Afro-Venezuelan

Afro-Venezuelans (Spanish: Afrovenezolanos) are Venezuelans of African descent. They are mostly descendants of enslaved Africans brought to the Western Hemisphere by John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake during the Atlantic slave trade. This term also sometimes refers to the combining of African and other cultural elements found in Venezuelan society such as the arts, music, religion, race, language and class culture.

Afro-Venezuelans Venezuela
Venezuela 2011 Black and Afrodescendant population proportion map
Total population
1,087,427(2011)
(3.4% of Venezuelan population)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Entire country; highest percent found in the Venezuelan Caribbean and Venezuelan Llanos
Languages
Venezuelan Spanish
Religion
Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
African, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Brazilians, Afro-Trinidadians and Tobagonians and Venezuelan people

History

Slave Trade

Between 1576 and 1810, about 500,000 African slaves were transported to Venezuela via Portuguese, Catalan, French, English, Belgium and Dutch slave ships. These slaves belonged to various ethnicities from present-day Angola, Senegal, Gambia, Benin, Nigeria and the Congo, such as: Kalabari, Yoruba, Kongo, Wolof, and more. Slaves were treated as units of commerce, referred to as pieza de india in reference to their physique and potential for travail. Throughout the sixteenth century, slaves were brought to toil in the gold mines in Coro and Buría (Yaracuy) and to Isla Margarita and Cumaná for fishing and pearl diving. Small-scale agricultural plantations were also initiated in Venezuela, especially among the regions surrounding Caracas. In the 18th century, immense shipments of slaves were transported to Barlovento to aid the burgeoning cacao industry, indigo plantations in the Venezuelan Llanos and the sugar plantations in Lara, Aragua and Zulia, around Lake Maracaibo.

Slave rebellions

The history of slave revolts in Venezuela, both in the form of runaway communities and mutiny, began quite early. The first documented insurrection was in Coro on 1532. However, the most momentous revolt of the time took place on the Buría mines on 1552. The rebellion was led by El Negro Miguel (also known as Rey Miguel), who founded a cimarrón, or cumbe (escaped slave) settlement and had himself proclaimed king. He developed an army of 1,500 slaves, Blacks, Mulattos, Zambos and Indigenous peoples to attack colonial establishments. Numbers of runaway-slave communities continued to increase throughout the seventeenth century, and by 1720 there were between 20,000 and 30,000 cimarrones in Venezuela, as opposed to the 60,000 slaves still working on the plantations (Rout 1976, 111112). Barlovento was the site of intense cimarrón activity throughout the eighteenth century, with several cumbe settlements being established around Caucagua and Curiepe. The most famous of these was that of Ocoyta, founded around 1770 by the legendary Guillermo Rivas. After he led raids on various plantations both to liberate slaves and to punish overseers, a special army was raised to destroy Ocoyta and execute Rivas.

"Cumbe" derives from the Manding term for "out-of-the-way place". Typically located above river banks or in remote mountainous areas, cumbes were usually well hidden and housed an average of 120 residents. Such settlements were also called patucos and 'rochelos. Cimarrones were frequently aided by indigenous tribes living in the area (e.g., the Tomusa in Barlovento), and cumbe populations were composed not only of Blacks, but also of Indians and even of poor Whites. Cimarrón groups conducted raids on plantations, assisted in the escapes of other slaves, and participated in contraband trading. The only legally established town of free Blacks was that of Curiepe, established in Barlovento in 1721 under the leadership of Captain Juan del Rosario Blanco. The community was composed of former members of Caracas's Company of Free Blacks as well as huangos from the Antilles. The latter were escaped slaves who, like all Blacks fleeing non-Spanish-speaking islands, were granted freedom upon arrival in Venezuela if they accepted baptism.

