Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France. Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, it is the world's oldest news agency, and is the third largest news agency in the modern world after the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters.

AFP has regional offices in Nicosia, Montevideo, Hong Kong, and Washington, D.C., and news bureaux in 150 countries. AFP transmits in French, English, Arabic, Portuguese, Spanish, and German.

Agence France-Presse
State-owned enterprise
IndustryNews media
Founded1835
HeadquartersParis, France
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Fabrice Fries
(President and CEO)
ProductsWire service
Number of employees
2,260[1]
WebsiteAFP.com

History

Agence France-Presse has its origins in the Agence Havas, founded in 1835 in Paris by Charles-Louis Havas, making it the world's oldest news service.[2][3] The agency pioneered the collection and dissemination of news as a commodity,[2] and had established itself as a fully global concern by the late 19th century.[4] Two Havas employees, Paul Julius Reuter and Bernhard Wolff, set up their own news agencies in London and Berlin respectively.[2]

In 1940, when German forces occupied France during World War II, the news agency was taken over by the authorities and renamed "Office français d'information" (French Information Office); only the private advertising company retained the name Havas.[5] On August 20, 1944, as Allied forces moved on Paris, a group of journalists in the French Resistance seized the offices of the FIO and issued the first news dispatch from the liberated city under the name of Agence France-Presse.

Established as a state enterprise, AFP devoted the post-war years to developing its network of international correspondents. One of them was the first Western journalist to report the death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin on March 6, 1953. AFP was keen to shake off its semi-official status, and on January 10, 1957, the French Parliament passed a law establishing its independence. Since that date, the proportion of the agency's revenues generated by subscriptions from government departments has steadily declined. Such subscriptions represented 115 million Euros in 2011.[6]

In 1982, the agency began to decentralize its editorial decision-making by setting up the first of its five autonomous regional centres, in Hong Kong, then a British Crown colony. Each region has its own budget, administrative director and chief editor. In September 2007, the AFP Foundation was launched to promote higher standards of journalism worldwide.

The Mitrokhin Archive identified six agents and two confidential KGB contacts inside Agence France-Presse who were used in Soviet operations in France.[7]

In 1991, AFP set up a joint venture with Extel to create a financial news service, AFX News.[8] It was sold in 2006 to Thomson Financial.[9]

In October 2008, the Government of France announced moves to change AFP's status, including the involvement of outside investors. On November 27 of that year, the main trade unions represented in the company's home base of France – the CGT, Force Ouvrière, Syndicat national des journalistes,[10] Union syndicale des journalistes CFDT[11] and SUD, launched an online petition to oppose what they saw as an attempt to privatise the agency.

On December 10, 2009, the French Culture Minister Frédéric Mitterrand announced that he was setting up a Committee of Experts under former AFP CEO Henri Pigeat to study plans for the agency's future status.[12] On February 24, 2010, Pierre Louette unexpectedly announced his intention to resign as CEO by the end of March, and move to a job with France Télécom.

The current CEO and chairman is Fabrice Fries and the Global News Director is Michèle Léridon.[13]

In the 21st century, AFP ranks as the world's third largest news agency, behind the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters.[14]

Statutes

Agence France Presse à Paris
AFP headquarters in Paris.

AFP is a state-owned enterprise[15] operating under a 1957 law,[16] but is officially a commercial business independent of the French government. AFP is administered by a CEO and a board comprising 15 members:

The mission of AFP is defined in its statute:[16]

  • Agence France-Presse may under no circumstances take account of influences or considerations liable to compromise the exactitude or the objectivity of the information it provides; it may under no circumstances fall under the control, either de facto or de jure, of any ideological, political or economic grouping;
  • Agence France-Presse must, to the full extent that its resources permit, develop and enhance its organisation so as to provide French and foreign users with exact, impartial and trustworthy information on a regular and uninterrupted basis;
  • Agence France-Presse must, to the full extent that its resources permit, ensure the existence of a network of facilities giving it the status of a worldwide information service.

The board elects the CEO for a renewable term of three years. The AFP also has a council charged with ensuring that the agency operates according to its statutes, which mandate absolute independence and neutrality. Editorially, AFP is governed by a network of senior journalists.

