Agathodaemon

An agathodaemon (Greek: ἀγαθοδαίμων, agathodaímōn) or agathos daemon (Greek: ἀγαθός δαίμων, agathós daímōn, lit. "noble spirit") was a spirit (daemon) of the vineyards and grainfields in ancient Greek religion. They were personal companion spirits,[2][3] comparable to the Roman genii, who ensured good luck, health, and wisdom.

Antinoos-Agathodaimon Antikensammlung Berlin Sk361
A Roman marble sculpture of Agathodaemon restored with an unrelated head, as "Antinous Agathodaemon", purchased in Rome ca. 1760, (Staatliche Museen, Berlin)[1]

During the classical period

Though little noted in Greek mythology (Pausanias conjectured that the name was merely an epithet of Zeus),[4] he was prominent in Greek folk religion;[5] it was customary to drink or pour out a few drops of unmixed wine to honor him in every symposium or formal banquet. In Aristophanes' Peace, when War has trapped Peace (Εἰρήνη Eirene) in a deep pit, Hermes comes to give aid: "Now, oh Greeks! is the moment when, freed of quarrels and fighting, we should rescue sweet Eirene and draw her out of this pit... This is the moment to drain a cup in honor of the Agathos Daimon." A temple dedicated to him was situated on the road from Megalopolis to Maenalus in Arcadia.[6]

Agathos Daimon was the spouse or companion of Tyche Agathe (Τύχη Ἀγαθή, "Good Fortune"; Latin: Agatha). "Tyche we know at Lebadeia as the wife of the Agathos Daimon, the Good or Rich Spirit".[7][8] His numinous presence could be represented in art as a serpent or more concretely as a young man bearing a cornucopia and a bowl in one hand, and a poppy and an ear of grain in the other.[7] The agathodaemon was later adapted into a general daemon of fortuna, particularly of the continued abundance of a family's good food and drink.

During late antiquity

In the syncretic atmosphere of Late Antiquity, agathodaemons could be bound up with Egyptian bringers of security and good fortune: a gem carved with magic emblems bears the images of Serapis with crocodile, sun-lion and Osiris mummy surrounded by the lion-headed snake Cnum–Agathodaemon–Aion, with Harpocrates on the reverse.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ The torso of an Apollo was found in the Tiber at Rome and was restored as an Antinous with a head found separately; it was purchased through Giovanni Ludovico Bianconi, about 1760; formerly exhibited in the Neues Palais, Potsdam (Arachne Projekt); noted in Karl Otfried Müller, Nouveau manuel complet d'archéologie ou traité sur les antiquités grecques... (1841:vol. I:298) and in Bouillon II:51.
  2. ^ Hor. Ep. ll, 2, 187.
  3. ^ Tibull. IV, 8
  4. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, viii. 36. § 3
  5. ^ Martin P. Nilsson, Greek Folk Religion. (Columbia University Press), 1981:33, 70, 73.
  6. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Agathodaemon", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1, Boston, p. 65
  7. ^ a b Chisholm 1911, p. 371.
  8. ^ Harrison 1922, pp. 355–ff, 543.
  9. ^ Illustrated in W. Fauth, Helios Megistos: zur synkretistischen Theologie der Spätantike (Leiden: Brill) 1995:85.

Bibliography

  • Harrison, Jane Ellen (1922). Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (3rd ed.). pp. 355–ff, 543.

External links

Agathodaemon (alchemist)

Agathodaemon (Greek: Ἀγαθοδαίμων, Agathodaímōn; c. 300) was an alchemist in late Roman Egypt, known only from fragments quoted in medieval alchemical treatises, chiefly the Anepigraphos, which refer to works of his believed to be from the 3rd century. He is primarily remembered for his various descriptions of elements and minerals, most particularly his descriptions of a method of producing silver, and of a substance he had created, which he called a 'fiery poison', and which, judging by his account, was arsenic trioxide, a highly toxic amphoteric oxide.He described the 'fiery poison' as being formed when a certain mineral (most probably realgar or orpiment) was fused with natron (naturally occurring sodium carbonate), and that dissolved in water to give a clear solution. He also wrote of how, when he placed a fragment of copper into the solution, the copper turned a deep green hue, lending further validity to the suggestion that orpiment or realgar was used, as they are both arsenic ores, and this would be the hue achieved from the copper after it had been placed in the arsenic trioxide had the substance formed been copper arsenite.Agathodaemon's discoveries exist as part of the foundations for later use of poison, as arsenic and related substances were used regularly in later centuries as means of poisoning and murder. Since the only records of his existence are references in later works, he may be apocryphal, but since the practice of alchemy itself began to decline around the time he is believed to have lived, and it may be that much of his writing was lost. Some of the writings of other alchemists on alchemy of the time were preserved and saved by a sect of dissident Christians, who called themselves Nestorians and who were able to escape to Persia around 400. This information that was gathered by the Nestorians eventually passed on to the Arabs, and this in part contributed to the flourishing of alchemy in that region and in their hands; the modern English word "alchemy" comes from the Arabic language, and many of the foundations for alchemy in Western nations were laid by the Arabs.