Abolishment of slavery

Afro-Venezuelans played a crucial role in the struggle for independence. Originally, slaves fought for the Crown, believing that the landowning creole Republicans were their enemies. In particular, the notorious royalist battalion of General José Tomás Boves attracted many slave soldiers. Bolívar, realizing the strategic importance of Black soldiers in the fight for independence, declared the abolition of slavery in 1812 and again in 1816, after promising Haitian president Alexandre Pétion that he would secure freedom for slaves in return for Haitian military aid. A major landowner himself, Bolívar freed 1,000 of his own slaves, and in 1819 recruited 5,000 slaves into his army. José Antonio Paéz, a key figure in Venezuelan independence, led an army of Blacks from the llanos (plains). One of his most famous lieutenants, Pedro Camejo, has been immortalized in Venezuelan history as "El Negro Primero", because he was always the first to ride into battle. In the final battle of Carabobo, Camejo was mortally wounded but returned to General Paéz to utter one of the most famous statements in Venezuelan history: "General, vengo decirle, adiós, porque estoy muerto" (General, I have come to say goodbye, because I am dead). A statue of El Negro Primero stands in the Plaza Carabobo in Caracas—the only statue commemorating a Black in all Venezuela. Curiously, he is always depicted wearing a turban, the same iconography used for the mythical Negro Felipe. With the declaration of independence in 1810, all trafficking in slaves was outlawed. The decline in slavery continued throughout the War of Independence when, at its conclusion in 1821, the "Ley de vientre" was passed, stating that all children born, whether of slave or free parents, were automatically free. By 24 March 1854, the date of slavery's official abolition in Venezuela, less than 24,000 slaves remained.

Aftermath of slavery and racism of the 20th century

Throughout the twentieth century, Blacks in Venezuela have faced subtle forms of racial discrimination despite a philosophy of racial democracy and an ideology of mestizaje that contends all groups have blended together to form a new, indistinguishable type, called the mestizo. Yet underlying this ideology is a policy of blanqueamiento, or "whitening", that has encouraged both the physical and cultural assimilation of Afro-Venezuelans into a Euro-dominated mainstream. An important semantic counterpart to the process of blanqueamiento is that found in the term negrear, which denotes concepts of "marginalization" or "trivialization". The emergence of Black intellectuals such as Juan Pablo Sojo and Manuel Rodrigues Cárdenas in the 1940s, and more recently of younger writers such as Jesús García, has helped counter the forces of blanqueamiento, or assimilation. A strong body of research in Afro-Venezuelan history and folklore has also been established by Venezuelan scholars, particularly Miguel Acosta Saignes (1967). Public festivals such as the Fiesta de San Juan have emerged as focal points in the reappropriation of Afro-Venezuelan culture, articulating current transformations in a living tradition of cimarronaje (resistance to the dominant culture, consciousness of being marginal).

Cultural expression

Religion

Afro-Venezuelan religious practices have been adapted to Catholicism. Drumming and dancing, which figure in the celebrations of patron saints' days and other religious ceremonies, bear a close resemblance to various forms of African ancestor worship. Because the slave population was so heterogeneous, no single African religious system dominated in this syncretization process, as it did for example in Cuba, Brazil, and, to a lesser extent, in Trinidad with its Yoruba tradition. There has also been some intersection with indigenous cosmological systems. Figures such as duendes, familiaries, and encantados are types of spirit beings connected with the dead or forces of nature, which act as intermediaries between the parallel realms of physical existence and that of the spirit world. It is through contact with these beings, usually dwelling in deep riverine pools, that curanderos (healers) derive their power and divine the future. These beings are also responsible for the deaths and disappearance of various people. Such beliefs are articulated in the oral traditions not only of Afro-Venezuelans but of indigenous and mestizo peoples as well.

The influx of Cuban immigrants after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 has encouraged the establishment of the Afro-Cuban religion Santería among Venezuelans of all cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Although this is a predominantly urban phenomenon, African influences in Venezuela continue to evolve through a dynamic and continuous migration of cultural practices and forms.

Religious practitioners

Organized as they were around patron saints, Black cofradías were not simply social organizations, but also religious ones. Some cofradías were subdivided into separate "societies" that had distinct responsibilities. Sojo (1986) reports that in Barlovento, for example, each day of Holy Week had a separate society that was in charge of maintaining the holy images and ritual ceremonies associated with the respective day. In preparation, members would practice celibacy, abstain from consumption of alcohol, and perform various ablutions before "dressing" the saintly image.

Since colonial times, magico-religious societies have also existed, employing various forms of brujería, or "witchcraft". In Afro-Venezuelan communities, as in the rest of Venezuela, there is belief in brujos (sorcerers), who can cast spells and cause various forms of daño (harm). Fear of mal de ojo ("evil eye") against children is particularly common. Curanderas are sought for their knowledge of herbal medicines, which are used both in combatting illness and counteracting daño. In Barlovento, healers are sometimes called ensalmadores and are particularly respected for their ability to divine the future as well as to find lost objects and people.