The primary client of AFP is the French government, which purchases subscriptions for its various services. In practice, those subscriptions are an indirect subsidy to AFP. The statutes of the agency prohibit direct government subsidies.

Copyright violation

In November 2013, AFP and Getty Images were ordered to pay $1.2 million compensation to freelance photojournalist Daniel Morel for using his images posted on Twitter related to the 2010 Haiti earthquake without his permission, in violation of copyright and Twitter's terms of service.[17][18]

Investments

Notable investments include:

  • AFP GmbH:

AFP GmbH is the subsidiary of AFP in Germany, producing German-language services for local press, internet and corporate clients.

  • SID:

Sport-Informations-Dienst (SID) is producing a German-language sports service.

  • Citizenside:

In 2007, AFP purchased a 34% stake in Scooplive, a citizen news photo and video agency online. Established in France in 2006, Scooplive was renamed Citizenside after this investment, but AFP soon sold its shares to news aggregator Newzulu.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Delcambre, Alexis (July 11, 2015). "La grève à l'AFP se poursuit ("AFP strike goes on")". Le Monde. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Toal, Gerard (2014). Thrift, Nigel; Tickell, Adam; Woolgar, Steve; Rupp, William H., eds. Globalization in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0199212627.
  3. ^ James F. Broderick; Darren W. Miller (2007). Consider the Source: A Critical Guide to 100 Prominent News and Information Sites on the Web. Information Today, Inc. p. 1. ISBN 0-910965-77-3.
  4. ^ Kuhn, Raymond. The Media In Contemporary France. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. p. 3. ISBN 0335236227.
  5. ^ L'Office Français d'Information (1940–1944) (in French) Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale n°101, January 1976
  6. ^ "N° 3806 tome VII – Avis de M. Michel Françaix sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2012 (n°3775)". Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  7. ^ Andrew, Christopher, Vasili Mitrokhin (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00312-5. p. 169-171
  8. ^ AFP and Financial Wires Encroach on Original Market : Reuters News: Clients Defect. By Erik Ipsen, Published: February 13, 1992 nytimes.com
  9. ^ Thomson Financial acquires AFX. Publication: Information World Review Publish date: July 10, 2006, highbeam.com
  10. ^ "Bienvenue sur le site du SNJ". Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  11. ^ "Actualités". Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  12. ^ "December 2009: Government Sets up Committee to Study Agency's Future". Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  13. ^ "AFP: Michèle Léridon appointed Global News Director". AFP (Press release). June 23, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  14. ^ McPhail, Thomas L. (2009). Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. p. 184. ISBN 1405150106.
  15. ^ "Agence France-Presse - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Agence France-Presse". Reference for Business.
  16. ^ a b "Full Text of AFP's Statutes in English". Agence France-Presse. June 12, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  17. ^ Ax, Joseph (November 22, 2013). "Photographer wins $1.2 million from companies that took pictures off Twitter". Reuters. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  18. ^ Laurent, Olivier (November 24, 2013). "Getty Images disappointed at $1.2m Morel verdict". British Journal of Photography. Incisive Media. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  19. ^ Aubert, Aurélie; Nicey, Jérémie (2017). Allan, Stuart, ed. Photojournalism and Citizen Journalism: Co-operation, Collaboration and Connectivity. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 238. ISBN 1351813455.

External links

2000 Mozambique flood

The 2000 Mozambique flood was a natural disaster that occurred in February and March 2000. The catastrophic flooding was caused by heavy rainfall that lasted for five weeks and made many homeless. Approximately 700 people were killed. 1,400 km² of arable land was affected and 20,000 herds of cattle were lost. It was the worst flood in Mozambique in 50 years.It started in South Africa when heavy rain falls traveled over to Mozambique. It caused dozens of deaths. 44,000 were left homeless and many of them had lost relatives of some kind. Later, Cyclone Eline came and destroyed many more homes and lives. The women and children were hurrying to shelter and high land. 800 had died and thousands of livestock were killed. The government distributed 15 million dollars to its citizens to account for damage property and loss of income. As of 2016, people were still living in recovery shelters with fluctuating water supplies.