Agathodaemon (disambiguation)

An agathodaemon or agathodaimon was a spirit of vineyards and grainfields in the religion of the ancient Greeks.

Agathodaemon or Agathodaimon may also refer to

Set (deity), the Egyptian god

The Canopic Branch of the Nile Delta, called the Agathodaemon or Agathodaimon in Ptolemy's Geography

Agathodaemon (alchemist), the 3rd-century Egyptian alchemist

Agathodaemon of Alexandria, an Egyptian cartographer of uncertain date connected with Ptolemy's Geography

Agathodaemon, a Martian canals named for the cartographer

Agathodaemon (grammarian), the 5th-century Egyptian grammarian

Agathodaimon (band), a German band playing death metal

Agathos Daimon (Forgotten Realms), a fictional deity in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting for Dungeons & Dragons

Agathodaemon of Alexandria

Agathodaemon of Alexandria (Greek: Ἀγαθοδαίμων Ἀλεξανδρεὺς, Agathodaímōn Alexandreùs) was a Greek or Hellenized cartographer, presumably from Alexandria, Egypt, in late Antiquity, probably in the 2nd century A.D.Agathodaemon is mentioned in some of the earliest manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography:

Ἐκ τῶν Κλαυδίου Πτολεμαίου Γεογραφικῶν βιβλίων ὄκτο τὴν οἰκουμένην πᾶσαν Ἀγαθοδαίμων Ἀλεξανδρεὺς ὑπετύπωσε"From the eight books of geography of Claudius Ptolemaeus the whole habitable world Agathodaemon of Alexandria delineated."

The line appears in the running text of the Geography and not as a caption on the maps themselves. Since the inscriptions are the only surviving reference to him and these manuscripts only survive from the very late 13th century, the most that can be stated conclusively is that he lived sometime between the years AD 150 and 1300, although his classical name and his epithet—"the Alexandrian"—probably places him before that city's fall to the Caliphate in 641 and not contemporary with Maximus Planudes's reconstruction of the Ptolemaic atlas after 1295.In the Geography, Ptolemy shows his familiarity with existing maps, complaining of the inaccuracies introduced by cartographers to Marinus of Tyre's work through his failure to provide proper accompanying data, a fault Ptolemy remedied by providing sample captions in his own books VII and VIII. In those sections, he explicitly mentions that his text was to be accompanied by maps constructed according to his principles. Heeren argued for Agathodaemon having been the cartographer responsible for these original maps; Dinse for his having been the transcriber of the original papyrus scrolls to codices; and Fischer for a strictly literal reading of the inscription, showing that differences in the early manuscripts imply Agathodaemon drafted the world map but not the regional maps.A major consideration is that the current form of Ptolemy's regional maps are done according to Marinus's cylindrical projection—which Ptolemy disparages—rather than either of Ptolemy's; the world map is done according to the less-favored of the two projections Ptolemy offers.

Agathodaemon is sometimes conflated or confused with two other figures: the 3rd-century alchemist Agathodaemon and the 5th-century grammarian Agathodaemon who corresponded with Isidore of Pelusium.

Cacodemon

A cacodemon (or cacodaemon) is an evil spirit or (in the modern sense of the word) a demon. The opposite of a cacodemon is an agathodaemon or eudaemon, a good spirit or angel. The word cacodemon comes through Latin from the Ancient Greek κακοδαίμων kakodaimōn, meaning an "evil spirit," whereas daimon would be a neutral spirit in Greek and Tychodaimon would be a good spirit. In psychology, cacodemonia (or cacodemomania) is a form of insanity in which the patient believes that they are possessed by an evil spirit. The first known occurrence of the word cacodemon dates to 1593. In Shakespeare's Richard III Act 1 Scene 3, Queen Margaret calls Richard a "cacodemon" for his foul deeds and manipulations.

