They find stability (antei) more important than showing off with a wedding. Increasing numbers of women use matchmaking (konkatsu) to find a husband. Meanwhile men are not interested in marriage, but 80% want a girlfriend. Men are reluctant to marry, because it would add complications, baggage to their lives and reduce their disposable income. In the 1980s 60% to 70% of young people in their 20s were in a relationship. In 2017 young people (20s) in a relationship are a minority.[34]

Virginity rates

In 2015, 1 in 10 Japanese adults in their 30s were virgins and had no heterosexual sex experience. Women with heterosexual inexperience from 18 to 39 years old was 21.7 percent in 1992 and increased to 24.6 percent in 2015. Men with heterosexual inexperience from 18 to 39 years old was 20 percent in 1992 and increased to 25.8 percent in 2015. Men with stable jobs and a high income are more likely to have sex. Low income men are 10 to 20 times more likely to have no heterosexual sex experience. Women with lower income are more likely to have had intercourse. This is according to the National Fertility Survey of Japan by the Japanese National Institute of Population and Social Security Research.[35] Men who are unemployed are 8 times more likely to be virgins and men who are part-time or temporary employed have a 4 times higher virginity rate. So money and social status are important for men in the dating market.[36].

Herbivore men

There's the phenomenon of Herbivore men (Sōshoku-kei danshi). These men are not interested in getting married or having a girlfriend. A 2010 survey with single men found that 61% of men in their 20s and 70% of men in their 30s call themselves herbivores.[37]

Effects

Japan Age Makeup 1920-2010 with Projection to 2060
Japan's demographic age composition from 1940 to 2010, with projections out to 2060.

Demographic trends are altering relations within and across generations, creating new government responsibilities and changing many aspects of Japanese social life. The aging and decline of the working-age population has triggered concerns about the future of the nation's workforce, the potential for economic growth, and the solvency of the national pension and healthcare services.[38]

Social

A smaller population could make the country's crowded metropolitan areas more livable, and the stagnation of economic output might still benefit a shrinking workforce. However, the low birthrate and high life expectancy has also inverted the standard population pyramid, forcing a narrowing base of young people to provide and care for a bulging older cohort even as they try to form families of their own.[39] In 2014, the aged dependency ratio (the ratio of people over 65 to those age 15–65, indicating the ratio of the dependent elderly population to those of working age) was 40%, meaning two aged dependents for every five workers.[2] This is expected to increase to 60% by 2036 and to nearly 80% by 2060.[40]

Elderly Japanese have traditionally commended themselves to the care of their adult children, and government policies still encourage the creation of sansedai kazoku (三世代家族, "three-generation households"), where a married couple cares for both children and parents. In 2015, 177,600 people between the ages of 15 and 29 were caring directly for an older family member.[41] However, the migration of young people into Japan's major cities, the entrance of women into the workforce, and the increasing cost of care for both young and old dependents have required new solutions, including nursing homes, adult daycare centers, and home health programs.[42] Every year Japan closes 400 primary and secondary schools, converting some of them to care centers for the elderly.[43]

There are special nursing homes in Japan that offer service and assistance to more than 30 residents. In 2008, it has been recorded that there were approximate 6,000 special nursing homes available that cared for 420,000 Japanese elders.[44] With many nursing homes in Japan, the demand for more caregivers is high. In Japan, Family caregivers are preferred as the main caregiver, because it is a better support system if an elderly person is related to his/her caregiver. Therefore, it is possible that Japanese elderlies can perform activities of daily living (ADL's) with little assistance and live longer if his/her caregiver is a family caregiver.[44]

Many elderly people live alone and isolated, and every year thousands of deaths go unnoticed for days or even weeks, in a modern phenomenon known as kodoku-shi (孤独死, "solitary death").[45]

The disposable income in Japan's older population has increased business in biomedical technologies research in cosmetics and regenerative medicine.[4]

Political

The Greater Tokyo Area is virtually the only locality in Japan to see population growth, mostly due to internal migration from other parts of the country. Between 2005 and 2010, 36 of Japan's 47 prefectures shrank by as much as 5%,[2] and many rural and suburban areas are struggling with an epidemic of abandoned homes (8 million across Japan).[46][47] Masuda Hiroya, a former Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications who heads the private think tank Japan Policy Council, estimated that about half the municipalities in Japan could disappear between now and 2040 as young people, especially young women, move from rural areas into Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya, where around half of Japan's population is already concentrated.[48] The government is establishing a regional revitalization task force and focusing on developing regional hub cities, especially Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka.[49]

Internal migration and population decline have created a severe regional imbalance in electoral power, where the weight of a single vote depends on where it was cast. Some depopulated districts send three times as many representatives per voter to the National Diet as their growing urban counterparts. In 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan declared the disparities in voting power violate the Constitution, but the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, which relies on rural and older voters, has been slow to make the necessary realignment.[39][50][51]