Arts and ceremonies

Afro-Venezuelan ceremonies have been primarily linked to the Christian calendar, and many Afro-Venezuelan music, dance, and costume traditions are associated with specific church celebrations. The Nativity, Holy Week, Corpus Christi, the Cruz de Mayo, and patron saints' holidays are central to Afro-Venezuelan expressive culture throughout the country. The Día de los Inocentes (Feast of Fools, 28 December) is also celebrated and is particularly important in Barlovento, where "governments of women" are set up parodying male authority with absurd decrees and other actions such as cross-dressing. Carnival celebrations (the week before Lent) are significant, especially in eastern Venezuela, where in communities such as Güiria and El Callao there has been a large Caribbean influence. During saints' feast days, promesas (promises) made to the saints in return for personal favors are fulfilled. Correct observance of ritual activities such as offerings, drumming, dancing, and the feeding of all those present are essential to satisfying these promises.

In various regions of Venezuela, different religious holidays have emerged as important local celebrations. Around Lake Maracaibo, the fiesta of a Black saint, San Benito, (26 December to 2 January) is prominent and is celebrated with the playing of chimbánguele drums. In Cata, Chuao, Cuyagua, and Ocumare de la Costa (Aragua), Naiguatá (Distrito Federal), San Francisco de Yare (Miranda), and Canoabo and Patanemo (Carabobo), the Diablos Danzantes (organized into cofradías) are the centerpiece of the Corpus Christi celebrations, performing in particularly vivid costumes and masks that incorporate African imagery. In Barlovento, the Fiesta of San Juan Bautista (Saint John the Baptist) has been of singular importance since slavery. The three days of San Juan (23 to 25 June) were the only three days of the year during which slaves were given a rest from hard labor and were permitted to gather freely. During the holiday, not only would slaves celebrate with drumming and dancing, but also plot insurrection and flight.

Music

Afro-Venezuelan musical expression is characterized by a great diversity of drums. Most are of African origin and many bear direct resemblance to the drums of Bantu-speaking and West African groups. Generally, drums use specific rhythmic patterns to accompany specific song or dance forms; hence, drums, rhythms, and stylistic forms may all be designated by the same name. In turn, this stylistic complex is usually associated with a specific fiesta or celebration.

In Barlovento, the culo e'puya drums are important, as are the mina and curbata, which are played together. Quitiplas are also prominent in Barlovento. These are fashioned from hollow bamboo tubes and played by striking them on the ground. (They are similar to the Trinidadian "tambou bamboo" that gave rise to steel-drum styles.) Along the central coastal region, the cumaco is widespread, used in San Juan celebrations as well as the secular bailes de tambor (dances). The tamunango is found in Afro-Venezuelan communities in the interior. To the west, in Zulia, the chimbángueles are used to accompany San Benito festivities, and a friction drum called furruco is commonly played during Nativity celebrations and the singing of gaitas. In the eastern coastal regions, influence from Trinidad is evident in the performance of steel-band (estilban) music. Maracas (seed-filled rattles) are prevalent throughout Venezuela and are commonly used to accompany drumming, as is another indigenous-derived instrument, the conch.

Other small percussion instruments, such as the charrasca, a small notched scraper, are also used as accompaniment. Less common instruments found in Barlovento and along the coast include the marimbola, a large bass "thumb-piano" derived from the African kalimba; the carángano, a musical bow similar to the Brazilian berimbau; and the marimba barloventeña, a large mouth-bow (Aretz 1967). As in other parts of Venezuela, the four-stringed cuatro is extremely common.

Folklore

In addition to musical, dance, and costume traditions, oral lore forms an essential part of Afro-Venezuelan expressive culture. Some of the best-known tales in Afro-Venezuelan oratory center around the exploits of Tío Conejo (Uncle Rabbit), who manages to outwit Tío Tigre (Uncle Tiger). In the twentieth century a small body of Afro-Venezuelan literature has been established, including the works of novelist and folklorist Juan Pablo Sojo and the poet Manuel Rodrigues Cárdenas. Theater and dance groups, which have a long history of performance in Barlovento, have become progressively more important with the appearance of such groups as the Centro de Creación Teatral de Barlovento-Curiepe, the Teatro Negro de Barlovento, and Madera.