2009 Malagasy political crisis

The 2009 Malagasy political crisis began on 26 January 2009 with the political opposition movement led by Antananarivo mayor Andry Rajoelina, which sought to oust President Marc Ravalomanana from the presidency. The crisis reached its climax on 21 March 2009 when Andry Rajoelina was declared the president of the High Transitional Authority of Madagascar, five days after Ravalomanana transferred his power to a military council and fled to South Africa.

The international community immediately condemned the leader and his ascension as unconstitutional. Financial support and foreign investments stopped, and the country fell into one of the worst economic crises in its history. The SADC and the African Union have been designated to supervise Madagascar's political reinstatement.

Though the objective of the transitional government was to run presidential elections as soon as possible to relieve the tensions (despite regular delays), its major challenge has been to establish an agreement among Madagascar's four key political factions (Rajoelina, Ravalomanana, Zafy and Ratsiraka), some of which were and still are unfriendly to the transitional government. On 11 December 2010 a new constitution was formally approved, launching the Fourth Republic. On 28 October 2011 a consensus Prime Minister, Omer Beriziky, was appointed. Presidential and parliamentary elections were scheduled for 8 May and 3 July 2013.

2019 European Parliament election in France

The 2019 European Parliament election in France will be held on 26 May 2019, electing members of the 9th French delegation to the European Parliament as part of the European elections held across the European Union. The election will feature two major changes since the 2014 election, with the abolition of regional constituencies and return to national lists in addition to the increase in the number of French seats from 74 to 79 after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

It will be the first national election in France since the election of Emmanuel Macron as president of France and therefore the first major electoral test of his presidency, approaching amid declining approval ratings for Macron and his government. While many political movements have already selected their lead candidates, several major parties have yet to officially designate one, including La République En Marche!, the party of Macron, which will remain allied with the Democratic Movement (MoDem) in the election, as well as the newly-founded party Agir, but without the support of the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI), which will present an independent list.

Several of the confirmed and anticipated lead candidates are notable for their youth: at 23 years of age, Jordan Bardella will lead the list of the National Rally (RN), while 29-year-old Manon Aubry will lead that of La France Insoumise and 33-year-old François-Xavier Bellamy was selected as the lead candidate of The Republicans (LR). Party leaders, meanwhile, will remain largely absent, with the notable exception of Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, hoping to lead Debout la France (DLF) to an electoral breakthrough in an election in which souverainist and Eurosceptic parties traditionally perform strongly.

With the political landscape on the left divided between numerous political parties and movements, several will be at risk of failing to arrive above the electoral threshold of 5% of votes needed to secure seats in the European Parliament. While the Socialist Party (PS), French Communist Party (PCF), and Génération.s – the movement of former PS presidential candidate Benoît Hamon – threatened by their electoral weakness, have called for unity on the left, their calls for unity have come into conflict with the desire of other parties to lead independent electoral lists, with Jean-Luc Mélenchon ruling out alliances with the other main parties on the left and Yannick Jadot, lead candidate for Europe Ecology – The Greens, categorically ruling out the party's participation in any common list. While the PS continued to wait for clarity regarding the potential return of Ségolène Royal to politics, her candidacy has was rejected by other parties on the left and she ultimately decided against running, while an initiative by Raphaël Glucksmann to bring together the various strands of the left has so far proven futile.

The election will also take place amid a context of social instability following the gilets jaunes protests, with several parties seeking to incorporate figures from the movement into their electoral lists, in addition to efforts by some figures within the movement to present their own list in the election. A referendum may be held on the same day as the European Parliament elections as a closure to the grand débat national (great national debate), but the possibility has not yet been confirmed.

Aftermath of the Bahraini uprising (September–December 2012)

The following is an incomplete timeline of events that followed the Bahraini uprising of 2011 from September 2012 onward.

AsiaOne

AsiaOne is a news, lifestyle and entertainment aggregator bringing readers content from Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and across the region. AsiaOne was first launched in 1998 by Singapore Press Holdings.

SPH AsiaOne Ltd was listed on the Singapore Exchange on June 5, 2000.