The increasing proportion of elderly people has a major impact on government spending and policies. As recently as the early- 1970s, the cost of public pensions, health care and welfare services for the aged amounted to only about 6% of Japan's national income. In 1992 that portion of the national budget was 18%, and it is expected that by 2025 28% of national income will be spent on social welfare.[52] Because the incidence of chronic disease increases with age, the health care and pension systems are expected to come under severe strain. In the mid- 1980s the government began to reevaluate the relative burdens of government and the private sector in health care and pensions, and it established policies to control government costs in these programs.[53]

The large share of elderly inflation averse voters may also hinder the political attractiveness of pursuing higher inflation consistent with the evidence that ageing may lead to lower inflation.[53] With the increasing older population and decreasing young population, 38% percent of the population will be people aged 65 and older by 2065. This concludes that Japan has the highest amount of public debt in the world because of the low fertility rates and aging population.[54] Japan's government has spent almost half of its tax revenue trying to recover from their debt. According to IMF, Japan has a 246.14 debt percentage of GDP making it the highest public debt.[55]

Economic

Real GDP growth rate in Japan (1956-2008)
Real GDP change in Japan (1956 to 2008).

Since the 1980s, there has been an increase of older-age workers and a shortage of young workers in Japan's workforce, from employment practices to benefits to the participation of women. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated in 2002 that Japan would experience an 18% decrease of young workers in its workforce and 8% decrease in its consumer population by 2030. The Japanese labor market is already under pressure to meet demands for workers, with 125 jobs for every 100 job seekers at the end of 2015, as older generations retire and younger generations become smaller in quantity.[56]

Japan made a radical change in how its healthcare system is regulated by introducing long-term care insurance in 2000.[4] The proportion of old Japanese citizens will soon level off, however; there is a decline in young population due to zero growth, death exceeding the births. For example, number of young people under the age of 19 in Japan will constitute only 13 percent in the year 2060, which used to be 40 percent in 1960.[4]

Japan's aging population is considered economically prosperous profiting the large corporations. Lawson Inc., a Japanese convenience store chain has salons for senior citizens that feature adult wipes and diapers, strong detergents to eliminate urine on bed mats, straw cups, gargling basins, and rice and water.[4] The decline in the working population is impacting the national economy. It is causing a shrinkage of the nation's military.[4] The government has focused on medical technologies such as regenerative medicines and cell therapy to recruit and retain more older population into the work force.[4] A range of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have also pioneered new practices for retaining workers beyond mandated retirement ages, such as through workplace improvements to create working environments better suited to older workers as well as new job tasks specifically for older workers.[57]

Mounting labor shortages in the 1980s and 90s led many Japanese companies to increase the mandatory retirement age from 55 to 60 or 65, and today many allow their employees to continue working after official retirement. The growing number of retirement age people has put strain on the national pension system. In 1986, the government increased the age at which pension benefits begin from 60 to 65, and shortfalls in the pension system have encouraged many people of retirement age to remain in the workforce and have driven some others into poverty.[52]

The retirement age may go even higher in the future if Japan continues to have older age populations in its overall population. A study by the UN Population Division released in 2000 found that Japan would need to raise its retirement age to 77 (or allow net immigration of 17 million by 2050) to maintain its worker-to-retiree ratio.[58][59] Consistent immigration into Japan may prevent further population decline, therefore, it is encouraged that Japan develops policies that will support large influx of young immigrants.[60][5]

Less desirable industries, such as agriculture and construction, are more threatened than others. The average farmer in Japan is 70 years old,[61] and while about a third of construction workers are 55 or older, including many who expect to retire within the next ten years, only one in ten are younger than 30.[62][63]

The decline in working-aged cohorts may lead to a shrinking economy if productivity does not increase faster than the rate of Japan's decreasing workforce.[64] The OECD estimates that similar labor shortages in Austria, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Sweden will depress the European Union's economic growth by 0.4 percentage points annually from 2000 to 2025, after which shortages will cost the EU 0.9 percentage points in growth. In Japan labor shortages will lower growth by 0.7 percentage points annually until 2025, after which Japan will also experience a 0.9 percentage points loss in growth.[65]

Government policies

The Japanese government is addressing demographic problems by developing policies to encourage fertility and keep more of its population, especially women and elderly, engaged in the workforce.[66] Incentives for family formation include expanded opportunities for childcare, new benefits for those who have children, and a state-sponsored dating service.[67][68] Some policies have focused on engaging more women in the workplace, including longer maternity leave and legal protections against pregnancy discrimination, known in Japan as matahara (マタハラ, maternity harassment).[66][69] However, "Womenomics," the set of policies intended to bring more women into the workplace as part of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's economic recovery plan, has struggled to overcome cultural barriers and entrenched stereotypes.[70]

These policies could prove useful for bringing women back into the workforce after having children, but they can also encourage the women who opt not to have children to join the workforce. The Japanese government has introduced other policies to address the growing elderly population as well, especially in rural areas. Many young people end up moving to the city in search of work, leaving behind a growing elderly population and a smaller work force to take care of them. Because of this, Japan's national government has tried to improve welfare services such as long-term care facilities and other services that can help families at home such as day-care or in-home nursing assistance. The Gold Plan was introduced in 1990 to improve these services and attempted to reduce the burden of care placed on families, followed by long-term care insurance (LTCI) in 2000.[71] These plans have been upgraded and revised over the years to provide more local welfare services and institutions in rural areas, yet the rapidly increasing elderly population makes these efforts difficult to maintain.