Afro-Venezuelans today

Identification

Afro-Venezuelans are designated by Spanish terms; no words of African derivation are used. "Afro-venezolano" is used primarily as an adjective (e.g., folklore afro-venezolano). "Negro" is the most general term of reference; "Moreno" refers to darker-skinned people, and "Mulatto" refers to lighter-skinned people, usually of mixed European-African heritage. "Pardo" was used in colonial times to refer to freed slaves, or those of mixed Euro-African-Indigenous background. "Zambo" referred to those of mixed Afro-indigenous background. "Criollo", which retains its colonial meaning of "being born in Venezuela", does not indicate any racial or ethnic affiliation.

Location

Afro-Venezuelans can be found all over the country, but the largest Afro-Venezuelan population is located in the Barlovento region about 100 kilometers east of Caracas. Comprising an area of 4,500 square kilometers, Barlovento covers four districts of the state of Miranda. There are also important Afro-Venezuelan communities along the coasts of Carabobo (Canoabo, Patanemo, Puerto Cabello), the Distrito Federal (Naiguatá, La Sabana, Tarma, etc.), Aragua (Cata, Chuao, Cuyagua, Ocumare de la Costa, etc.), and the southeast shore of Lake Maracaibo (Bobures, Gibraltar, Santa María, etc.). Smaller pockets are also found in Sucre (Campoma, Güiria), the southwest area of Yaracuy (Farriar), and the mountains of Miranda (Yare). An important Afro-Venezuelan community is also to be found in El Callao, in the southernmost state of Bolívar, where miners from both the French and British Antilles settled in the mid-nineteenth century.

Demography

In the 2011 census, 3.6% of Venezuelans self-identified as Afro-Venezuelan.[2] However, it should also be noted that many Venezuelans still negate their African roots due to oblivion or the social stigma it carries, and Afro-Venezuelans (along with other races) are difficult to individually identify and/or distinguish with precision.[3] Race is also perceived differently in Venezuela, for example: In the United States, Beyonce and Barack Obama are considered black, but in Venezuela they would be considered pardo and mulatto. Similar to Brazil, in Venezuela, people tend to be categorized by how they look, such as: "moreno", "negro", "bachaco", etc. rather than actual ancestry. Encyclopædia Britannica estimates that at least one-tenth of Venezuelans (3 million) have relatively pure Sub-Saharan African ancestry.[4] The Brilliant Maps calculates that Afro-descendants comprise 4% of the Venezuelan population.[5] However, most Venezuelans claim some African blood, and Afro-Venezuelan culture is acknowledged as an vital component of national identity.

Notable Afro-Venezuelans

References

  1. ^ http://www.ine.gob.ve/documentos/Demografia/CensodePoblacionyVivienda/pdf/nacional.pdf
  2. ^ "2011 census" (PDF). INE.
  3. ^ "Racism and Racial Divides in Venezuela". Venezuelanalysis.com. 2004-01-21. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  4. ^ http://www.britannica.com/place/Venezuela/Immigration-and-ethnic-composition
  5. ^ "Ethnic Map of Venezuela".
Afro-Caribbean

Afro-Caribbean is the shorten ethnicity term of African-Caribbean, which refers to the ethnicity and cultural heritage of Caribbean people whose ancestors were taken from Africa via the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the Caribbean Islands between the 15th & 19th century to work primarily on various sugar plantations and in domestic households. Other names for the ethnic group include, Black Caribbean, Afro-West Indian, Black West Indian or Afro-Antillean.

The term was not used by West Indians themselves but was first coined by Americans in the late 1960s. This points to a controversial turn. This is because West Indian is the official term used by those from that region, and the rest of the world. The name West Indian was first used by Christopher Columbus, to describe the inhabitants that he found. Columbus was originally attempting to reach the country of India by heading west instead of heading east. Subsequently, as a result of the days of Empire, each group of colonies were given a specific description.

For example, those living in the British Empire were called British West Indian. Therefore it was natural to conclude that French West Indians and Dutch West Indians, were all part of those self named empires. The term West Indian includes all of those who are born in the region, regardless of skin colour.