It was delisted Jan 24, 2002. Its current state is a joint venture between mm2 Asia and Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).It covers a number of topics, including news, entertainment, food, design & style, and carries headlines from a number of SPH publications and magazines such as The Straits Times,The Business Times, The New Paper, and Hardware Zone. AsiaOne also features a section for Malaysia news. Additionally, AsiaOne also syndicates content across top content providers such as South China Morning Post, Reuters, Agence France-Presse. It is the third most-read news site in Singapore, according to ComScore.

Low Huan Ping was the first CEO of AsiaOne.

Suzie Wang is the current CEO of the newly-formed joint venture that manages AsiaOnePrevious editors, include Margaret Thomas, the current president of AWARE Paul Jansen, Irene Ngoo, Adrian Tay and Karen Lim.

Democratic and Republican Left group

The Democratic and Republican Left group (French: groupe de la Gauche démocrate et républicaine or GDR) is a parliamentary group in the National Assembly including representatives of the French Communist Party (PCF).

European Alliance of News Agencies

The European Alliance of News Agencies (EANA) is a federation of news agencies in Europe. The organisation was founded in 1956 and is based in Bern at the seat of the Swiss Telegraphic Agency (sda). EANA has currently 32 members (2015).

Since 26 September 2014 EANA's President is Clive Marshall, CEO of the British news agency Press Association (PA).EANA offers each year a quality award to its members. In 2015 French news agency Agence France-Presse (AFP) and its Global News Director, Michèle Léridon, have been awarded the EANA Award for Excellence 2015.

G1 (website)

G1.com is a Brazilian news portal maintained by Grupo Globo and under the guidance of Central Globo de Jornalismo. It was released on September 18, 2006, the year Rede Globo was 41 years old. The portal provides the journalism content of the various companies of the Grupo Globo - Rede Globo, Globo News, Radios CBN and Globo, newspapers O Globo, Extra, Expresso and Valor Econômico, Época and Globo Rural magazines, among others - besides own reports in format of text, photos, audio and video.

In addition to five editorial offices in the Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte and Recife, affiliates of Rede Globo, newspapers, magazines, radio stations and news agencies Agência Estado, Agence France Presse, Associated Press, EFE, The New York Times, Lusa and Reuters feed the news portal, which is updated 24 hours a day.

The Portal stands out for its multimedia content, taking advantage of the internet's advantages over traditional means of communication.

The G1 versions in English and Spanish were released on June 11, 2010 and have videos subtitled in two languages.The G1 also has the mobile version and applications for Android and iOS.

Gabriel Gabiro

Gabriel Gabiro (born January 21, 1981), is a Rwandan journalist who has reported for several leading international news organizations including the Associated Press (AP), Agence France-Presse (AFP) and Time magazine.

Gabiro's first full-time employment for an international news agency was at age 19 with the Swiss- based Hirondelle News Agency as its reporter at the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha, Tanzania.

He has also appeared on various international media including the BBC One, BBC World, RFI and Al-jazeera as a commentator on human rights and development stories related to Rwanda and the Great Lakes region of Africa.

He has reported from Rwanda, Tanzania, Burundi, Kenya, Denmark and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Galima Bukharbaeva

Galima Bukharbaeva (born 7 July 1974, Tashkent) is an Uzbek journalist known for her reporting on state authoritarianism and her eyewitness account of the 2005 Andijan massacre.

Iranian Cyber Police

The Iranian Cyber Police (Persian: پلیس فضای تولید و تبادل اطلاعات ایران‎ lit. The Police for the Sphere of the Production and Exchange of Information also known as FATA (Persian: فتا‎) is a unit of the Islamic Republic of Iran Police, founded in January 2011. In December 2012, the head of Tehran's cyber police unit was dismissed in relation to the death of Iranian blogger Sattar Beheshti, who was being held in the cyber police's custody.

James Foley (journalist)

James Wright Foley (October 18, 1973 – c. August 19, 2014) was an American journalist and video reporter. While working as a freelance war correspondent during the Syrian Civil War, he was abducted on November 22, 2012, in northwestern Syria. He was beheaded in August 2014 purportedly as a response to American airstrikes in Iraq, thus becoming the first American citizen killed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).Before he became a journalist, Foley was an instructor for Teach For America. In 2008, he became an embedded journalist with USAID-funded development projects in Iraq, and in 2011 he wrote for the military newspaper Stars and Stripes in Afghanistan, and GlobalPost in Libya. There, he was captured by Gaddafi loyalist forces and held for 44 days. The next year, James Foley was captured in Syria while he was working for Agence France-Presse and GlobalPost.