Immigration

A net decline in population due to a historically low birth rate has raised the issue of immigration, as a way to compensate for labor shortages.[72][73] While public opinion polls tend to show low support for immigration, most people support an expansion in working-age migrants on a temporary basis to maintain Japan's economic status.[74][75] Comparative reviews show that Japanese attitudes are broadly neutral and place Japanese acceptance of migrants in the middle of developed countries.[76][77]

Immigrants would have to increase by eight percent in order for Japan's economy to be stable. Japan's government is first trying to increase tourism rates which increases their economy and brings in foreign workers. The government has also recruited international students which allow foreigners to begin work and potentially stay in Japan to help the economy. However, Japan is strict when accepting refugees into their country. Only 27 people out of 7,500 refugee applicants were granted into Japan in 2015. Though, Japan provides high levels of foreign and humanitarian aid.[78] In 2016, there was a 44% increase in asylum seekers to Japan from Indonesia, Nepal, and the Philippines. Since Japan did not desire low-skilled workers to enter, many people went through the asylum route instead. This allowed immigrants to apply for the asylum and begin work six months after the application. However, it did not allow foreigners without valid visas to apply for work.[72]

Work-life balance

Japan has focused its policies on the work-life balance with the goal of improving the conditions for increasing the birth rate. To address these challenges, Japan has established goals to define the ideal work-life balance that would provide the environment for couples to have more children with the passing of the Child Care and Family Care Leave Law, which took effect in June 2010.[79]

The law provides both mothers and fathers with an opportunity to take up to one year of leave after the birth of a child (with possibility to extend the leave for another 6 months if the child is not accepted to enter nursery school) and allows employees with preschool-age children the following allowances: up to five days of leave in the event of a child's injury or sickness, limits on the amount of overtime in excess of 24 hours per month based on an employee's request, limits on working late at night based on an employee's request, and opportunity for shorter working hours and flex time for employees.[80]

The goals of the law would strive to achieve the following results in 10 years are categorized by the female employment rate (increase from 65% to 72%), percentage of employees working 60 hours or more per week (decrease from 11% to 6%), rate of use of annual paid leave (increase from 47% to 100%), rate of child care leave (increase from 72% to 80% for females and .6% to 10% for men), and hours spent by men on child care and housework in households with a child under six years of age (increase from 1 hour to 2.5 hours a day).[79]

Comparisons with other countries

Japan's population is aging faster than any other country on the planet.[81] The population of those 65 years or older roughly doubled in 24 years, from 7.1% of the population in 1970 to 14.1% in 1994. The same increase took 61 years in Italy, 85 years in Sweden, and 115 years in France.[82] Life expectancy for women in Japan is 87 years, five years more than that of the U.S.[83] Men in Japan with a life expectancy of 81 years, have surpassed U.S. life expectancy by four years.[83] Japan also has more centenarians than any other country (58,820 in 2014, or 42.76 per 100,000 people). Almost one in five of the world's centenarians live in Japan, and 87% of them are women.[84]

In contrast to Japan, a more open immigration policy has allowed Australia, Canada, and the United States to grow their workforce despite low fertility rates.[65] An expansion of immigration is often rejected as a solution to population decline by Japan's political leaders and people. Reasons include a fear of foreign crime, a desire to preserve cultural traditions, and a belief in the ethnic and racial homogeneity of the Japanese nation.[85]

Historically, European countries have had the largest elderly populations by proportion as they became developed nations earlier and experienced the subsequent drop in fertility rates, but many Asian and Latin American countries are quickly catching up. As of 2015, 22 of the 25 oldest countries are located in Europe, but Japan is currently the oldest country in the world and its rapidly aging population displays a trend that other Asian countries such as South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan are expected to follow by 2050.[86] As recently developed nations continue to experience improved health care and lower fertility rates, the growth of the elderly population will continue to rise. In 1970-1975, only 19 countries had a fertility rate that can be considered below-replacement fertility and there were not any countries with exceedingly low fertility (<1.3 children); however, between 2000-2005, there were 65 countries with below-replacement fertility and 17 with exceedingly low fertility.[87]

While there has been a global trend of lower fertility and longer life expectancy, it is first evident in the more developed countries and occurs more rapidly in developing or recently developed countries. One of the most astounding aspects of Japan's elderly population, in particular, is that it is both fast-growing and has one of the highest life expectancies equating to a larger elderly population and an older one. According to the World Health Organization, Japanese people are able to live 75 years without any disabilities and fully healthy compared to other countries. Also, American women usually live to around 81 years and American men 76; but compared to Japan, women live to around 87 years and men to 80 years.[88] There is demographic data that shows Japan is an older and more quickly aging society than United States.[89] Japan, also, has reached the condition aging much faster than other developed countries, and they have the highest life expectancy rate among developed countries. They, also, have the highest proportion of the elderly population as well with the highest population decline of developed countries.