In the ARbatel of Magi vertetum written in 1575 the word Cacodemaon is described as one of the 7.

Daemon (classical mythology)

Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.The word is derived from Proto-Indo-European *daimon "provider, divider (of fortunes or destinies)", from the root *da- "to divide". Daimons were possibly seen as the souls of men of the golden age acting as tutelary deities, according to entry δαίμων at Liddell & Scott.

Eudaemon (mythology)

The eudaemon, eudaimon, or eudemon (Greek: εὐδαίμων) in Greek mythology was a type of daemon or genius (deity), which in turn was a kind of spirit. A eudaemon was regarded as a good spirit or angel, and the evil cacodaemon was its opposing spirit.

Hydrovatus

Hydrovatus is a genus of water beetles in the family Dytiscidae, containing the following species:

Hydrovatus abraeoides Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus absonus Guignot, 1948

Hydrovatus acuminatus Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus agathodaemon Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus amplicornis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus angusticornis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus antennatus (Peschet, 1924)

Hydrovatus aristidis Leprieur, 1879

Hydrovatus asemus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus asymmetricus Biström & Wewalka, 1994

Hydrovatus badeni Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus balfourbrownei Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus balneator Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus baptus Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus bedoanus Bruneau de Miré & Legros, 1963

Hydrovatus bicolor Guignot, 1956

Hydrovatus bomansi Guignot, 1955

Hydrovatus bonvouloiri Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus brancuccii Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus bredoi Gschwendtner, 1943

Hydrovatus brevipes Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus brevipilis Guignot, 1942

Hydrovatus brownei Omer-Cooper, 1955

Hydrovatus brunneus Guignot, 1961

Hydrovatus bullatus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus capnius Guignot, 1950

Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus cardoni Severin, 1890

Hydrovatus castaneus Motschulsky, 1855

Hydrovatus cessatus Guignot, 1956

Hydrovatus charactes Guignot, 1955

Hydrovatus clypealis Sharp, 1876

Hydrovatus collega Guignot, 1955

Hydrovatus compactus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus concii Bilardo & Pederzani, 1978

Hydrovatus concolor Sharp, 1887

Hydrovatus confertus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus confossus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus confusus Régimbart, 1903

Hydrovatus contumax Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus coracinus Guignot, 1947

Hydrovatus crassicornis (H.J.Kolbe, 1883)

Hydrovatus crassulus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus cribratus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus cristatus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus cruentatus H.J.Kolbe, 1883

Hydrovatus cuspidatus (Kunze, 1818)

Hydrovatus dama Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus davidis Young, 1956

Hydrovatus dentatus Bilardo & Rocchi, 1990

Hydrovatus deserticola Guignot, 1950

Hydrovatus diabolicus Biström & Larson, 1995

Hydrovatus difformis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus duponti Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus enigmaticus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus eximius Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus exochomoides Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus facetus Guignot, 1942

Hydrovatus fasciatus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus felixi Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus fernandoi Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus ferrugineus Zimmermann, 1920

Hydrovatus flammulatus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus flebilis Guignot, 1945

Hydrovatus fractus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus frater Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus fulvicollis Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus gabonicus Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus galpini Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus glaber Guignot, 1953

Hydrovatus globulosus Gschwendtner, 1943

Hydrovatus grabowskyi Régimbart, 1899

Hydrovatus granosus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus gravis Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus guignoti Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus guignotianus Guignot, 1959

Hydrovatus hamatus Guignot, 1950

Hydrovatus heterogynus Zimmermann, 1926

Hydrovatus hintoni Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus hornii Crotch, 1873

Hydrovatus imitator Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus impunctatus Guignot, 1953

Hydrovatus inexpectatus Young, 1963

Hydrovatus insolitus Guignot, 1948

Hydrovatus irianensis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus jaechi Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus kavanaughi Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus laosensis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus latipalpis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus leconteii (Clark, 1862)

Hydrovatus leonardii Bilardo & Pederzani, 1978

Hydrovatus lintrarius Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus longicornis Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus longior Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus maai Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus macrocephalus Gschwendtner, 1934

Hydrovatus macrocerus Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus madagascariensis Régimbart, 1903