Historically speaking, West Indian is the correct term used and accepted by those in the region and the rest of the world.

People of Afro-Caribbean descent today mainly have between 85-95% African ancestry DNA with their remaining of non-African ancestry DNA, such as European, South Asian, Middle Eastern and Amerindian, as there has been extensive intermarriage and unions among the peoples over the centuries.

Although most Afro-Caribbean people today live in French, English and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations and territories, there are also significant diaspora populations throughout the Western world – especially in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, France and the Netherlands. Both the home and diaspora populations have produced a number of individuals who have had a notable influence on modern Western, Caribbean, and African societies; they include political activists such as Marcus Garvey and C. L. R. James; writers and theorists such as Aimé Césaire and Frantz Fanon; US military leader and statesman Colin Powell (whose parents were immigrants) and Jamaican musician Bob Marley.

Aguinaldo

Aguinaldo is a folk genre of Christmas music in several Latin American countries, based on Spanish Christmas carols or villancicos which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the holiday season. Aguinaldo music is often performed by parrandas - a casual group of people, often family or friends, who merrily go from house to house taking along their singing.

Argelia Laya

Argelia Laya (10 July 1926 – 27 November 1997) was an Afro-Venezuelan educator and women's rights activist. She campaigned for women's suffrage and was one of the first Venezuelan women to openly speak of a woman's right to have children outside of wedlock or obtain an abortion. She advocated for the decriminalization of abortion and the right of both students and teachers to attend school regardless of whether they were pregnant. In the 1960s, she served as a guerrilla fighter for the communist party, later breaking away from the party to help found the Movement to Socialism (MAS). Through this party, she pressed for anti-discrimination regulations to gain socio-economic parity for minorities, workers and women.

Barlovento, Venezuela

Barlovento is a sub-region of Miranda state, Venezuela. During Spanish colonization of the Americas, Barlovento was developed as estate owners founded cacao haciendas. The work on the estates was done by African slaves brought from what is now the Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. These people were from the Kingdom of Kongo and Kingdom of Loango. There were also Yoruba slaves.

The culture of African and Spanish inhabitants has merged into the "drum dancing", Barlovento's typical Afro-Venezuelan celebration. This occurs particularly at the time of the feast of San Juan. Other events include the Entierro de la Sardina (Burial of the Sardine) and Day of the Dead. A syncretism has occurred where Catholic saints represent traditional African deities.

Crazy (singer)

Edwin Ayoung (born 1944), better known as Crazy, is a Trinidadian calypsonian. He has been active since the mid-1970s and is one of the most successful artists from Trinidad and Tobago.

Dance in Venezuela

Most of Venezuela's dances originated in Europe in the 19th century, but some originated in the Caribbean and others have African origins. They include the national dance the Joropo, the Venezuelan merengue and the Baile de Tambor.

El Trabuco Venezolano Vol. III

El Trabuco Venezolano - Vol. III is a vinyl LP by Venezuelan musician Alberto Naranjo, originally released in 1981 and partially reedited in two CD albums titled El Trabuco Venezolano 1977 - 1984 Vol. 1 (1994) and Vol. 2 (1995). It is the third of seven albums (two live albums) of the El Trabuco Venezolano musical project arranged and directed by Naranjo.

Famasloop

Famasloop is a Latin Grammy-nominated electronic music band from Caracas, Venezuela. The band's members are Alain Gómez, Luis Daniel González, Ricardo Martínez, Rafael Urbina and Vanesa Gouveia. The group's first album, Tres Casas, which was released in June 2006, experimented with electronic music to integrate several genres such as pop, Latin, rock, hip-hop, trip hop, Afro-Venezuelan, classical, Hindu, tango and jazz.

Tres Casas, which literally means Three Houses in Spanish, was released with a surrounding concept represented in the album's art and multimedia content, designed by the Venezuelan artist collective Keloide. Famasloop has described to the press that the album is divided into three houses, each one with a different theme (commercial, intellectual and spiritual). All of these houses include a half-a-minute introductory Puerta (Spanish for door), and three songs, making a total of twelve tracks. The album received production and post-production guest contribution from well-known musicians, such as Tweety González (keyboardist of Fito Páez), Nené Vázquez (percussionist of Aterciopelados), Guille Vadalá (Bass guitarist of Fito Páez), Oswaldo Rodríguez (Sur Carabaela) and more.