Japan's Aging Population

Japan is leading the world in aging demographics, but the other countries of East Asia are following a similar trend. In South Korea, where the fertility rate often ranks among the lowest in the OECD (1.21 in 2014), the population is expected to peak in 2030.[90] The smaller states of Singapore and Taiwan are also struggling to boost fertility rates from record lows and to manage aging populations. More than a third of the world's elderly (65 and older) live in East Asia and the Pacific, and many of the economic concerns raised first in Japan can be projected to the rest of the region.[91][92] India's population is aging exactly like Japan, but with a 50-year lag. A study of the populations of India and Japan for the years 1950 to 2015 combined with median variant population estimates for the years 2016 to 2100 shows that India is 50 years behind Japan on the aging process.[93]

See also

General:

International:

References

  1. ^ Muramatsu, Naoko (August 1, 2011). "Japan: Super-Ageing Society Preparing for the Future". The Gerontologist. 51 (4): 425–432. doi:10.1093/geront/gnr067. PMID 21804114.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, Statistics Bureau. "Japan Statistical Yearbook, Chapter 2: Population and Households". Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Aging in Japan|ILC-Japan". www.ilcjapan.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Bold steps: Japan's remedy for a rapidly aging society". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  5. ^ a b c Armstrong, Shiro (May 16, 2016). "Japan Greatest Challenge (And It's Not China): Massive Population Decline". The National Interest. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  6. ^ Johnston, Eric (16 May 2015). "Is Japan becoming extinct?". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  7. ^ a b Yoshida, Reiji (29 October 2015). "Abe convenes panel to tackle low birthrate, aging population". The Japan Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Fighting Population Decline, Japan Aims to Stay at 100 Million". Nippon.com. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  9. ^ Traphagan, John W. (2003). Demographic Change and the Family in Japan's Aging Society. Suny Series in Japan in Transition, SUNY Series in Aging and Culture, Suny Series in Japan in Transition and Suny Series in Aging and Culture. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0791456491.
  10. ^ "Japan population to shrink by a third by 2060". The Guardian. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  11. ^ International Futures. "Population of Japan, Aged 65 and older". Retrieved 2012-12-05.
  12. ^ Population Projections for Japan (January 2012): 2011 to 2060, table 1-1 (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, retrieved 13 January 2016).
  13. ^ Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro. "Web Clock of Child Population in Japan". Mail Research Group, Graduate School of Economics and Management, Tohoku University. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  14. ^ Clyde Haberman (1987-01-15). "Japan's Zodiac: '66 was a very odd year". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
  15. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency".
  16. ^ a b "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Japan — the World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  17. ^ a b "Population Aging and Aged Society: Population Aging and Life Expectancy" (PDF). International Longevity Center Japan. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  18. ^ "Health Status: Utilization of Health Care" (PDF). International Longevity Center Japan. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  19. ^ "Changing Patterns of Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States". CDC/National Center for Health Statistics. May 13, 2009. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
  20. ^ Harding, Robin (4 February 2016). "Japan birth rate recovery questioned". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  21. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan. "Statistical Handbook of Japan 2014". Chapter 5. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  22. ^ Yamada, Masahiro (3 August 2012). "Japan's Deepening Social Divides: Last Days for the "Parasite Singles"". Nippon.com. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Why the Japanese are having so few babies". The Economist. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  24. ^ http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2013-004.pdf
  25. ^ "1 in 4 men, 1 in 7 women in Japan still unmarried at age 50: Report". The Japan Times Online. 2017-04-05.
  26. ^ Nohara, Yoshiaki (1 May 2017). "Japan Labor Shortage Prompts Shift to Hiring Permanent Workers". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  27. ^ IPSS, "Attitudes toward Marriage and Family among Japanese Singles" (2011), p. 4.
  28. ^ Hoenig, Henry; Obe, Mitsuru (8 April 2016). "Why Japan's Economy Is Laboring". Wall Street Journal.
  29. ^ National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (IPSS). "Marriage Process and Fertility of Japanese Married Couples." (2011). pp. 9–14.
  30. ^ Soble, Jonathan (January 1, 2015). "The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  31. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (31 December 2015). "Japan's population dilemma, in a single-occupancy nutshell". The Japan Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  32. ^ Wiseman, Paul (2 June 2004). "No sex please we're Japanese". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
  33. ^ Ishimura, Sawako (October 24, 2017). "お疲れ女子の6割は恋愛したくない!?「疲労の原因」2位は仕事内容、1位は?(60% of tired women do not want to love!? "Cause of fatigue" second place work content, first place?)". Cocoloni Inc. Archived from the original on January 7, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  34. ^ Shoji, Kaori (December 2, 2017). "Women in Japan too tired to care about dating or searching for a partner". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  35. ^ Shibuya, Kenji (8 April 2019). "First national estimates of virginity rates in Japan". The University of Tokyo. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  36. ^ Shibuya, Kenji (8 April 2019). "Let's Talk About (No) Sex: A Closer Look at Japan's 'Virginity Crisis'". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  37. ^ Harney, Alexandra. "Japan panics about the rise of "herbivores"—young men who shun sex, don't spend money, and like taking walks. - Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  38. ^ Hashimoto, Ryutaro (attributed). General Principles Concerning Measures for the Aging Society. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 2011-3-5.
  39. ^ a b Soble, Jonathan (26 February 2016). "Japan Lost Nearly a Million People in 5 Years, Census Says". New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  40. ^ Population Projections for Japan (January 2012): 2011 to 2060, table 1-4 (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, retrieved 13 January 2016).
  41. ^ Oi, Mariko (16 March 2015). "Who will look after Japan's elderly?". BBC. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  42. ^ Kelly, William. "Finding a Place in Metropolitan Japan: Transpositions of Everyday Life." Ed. Andrew Gordon. Postwar Japan as History. University of California Press, 1993. pp. 208–10.
  43. ^ McNeill, David (2 December 2015). "Falling Japanese population puts focus on low birth rate". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  44. ^ a b Olivares-Tirado, Pedro (2014). Trends and Factors in Japan's Long-term Care Insurance System: Japan's 10-year Experience. Springer. pp. 80–130. ISBN 978-94-007-7874-0.