Matthew Tempest

Matthew Tempest is a British journalist based in Paris for the agency, which he joined in late 2007. He was formerly a political correspondent and blogger for Guardian Unlimited, the Guardian newspaper's London-based website, which he joined in 2001. Whilst studying English at University College, London, he was a member of UCL Film Society with Christopher Nolan.

In 2004 he worked in Berlin for Der Spiegel online, courtesy of a grant from the Internationale-Journalisten Programme.

Before joining the Guardian he was a parliamentary reporter for the Sunday People after two years at the Daily and Sunday Mirror.

His interests in his writing included transport, the environment and alternative/content://media/external/file/121579 politics outside mainstream British politics in Westminster, including Greens, socialist factions, social movements and protests.

Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf

Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf (Arabic: مولاي ولد محمد لغظف‎) (born 1957) served as the Prime Minister of Mauritania from August 2008 until August 2014.

NewsML-G2

NewsML-G2 is an XML multimedia news exchange format standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.

As part of the IPTC G2-Standards family, NewsML-G2 acts as an envelope for one or more news items (such as a text article, a photo, or a video clip) or a structured package of links to news items, and contains metadata to describe the relationships between the items. NewsML-G2 is a business-to-business standard that is intended to help news agencies create complex packages of multimedia news into a single cohesive bundle.

Unlike its predecessor, NewsML 1.x, NewsML-G2 uses standardized XML building blocks and metadata. These building blocks are used in other IPTC G2-Standards, so that system programmers can reuse their code.

Like NewsML, NewsML-G2 is not a text or image mark-up format; it has no way to mark paragraphs or headlines, for example. Instead, it is an envelope and organizer for one or more files of almost any type. For text article formatting, IPTC mentions News Industry Text Format (NITF) or XHTML as common examples.NewsML-G2 is used by several large international news agencies, including Agence France-Presse, Associated Press, Austria Presse Agentur, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Thomson Reuters, and others.

News agency

A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters. A news agency may also be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service.

Although there are many news agencies around the world, three global news agencies, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press (AP) and Reuters, have offices in most countries of the world and cover all areas of information. All three began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers; they do not provide separate feeds for conservative or liberal newspapers. Jonathan Fenby explains the philosophy:

To achieve such wide acceptability, the agencies avoid overt partiality. Demonstrably correct information is their stock in trade. Traditionally, they report at a reduced level of responsibility, attributing their information to a spokesman, the press, or other sources. They avoid making judgments and steer clear of doubt and ambiguity. Though their founders did not use the word, objectivity is the philosophical basis for their enterprises – or failing that, widely acceptable neutrality.

Pierre Haski

Pierre Haski (born 8 April 1953 in Tunis) is a French journalist, co-founder of Rue 89. He was deputy editor of Libération from January 2006 till his departure in 2007 from the daily.

Randa Habib

Randa Habib is a French journalist of Lebanese origin, who as director of the Amman, Jordan, bureau of Agence France-Presse (AFP), one of the three global news agencies, since 1987, has spent 25 years covering war, politics and economic development in the Middle East. She has reported extensively in Iraq and other areas of conflict and interviewed royalty and leaders throughout the region. Habib has been named director for the Middle East and North Africa for the AFP Foundation as of 1 April 2012.

Teodoro Benigno

Teodoro "Teddy" Benigno, Jr. (18 May 1923 – 3 June 2005) was a leading Filipino journalist with a career spanning seven decades. His writings first graced the print media in 1946, when he joined the Manila Tribune as a sportswriter and police beat reporter. However, the greater part of his career was spent with the Agence France Presse, which he joined as a senior editor in 1950. He would spend 37 years with the AFP, serving as Manila bureau chief from 1962 until 1987. Benigno maintained extensive ties with France. Fluent in French, he studied at the Institut des Sciences Politiques and was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1989.

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