Hydrovatus marlieri Guignot, 1956

Hydrovatus medialis J.Balfour-Browne, 1939

Hydrovatus megalocerus Bilardo & Pederzani, 1978

Hydrovatus mollis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus mucronatus Régimbart, 1908

Hydrovatus mundus Omer-Cooper, 1931

Hydrovatus naviger Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus nefandus Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus nephodes Guignot, 1953

Hydrovatus ngorekiensis Bilardo & Rocchi, 1999

Hydrovatus niger Gschwendtner, 1938

Hydrovatus nigricans Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus nigrita Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus nilssoni Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus nimbaensis Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus niokolensis Guignot, 1956

Hydrovatus noumeni Bilardo & Rocchi, 1990

Hydrovatus oblongipennis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus oblongiusculus Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus oblongus Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus obsoletus Peschet, 1922

Hydrovatus obtusus Motschulsky, 1855

Hydrovatus omentatus Guignot, 1950

Hydrovatus opacus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus otiosus Guignot, 1945

Hydrovatus ovalis Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus parallelipennis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus parallelus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus parameces Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus parvulus Régimbart, 1900

Hydrovatus pederzanii Bilardo & Rocchi, 1990

Hydrovatus peninsularis Young, 1953

Hydrovatus perrinae Bilardo & Pederzani, 1978

Hydrovatus perssoni Biström & Nilsson, 1997

Hydrovatus pescheti Omer-Cooper, 1931

Hydrovatus piceus Guignot, 1961

Hydrovatus picipennis Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus pictulus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus pilitibiis Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus pilula Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus pinguis Régimbart, 1892

Hydrovatus pisiformis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus platycornis Young, 1963

Hydrovatus postremus Guignot, 1942

Hydrovatus pudicus (Clark, 1863)

Hydrovatus pulcher Gschwendtner, 1934

Hydrovatus pumilus Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus punctipennis Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus pustulatus (F.E.Melsheimer, 1844)

Hydrovatus pyrrus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus rangoonensis Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus reclusus Guignot, 1955

Hydrovatus regimbarti Zimmermann, 1919

Hydrovatus reticuliceps Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus rocchii Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus rufescens Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus rufoniger (Clark, 1863)

Hydrovatus samuelsoni Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus sandwichensis Biström, 1995

Hydrovatus sanfilippoi Bilardo & Rocchi, 1990

Hydrovatus satanas Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus satanoides Pederzani & Rocchi, 1982

Hydrovatus saundersi Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus schawalleri Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus scholaeus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus seminarius Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus semirufus Zimmermann, 1924

Hydrovatus senegalensis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus seydeli Guignot, 1953

Hydrovatus sharpi Branden, 1885

Hydrovatus similis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus simoni Régimbart, 1894

Hydrovatus sinister Sharp, 1890

Hydrovatus sitistus Omer-Cooper, 1963

Hydrovatus sobrinus Omer-Cooper, 1957

Hydrovatus soror Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus spadix Guignot, 1948

Hydrovatus spissicornis Régimbart, 1905

Hydrovatus sporas Guignot, 1959

Hydrovatus stappersi Guignot, 1959

Hydrovatus stridulus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus subparallelus Gschwendtner, 1930

Hydrovatus subrotundatus Motschulsky, 1859

Hydrovatus subtilis Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus sumatrensis Sharp, 1882

Hydrovatus suturalis Bilardo & Pederzani, 1978

Hydrovatus testudinarius Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus tristis Guignot, 1961

Hydrovatus turbinatus Zimmermann, 1921

Hydrovatus tydaeus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus uhligi Biström, 1995

Hydrovatus unguicularis Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus unguiculatus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus uniformis (Fairmaire, 1869)

Hydrovatus validicornis Régimbart, 1895

Hydrovatus verisae Bilardo & Rocchi, 1987

Hydrovatus vicinus Guignot, 1958

Hydrovatus villiersi Guignot, 1955

Hydrovatus visendus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus vividus Guignot, 1954

Hydrovatus vulneratus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus vulpinus Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus weiri Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus wewalkai Biström, 1999

Hydrovatus wittei Biström, 1997

Hydrovatus yagii Kitayama, Mori & Matsui, 1993

Hydrovatus youngi Biström, 1997

List of agricultural gods

This is a list of agriculture gods and goddesses, gods whose tutelary specialty was agriculture, either of agriculture in general or of one or more specialties within the field. Each god's culture or religion of origin is listed; a god revered in multiple contexts are listed with the one in which he originated. Roman gods appear on a separate list.