  45. ^ Bremner, Matthew (26 June 2015). "The Lonely End". Slate. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  46. ^ Otake, Tomoko (7 January 2014). "Abandoned homes a growing menace". The Japan Times. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  47. ^ Soble, Jonathan (23 August 2015). "A Sprawl of Ghost Homes in Aging Tokyo Suburbs". New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  48. ^ Tadashi, Hitora (25 August 2014). "Slowing the Population Drain From Japan's Regions". Nippon.com. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  49. ^ "Abe to target revitalization at regional level". The Japan Times. Jiji. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  50. ^ Masunaga, Hidetoshi (12 December 2013). "The Quest for Voting Equality in Japan". Nippon.com. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  51. ^ Takenaka, Harukata (30 July 2015). "Weighing Vote Disparity in Japan's Upper House". Nippon.com. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  52. ^ a b Faiola, Anthony (28 July 2006). "The Face of Poverty Ages In Rapidly Graying Japan". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  53. ^ a b Vlandas, T (2017). "Grey power and the economy: Ageing and inflation across advanced economies". Comparative Political Studies. 51 (4): 514–552. doi:10.1177/0010414017710261.
  54. ^ "Japan's population set to plummet by 40 million in a generation". The Independent. 2017-04-11. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  55. ^ "The 20 countries with the greatest public debt". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  56. ^ Warnock, Eleanor (24 December 2015). "Japan consumer prices up, but spending sluggish". Market Watch. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  57. ^ Martine, Julien; Jaussaud, Jacques (2018). "Prolonging working life in Japan: Issues and practices for elderly employment in an aging society". Contemporary Japan. 30 (2): 227–242. doi:10.1080/18692729.2018.1504530.
  58. ^ Unknown (2000). "Aging Populations in Europe, Japan, Korea, Require Action". India Times. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  59. ^ [1]
  60. ^ Schlesinger, Jacob M. (2015). "Aging Gracefully: entrepreneurs and exploring robotics and other innovations to unleash the potential of the elderly". WSJ: 1–15.
  61. ^ Harding, Robin (21 February 2016). "Japan seeks to bank on global appetite for sushi and wagyu beef". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  62. ^ "Builders face lack of young workers". The Japan Times. Kyodo. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  63. ^ Takami, Kosuke; Wamoto, Takako; Itsuki, Kotaro (22 February 2014). "Young laborer shortage growing dire on Japan's construction sites".
  64. ^ “Into the Unknown.” The Economist, http://search.proquest.com/docview/807974249
  65. ^ a b Paul S. Hewitt (2002). "Depopulation and Ageing in Europe and Japan: The Hazardous Transition to a Labor Shortage Economy". International Politics and Society. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  66. ^ a b "Urgent Policies to Realize a Society in Which All Citizens are Dynamically Engaged" (PDF). Kantei (Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet). Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  67. ^ "Young Japanese 'decline to fall in love'". BBC News. 2012-01-11.
  68. ^ Ghosh, Palash (21 March 2014). "Japan Encourages Young People To Date And Mate To Reverse Birth Rate Plunge, But It May Be Too Late". International Business Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  69. ^ Rodionova, Zlata (16 November 2015). "Half of Japanese women workers fall victim to 'maternity harassment' after pregnancy". The Independent. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  70. ^ Chen, Emily S. (6 October 2015). "When Womenomics Meets Reality". The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  71. ^ Tanaka, Kimiko; Iwasawa, Miho (October 2010). "Aging in Rural Japan—Limitations in the Current Social Care Policy". Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 22 (4): 394–406. doi:10.1080/08959420.2010.507651. ISSN 0895-9420. PMC 2951623. PMID 20924894.
  72. ^ a b CNN; Jozuka, Emiko; Ogura; CNN Graphics by Natalie Leung. "Can Japan survive without immigrants?". CNN. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  73. ^ Brasor, Philip (27 October 2018). "Proposed reform to Japan's immigration law causes concern". Japan Times. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  74. ^ "51% of Japanese support immigration, double from 2010 survey - AJW by The Asahi Shimbun". Ajw.asahi.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
  75. ^ Facchini, G.; Margalit, Y.; Nakata, H. (2016), Countering Public Opposition to Immigration: The Impact of Information Campaigns (PDF), p. 19, Our findings indicate that among the non-treated sample, only 29% of the population supported an increase in levels of immigration, a finding that is consistent with the restrictive immigration policy stance currently pursued by the Japanese government.
  76. ^ Simon, Rita J.; Lynch, James P. (1999). "A Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion toward Immigrants and Immigration Policies". The International Migration Review. 33 (2): 455–467. doi:10.1177/019791839903300207. JSTOR 2547704.
  77. ^ "New Index Shows Least, Most Accepting Countries for Migrants". Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  78. ^ Green, David (2017-03-27). "As Its Population Ages, Japan Quietly Turns to Immigration". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  79. ^ a b Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Introduction to the Revised Child Care and Family Care Leave Law,” http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/index.html, accessed May 22, 2011.
  80. ^ Japanese government's Employment Service Center “雇用継続給付” https://www.hellowork.go.jp/insurance/insurance_continue.html, Retrieved April 24, 2017
  81. ^ "Japan's demography: The incredible shrinking country". The Economist. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  82. ^ "Statistical Handbook of Japan". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication. 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  83. ^ a b Jacob Schlesinger; Alexander Martin (November 29, 2015). "The Wall Street Journal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  84. ^ "Centenarians in Japan: 50,000-Plus and Growing". Nippon.com. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  85. ^ Burgess, Chris (18 June 2014). "Japan's 'no immigration principle' looking as solid as ever". The Japan Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  86. ^ He, Wan; Goodkind, Daniel; Kowal, Paul (March 2016). "An Aging World : 2015". International Population Reports. 16: 1–30.
  87. ^ Naohiro Ogawa; Rikiya Matsukura (2007). "Ageing in Japan: The health and wealth of older persons" (PDF). un.org. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  88. ^ "Japan Has The Highest Life Expectancy Of Any Major Country. Why?". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  89. ^ Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S.; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D. (2011). "Cultural Perspectives on Aging and Well-Being: A Comparison of Japan and the U.S." International Journal of Aging & Human Development. 73 (1): 73–98. doi:10.2190/AG.73.1.d. PMC 3183740. PMID 21922800.
  90. ^ Kwanwoo, Jun (11 July 2014). "South Korea's Youth Population Slips Under 10 Million". Wall Street Journal (Korea Realtime blog). Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  91. ^ "Rapid Aging in East Asia and Pacific Will Shrink Workforce and Increase Public Spending". World Bank. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  92. ^ "The Future of Population in Asia: Asia's Aging Population" (PDF). East West Center. Honolulu: East-West Center. 2002. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  93. ^ "Is India Aging Like Japan? Visualizing Population Pyramids". SocialCops Blog. 2016-06-22. Retrieved 2016-07-04.

External links

Ageing of Europe

The aging of Europe, also known as the greying of Europe, is a demographic phenomenon in Europe characterised by a decrease in fertility, a decrease in mortality rate, and a higher life expectancy among European populations. Low birth rates and higher life expectancy contribute to the transformation of Europe's population pyramid shape. The most significant change is the transition towards a much older population structure, resulting in a decrease in the proportion of the working age while the number of the retired population increases. The total number of the older population is projected to increase greatly within the coming decades, with rising proportions of the post-war baby-boom generations reaching retirement. This will cause a high burden on the working age population as they provide for the increasing number of the older population.Throughout history many states have worked to keep high birth rates in order to have moderate taxes, more economic activity and more troops for their military.

Birth dearth

Birth dearth is a neologism referring to falling fertility rates. In the late 1980s, the term was used in the context of American and European society. The use of the term has since been expanded to include many other industrialized nations. It is often cited as a response to overpopulation, but is not incompatible with it. The term was coined by Ben Wattenberg in his 1987 book by that same name.

Countries and geographic regions that are currently experiencing falling population include Russia, Europe, Japan, and populations of people of these descents in other countries such as in the United States.

Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period. The rate of births in a population is calculated in several ways: live births from a universal registration system for births, deaths, and marriages; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques. The birth rate (along with mortality and migration rate) are used to calculate population growth.

The crude birth rate is the number of live births per year per 1,000 mid-year population. Another term used interchangeably with birth rate is natality. When the crude death rate is subtracted from the crude birth rate, the result is the rate of natural increase (RNI). This is equal to the rate of population change (excluding migration).The total (crude) birth rate (which includes all births)—typically indicated as births per 1,000 population—is distinguished from an age-specific rate (the number of births per 1,000 persons in an age group). The first known use of the term "birth rate" in English occurred in 1859.