List of alchemists

An alchemist is a person versed in the art of alchemy. Western alchemy flourished in Greco-Roman Egypt, the Islamic world during the Middle Ages, and then in Europe from the 13th to the 18th centuries. Indian alchemists and Chinese alchemists made contributions to Eastern varieties of the art. Alchemy is still practiced today by a few, and alchemist characters still appear in recent fictional works and video games.

A large number of alchemists are known from the thousands of surviving alchemical manuscripts and books. Some of their names are listed below. Due to the tradition of pseudepigraphy, the true author of some alchemical writings may differ from the name most often associated with that work. Some well-known historical figures such as Albertus Magnus and Aristotle are often incorrectly named amongst the alchemists as a result.

List of legendary creatures (A)

Á Bao A Qu (Malay) - Entity that lives in the Tower of Victory in Chitor.

Aatxe (Basque) - Bull spirit.

Abaasy (Yakuts) - Iron-toothed demons.

Abada (African) - Small unicorn reported to live in the lands of the African Congo.

Äbädä (Tatar) - Forest spirit.

Abaia (Melanesia) - Huge magical eel.

Abarimon (Medieval Bestiaries) - Savage humanoid with backward feet.

Abath (Malay) - One-horned animal.

Abura-sumashi (Japanese) - Creature from a mountain pass in Kumamoto Prefecture.

Acephali (Greek) - Headless humanoids.

Acheri (Indian Folklore) - Disease-bringing ghost.

Achlis (Roman) - Curious elk.

Adar Llwch Gwin (Welsh) - Giant birds that understand human languages.

Adaro (Solomon Islands) - Malevolent merfolk.

Adhene (Manx) - Nature spirit.

Adlet (Inuit) - Vampiric dog-human hybrid

Adroanzi (Lugbara) - Nature spirit.

Adze (Ewe people) - African vampiric-forest being.

Aerico (Greek) - Disease demon.

Afanc (Welsh) - Lake monster (exact lake varies by story).

Agni (Hindu) - God of fire and sacrifices.

Agathodaemon (Greek) - Spirit of vinefields and grainfields.

Agloolik (Inuit) - Ice spirit that aids hunters and fishermen.

Agogwe (East Africa) - Small, ape-like humanoid.

Ahkiyyini (Inuit) - Animated skeleton that causes shipwrecks.

Ahuizotl (Aztec) - Anthropophagous dog-monkey hybrid.

Aigamuxa (Khoikhoi) - Anthropophagous humanoid with eyes in its instep.

Aigikampoi (Etruscan) - Fish-tailed goat.

Airavata (Hindu) - Divine elephant.

Aitu (Polynesian) - Malevolent spirits or demons.

Aitvaras (Lithuanian) - Household spirit.

Ajatar (Finnish) - Dragon/snake female spirit, is said to spread deseases

Akateko (Japanese) - Tree-dwelling monster.

Akhlut (Inuit) - Orca-wolf shapeshifter.

Akka (Finnish) - Female spirits or minor goddesses.

Akki (Japanese) - Large, grotesque humanoid.

Akkorokamui (Ainu) - Sea monster.

Akuma (Japanese) - Evil spirit or devil

Akupara (Hindu) - Giant turtle that supports the world.

Akurojin-no-hi (Japanese) - Ghostly flame which causes disease.

Al (Armenian and Persian) - Spirit that steals unborn babies and livers from pregnant women.

Ala (Slavic) - Bad weather demon.

Alal (Chaldean) - Queen of the full moon.

Alan (Philippine) - Winged humanoid that steals reproductive waste to make children.

Alce (Heraldic) - Wingless griffin.

Aleya (Bengali) - Spirit of a dead fisherman.

Alicanto (Chilean) - Bird that eats gold and silver.

Alicorn - Winged unicorn from the Latin "ala" (wing) and "corn" (horn).

Alkonost (Slavic) - Angelic bird with human head and breasts.

Allocamelus (Heraldic) - Ass-camel hybrid.

Almas (Mongolian) - Savage humanoid.

Al-mi'raj (Islamic) - One-horned rabbit.

Aloja (Catalan) - Female water spirit.

Alom-bag-winno-sis (Abenaki) - Little people and tricksters.

Alp (German) - Male night-demon.