The average global birth rate is 18.5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016.

The death rate is 7.8 per 1,000 per year. The RNI is thus 1.06 percent.

In 2012 the average global birth rate was 19.611 according to the World Bank and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA, compared to 20.09 per 1,000 total population in 2007.The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population is estimated to be about 4.3 births/second or about 256 births/minute for the world.

Celibacy syndrome

Celibacy syndrome (Japanese: セックスしない症候群, sekkusu shinai shōkōgun) is a media hypothesis proposing that a growing number of Japanese adults have lost interest in sexual activity and have also lost interest in romantic love, dating and marriage. The theory has been reported by unknown members of "Japan's media" according to journalist Abigail Haworth of the Guardian. Following the report, the theory gained widespread attention in English media outlets in 2013, and was subsequently refuted by several journalists and bloggers.

Demographics of Japan

The demographic features of the population of Japan include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects regarding the population.

Dependency ratio

In economics, geography, demography and sociology, the dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the dependent part ages 0 to 14 and 65+) and those typically in the labor force (the productive part ages 15 to 64). It is used to measure the pressure on the productive population.

Consideration of the dependency ratio is essential for governments, economists, bankers, business, industry, universities and all other major economic segments which can benefit from understanding the impacts of changes in population structure. A low dependency ratio means that there sufficient people working who can support the dependent population. A lower ratio could allow for better pensions and better health care for citizens. A higher ratio indicates more financial stress on working people. While the strategies of increasing fertility and of allowing immigration especially of younger working age people have been formulas for lowering dependency ratios, future job reductions through automation may impact the effectiveness of those strategies.

Health care system in Japan

This article is about the Health care system in Japan. For the general health issues see Health in Japan

The health care system in Japan provides healthcare services, including screening examinations, prenatal care and infectious disease control, with the patient accepting responsibility for 30% of these costs while the government pays the remaining 70%. Payment for personal medical services is offered by a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. All residents of Japan are required by the law to have health insurance coverage. People without insurance from employers can participate in a national health insurance programme, administered by local governments. Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice and cannot be denied coverage. Hospitals, by law, must be run as non-profit and be managed by physicians. For-profit corporations are not allowed to own or operate hospitals. Clinics must be owned and operated by physicians.

Medical fees are strictly regulated by the government to keep them affordable. Depending on the family income and the age of the insured, patients are responsible for paying 10%, 20%, or 30% of medical fees, with the government paying the remaining fee. Also, monthly thresholds are set for each household, again depending on income and age, and medical fees exceeding the threshold are waived or reimbursed by the government.

Uninsured patients are responsible for paying 100% of their medical fees, but fees are waived for low-income households receiving a government subsidy. Fees are also waived for homeless people brought to the hospital by ambulance.

Health in Japan

The level of health in Japan is due to a number of factors including cultural habits, isolation, and a universal health care system. John Creighton Campbell, a professor at the University of Michigan and Tokyo University, told the New York Times in 2009 that Japanese people are the healthiest group on the planet. Japanese visit a doctor nearly 14 times a year, more than four times as often as Americans. Life expectancy in 2013 was 83.3 years - among the highest on the planet. A new measure of expected human capital calculated for 195 countries from 1990 to 2016 and defined for each birth cohort as the expected years lived from age 20 to 64 years and adjusted for educational attainment, learning or education quality, and functional health status was published by the Lancet in September 2018. Japan had the highest level of expected human capital among the 20 largest countries: 24.1 health, education, and learning-adjusted expected years lived between age 20 and 64 years.

List of sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate

This is a list of all sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.

Outline of Japan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Japan:

Japan – an island nation in East Asia, located in the Pacific Ocean. It lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin" (because it lies to the east of nearby countries), which is why Japan is sometimes referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which together comprise about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area.

Population ageing

Population aging is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy. Most countries have rising life expectancy and an ageing population (trends that emerged first in developed countries, but which are now seen in virtually all developing countries). This is the case for every country in the world except the 18 countries designated as "demographic outliers" by the UN. The aged population is currently at its highest level in human history. The UN predicts the rate of population ageing in the 21st century will exceed that of the previous century. The number of people aged 60 years and over has tripled since 1950, reaching 600 million in 2000 and surpassing 700 million in 2006. It is projected that the combined senior and geriatric population will reach 2.1 billion by 2050. Countries vary significantly in terms of the degree and pace of ageing, and the UN expects populations that began ageing later will have less time to adapt to its implications.

Population decline

A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is a reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight, or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes. Contrary to contemporary belief, depopulation can be largely beneficial for a region, allocating more resources and less competition for the new population, in addition to exempting the disadvantages of overpopulation, such as increased traffic, pollution, real estate prices, and environmental destruction. Per-capita wealth may increase in depopulation scenarios, in addition to improvement of environmental quality-of-life indicators such as improved air and water quality, reforestation, return of native species, etc. The accompanying benefits of depopulation have been termed shrink and prosper, with benefits being similar to the post-Civil War Gilded Age, post-World War I economic boom, and the post-World War II economic boom.