Alphyn (Heraldic) - Lion-like creature, sometimes with dragon or goat forelegs.

Alp-luachra (Irish) - Parasitic fairy.

Al Rakim (Islamic) - Guard dog of the Seven Sleepers.

Alseid (Greek) - Grove nymph.

Alû (Assyrian) - Leprous demon.

Alux (Mayan) - Little people.

Amaburakosagi (Japanese) - Ritual disciplinary demon from Shikoku.

Amala (Tsimshian) - Giant who holds up the world.

Amamehagi (Japanese) - Ritual disciplinary demon from Hokuriku.

Amanojaku (Japanese) - Small demon.

Amarok (Inuit) - Giant wolf.

Amarum (Quechua) - Water boa spirit.

Amazake-babaa (Japanese) - Disease-causing hag.

Amemasu (Ainu) - Lake monster.

Ammit (Ancient Egyptian) - Female demon who was part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile.

Amorōnagu (Japanese) - Tennyo from the island of Amami Ōshima.

Amphiptere (Heraldic) - Winged serpent.

Amphisbaena (Greek) - Serpent with a head at each end.

Anak (Jewish) - Giant.

Androsphinx (Ancient Egyptian) - Human-headed sphinx.

Angel (mainly Christian, Jewish, Islamic traditions) - From the Greek ángelos, divine beings of Heaven who act as mediators between God and humans; the counterparts of Demons.

Angha (Persian) - Dog-lion-peacock hybrid.

Ani Hyuntikwalaski (Cherokee) - Lightning spirit.

Ankou (French) - Skeletal grave watcher with a lantern and scythe.

Anmo (Japanese) - Ritual disciplinary demon from Iwate Prefecture.

Antaeus (Greek) - Giant who was extremely strong as long as he remained in contact with the ground.

Anubis (Ancient Egyptian) - God of the Underworld

Antero Vipunen (Finnish) - Subterranean giant.

Anzû (Sumerian) - Divine storm bird

Ao Ao (Guaraní) - Anthropophagous peccary or sheep.

Aobōzu (Japanese) - Blue monk who kidnaps children.

Apkallu (Sumerian) - Fish-human hybrid that attends the god Enki.

Apsaras (Buddhist and Hindu) - Female cloud spirit.

Aqrabuamelu (Akkadian) - Human-scorpion hybrid.

Ardat-Lili (Akkadian) - Disease demon.

Argus Panoptes (Greek) - Hundred-eyed giant.

Arikura-no-baba (Japanese) - Old woman with magical powers.

Arimaspi (Greek) - One-eyed humanoid.

Arion (Greek) - Swift green-maned talking horse.

Arkan Sonney (Manx) - Fairy hedgehog.

Asag (Sumerian) - Hideous rock demon.

Asakku (Sumerian) - Demon.

Asanbosam (West Africa) - Iron-toothed vampire.

Asena (Turkic) - Blue-maned wolf.

A-senee-ki-wakw (Abenaki) - Stone giant.

Ashi-magari (Japanese) - Invisible tendril that impedes movement.

Asiman (Dahomey) - Vampiric possession spirit.

Askefrue (Germanic) - Female tree spirit.

Ask-wee-da-eed (Abenaki) - Fire elemental and spectral fire.

Asobibi (Japanese) - Spectral fire from Kōchi Prefecture.

Aspidochelone (Medieval Bestiaries) - Island-sized whale or sea turtle.

Asrai (English) - Water spirit.

Astomi (Greek) - Humanoid sustained by pleasant smells instead of food.

Aswang (Philippine) - Carrion-eating humanoid.

Atomy (English) - Surprisingly small creature.

Ato-oi-kozō (Japanese) - Invisible spirit that follows people.

Atshen (Inuit) - Anthropophagous spirit.

Auloniad (Greek) - Pasture nymph.

Avalerion (Medieval Bestiary) - King of the birds.

Awa-hon-do (Abenaki) - Insect spirit.

Axex (Ancient Egyptian) - Falcon-lion hybrid.

Ayakashi (Japanese) - Sea serpent that travels over boats in an arc while dripping oil.

Ayakashi-no-ayashibi (Japanese) - Spectral fire from Ishikawa Prefecture.

Aziza (Dahomey) - Little people that help hunters.

Azukiarai (Japanese) - Spirit that washes azuki beans along riversides.