Seiko Noda

Seiko Noda (野田 聖子, Noda Seiko, born September 3, 1960) is a Japanese politician. As of 2005 she is a member of the House of Representatives (lower house), serving her fifth term and representing the 1st District of Gifu Prefecture; she was the State Minister in charge of Consumer Affairs. She is a self-described conservative who affiliates herself with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). She is the current Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications.

Sexuality in Japan

Sexuality in Japan developed separately from that of mainland Asia, as Japan did not adopt the Confucian view of marriage, in which chastity is highly valued. Monogamy in marriage is less important in Japan, and married men often seek pleasure from courtesans. Prostitution in Japan has a long history, and became especially popular during the Japanese economic miracle, as evening entertainments were tax-deductible. Decreased sex drive in the 21st century has been blamed for the low Japanese birth rate and declining growth of the Japanese population.

Shigeo Tokuda

Shigeo Tokuda (徳田 重男, Tokuda Shigeo, born 18 August 1934) is the stage name of a Japanese male adult video (AV) actor. He has been described as "The Legend Grandpa" of Japan's Porn Industry.

Sogen Kato

Sogen Kato (加藤 宗現, 22 July 1899 – c. November 1978) was a Japanese man thought to have been Tokyo's oldest man until July 2010, when his mummified corpse was found in his bedroom. It was concluded he had likely died in November 1978, aged 79, and his family had never announced his death in an attempt to preserve his longevity record. Relatives had rebuffed attempts by ward officials to see Kato in preparations for Respect for the Aged Day later that year, citing many reasons from him being a "human vegetable" to becoming a Sokushinbutsu. The cause of death was not determined due to the state of Kato's bodyThe discovery of Kato's remains sparked a search for other missing centenarians lost due to poor record keeping by officials. A study following the discovery of Kato's remains found that police did not know if 234,354 people over the age of one hundred were still alive. Poor record keeping was to blame for many of the cases, officials admitted. One of Kato's relatives was found guilty of fraud; his relatives claimed ¥9,500,000 (US$117,939; £72,030) of pension meant for Kato.

Tango no sekku

Tango no Sekku (端午の節句), also known as Ayame no hi (Iris festival), is one of the five annual ceremonies that were traditionally held at the Japanese imperial court called Gosekku. It is the Japanese version of Double Fifth and was celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon in the lunar calendar or Chinese calendar. After Japan switched to the Gregorian calendar, the date was moved to May 5. The festival is still celebrated in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau as the Duanwu Festival or Tuen Ng Festival (Cantonese), in Korea as the Dano Festival, and Vietnam as the Tết Đoan Ngọ on the traditional lunar calendar date.

Tan (端) means "beginning" and go (午) is a simplified form of ⾺ (horse), referring to the Chinese zodiac name for the fifth lunar month. Days of the week also have zodiac animals. Thus, tango originally meant "the first horse day of the fifth month". However, go is a homonym for 五 (five) in Japanese, so during the Nara period the meaning shifted to become the fifth day of the fifth month. Sekku means a seasonal festival. There are five sekku, including O-Shogatsu (January 1), Hina Matsuri (March 3), Tanabata (July 7) and Kiku Matsuri (September 9th) along with Tango. Tango no Sekku marks the beginning of summer or the rainy season.

The Twilight Years

The Twilight Years, a 1972 novel by Sawako Ariyoshi, sold over a million copies in her home country and was praised by the Japan-studies community in foreign countries as a singular novel, "the closest representation of modern Japanese life" according to Donald Keene and a forthright, insightful work into the experience of modern Japanese women.

The work, which begins with the married protagonist's father-in-law seemingly doddering around in senility on a winter street underdressed, deals with the twin issues of Aging of Japan and role of women in Japan, who were/are de facto expected to be caretakers of elderly parents or grandparents in a household. Although the novel at times digresses into what may be characterized as a mere extended complaint about the subservient role women experience in Japan (most poignantly, as the protagonist realizes that her husband may very well forget her name as he grows dodderingly old), the work was prescient in that it foreshadowed the current demographic crisis facing Japan, i.e. a population rapidly entering old age without sufficient young workers to take care of the problems of advanced senescence.

Even-paced and slowly charting the twists and turns of emotion as the family struggles with an old man who is barely continent, The Twilight Years remains an academically-respected work if unknown to the general population. Like much of Japanese literature, the emotion is understated and even, yet contains both a slice-of-life packaging and a broad overview of the problems/dilemmas facing modern life along with 'neat' coincidences of time/space. Lacking historical grandeur, the sweep of war, or tremendous social upheavel, the work is yet compact, moving and dedicated.

Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if:

She was to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and

She was to survive from birth to the end of her reproductive life.It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Aging in Asia
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.