Azukibabaa (Japanese) - Bean-grinding hag who devours people.

Azukitogi (Japanese) - Spirit that washes azuki beans along riversides.

Manetho

Manetho (; Koine Greek: Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos (Coptic: ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ, translit. džemnouti) who lived during the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC and authored the Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt), a major chronological source for the reigns of the ancient pharaohs.

Mary the Jewess

Mary or Maria the Jewess (Latin: Maria Prophetissima), also known as Mary the Prophetess, is an early alchemist who is known from the works of the Gnostic Christian writer Zosimos of Panopolis. On the basis of Zosimos's comments, she lived between the first and third centuries A.D. French, Taylor and Lippmann list her as one of the first alchemical writers, dating her works at no later than the first century.She is credited with the invention of several kinds of chemical apparatus and is considered to be the first true alchemist of the Western world.

Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.The Nile Delta is an area of the world that lacks detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise.

Oxyrhynchus Papyri 159 through 207

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri 159 through 207 are the 48 papyri published by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt in summary form at the end of the first volume of their monumental collection of documents recovered from Oxyrhynchus beginning in 1896. Many of these 48 were later examined and published in more detail, some by Grenfell and Hunt themselves, and some by other Egyptologists and scholars.

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 70

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 70 (P. Oxy. 70) is a petition, written in Greek. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The document was written between 212 and 213. Currently it is housed in the Bolton Art Gallery and Museum in Bolton. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.The letter was addressed to Aurelius Herapion, epistrategus, and concerns a debt owed to the author by Agathodaemon. It was written by Ptolemaeus, former agoranomus. The measurements of the fragment are 184 by 148 mm.

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 95

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 95 (P. Oxy. 95) is an agreement for the sale of a slave, written in Greek. It was discovered in Oxyrhynchus. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. The document was written on 23 June 129. Currently it is housed in the library of the Royal Holloway College (P. Oxy. 95) in Egham.

Ptolemy's world map

The Ptolemy world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy's book Geography, written c. 150. Based on an inscription in several of the earliest surviving manuscripts, it is traditionally credited to Agathodaemon of Alexandria.

Significant contributions of Ptolemy's maps are the first use of longitudinal and latitudinal lines as well as specifying terrestrial locations by celestial observations. The Geography was translated from Greek into Arabic in the 9th century and played a role in the work of al-Khwārizmī before lapsing into obscurity. The idea of a global coordinate system revolutionized European geographical thought, however, and inspired more mathematical treatment of cartography.

Ptolemy's work probably originally came with maps, but none have been discovered. Instead, the present form of the map was reconstructed from Ptolemy's coordinates by Byzantine monks under the direction of Maximus Planudes shortly after 1295. It probably was not that of the original text, as it uses the less favored of the two alternate projections offered by Ptolemy.

Shai

Shai (also spelt Sai, occasionally Shay, and in Greek, Psais) was the deification of the concept of fate in Egyptian mythology. As a concept, with no particular reason for associating one gender over another, Shai was sometimes considered female, rather than the more usual understanding of being male, in which circumstance Shai was referred to as Shait (simply the feminine form of the name). His name reflects his function, as it means (that which is) ordained.As the god of fate, it was said that he determined the span of each man's life, and was present at the judgement of the soul of the deceased in duat. In consequence, he was sometimes identified as the husband of Mesenet, goddess of birth, or, in later years, of Renenutet, who assigned the Ren, and had become considered goddess of fortune. Because of the power associated in the concept, Akhenaten, in introducing monotheism, said that Shai was an attribute of Aten, whereas Ramses II claimed to be lord of Shai (i.e. lord of fate).

During Ptolemaic Egypt, Shai, as god of fate, was identified with the Greek god Agathodaemon, who was the god of fortune telling. Thus, since Agathodaemon was considered to be a serpent, and the word Shai was also the Egyptian word for pig, in the Hellenic period, Shai was sometimes depicted as a serpent-headed pig, known to Egyptologists as the Shai animal.

Tim Madison

Tim Madison (better known as Vadge Moore) is an American musician and author, best known as the drummer of punk band The Dwarves. He currently is one of two members in Chthonic Force, a noise/industrial band based in Atlanta, Georgia. He also is a co founder of Neither/Neither World and played in Phoenix Thunderstone. In 2009, he released his first book, Chthonic: Prose & Theory.

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