Huáscar Barradas

Huáscar Barradas (born 1964) is a Venezuelan flautist and Professor of flute at the "Instituto Universitario de Estudios Musicales" in Caracas. As a flutist he has represented Venezuela at a range of international festivals and as both soloist and symphonic musician plays a wide range of music types. Barradas was the principal flute of Orquesta Filarmónica Nacional. As teacher previously has worked at the National Youth Orchestra of Venezuela and taught his course "The art of performing the flute" at different Conservatories in and out of Venezuela.

Manuel Piar

Manuel Carlos Piar (April 28, 1774 – October 16, 1817) was General-in-Chief of the army fighting Spain during the Venezuelan War of Independence.

Mestizos in Venezuela

Morenos are Venezuelan people who are the result of a mixture of European, Amerindian and African.

According to the 2011 Census, those who identify as "Moreno" amount to 51.6% of Venezuela's population.

According to an autosomal DNA genetic study conducted in 2008 by the University of Brasília (UNB), the composition of Venezuela's gene pool is of 61% European contribution, 23% indigenous contribution, and 16% African contribution.

Miguel de Buría

Miguel I of Buría (Spanish: Miguel de Buría; c. 1510 – c. 1555), also known as King Miguel (Spanish: Rey Miguel), Miguel the Black (Spanish: El Negro Miguel) and Miguel Guacamaya, was a former slave from San Juan, Puerto Rico who reigned as the King of Buría in the modern-day state of Lara, Venezuela. His incumbency began in 1552 and lasted until some point between 1553 and 1555.He obtained his political influence and the control of the region adjacent to the Buría River after leading the first African rebellion in the country's history. During this insurrection he took over the Minas de San Felipe de Buría in modern-day Simón Planas Municipality, gold mines established within the area with the consent of the Spanish Crown to pull out the ore that was discovered in the river, a task that heavily depended on slave work. Miguel, who had a reputation as a rebellious slave, resisted an attempt to use a whiplash to discipline him and led several slaves in an escape. The group established themselves in a settlement build in the adjacent jungle, from where incursions were routinely carried into the mines. During these, Miguel would encourage other slaves to join him and seek freedom. In 1552, and accompanied by about 50 slaves, Miguel led an insurrection against foreman Diego Hernández de Serpa. Killing a Spaniard and sacking and burning some houses, the group took some weapons before fleeing towards the vicinity of the San Pedro river.With his following rearranged to form an army, Miguel I established his royal lineage with his wife Guiomar as queen and their son as prince. His birth and upbringing in San Juan made him the first black king born in the Americas, also influencing him to use the European format for his kingdom. In his settlement, Miguel I also created his own church, naming one of the former slaves bishop. Officers were assigned to the royal household. Other functionaries named included ministers and councilors of state. The Spanish expected more attacks in the region and fortified Nueva Segovia. Miguel led his forces in a clash against those led by Diego de Losada, but was killed in the ensuing battle. The fall of the king led to the dissolution of the political entity that he created, and the remaining survivors were captured and reintroduced to slavery. Following his death, Miguel became a part of Venezuelan folklore and is even revered by the Cult of María Lionza.

Mina (drum)

The Mina drum (Tambor Mina) is the largest of the drums that have origins in the Barlovento, Miranda region of Venezuela. They are used during the celebrations of St. John the Baptist and the Midsummer. It is a specialized form of the Cumaco drum. Its origins have been traced to the Mina civilization, which occupied what is now Benin in Africa.

Music of Venezuela

Several styles of the traditional music of Venezuela, such as salsa and merengue, are common to its Caribbean neighbors. Perhaps the most typical Venezuelan music is joropo, a rural form which originated in the llanos, or plains.

Parang

Parang is a popular folk music originating from Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago, it was brought to Trinidad and Tobago by Venezuelan and Colombian migrants who were primarily of Amerindian, Spanish, Mestizo, Pardo, Cocoa panyol, and African heritage, something which is strongly reflected in the music itself. The word is derived from two Spanish words: parranda, meaning "a spree or fête", and parar meaning "to stop".

In the past, it was traditional for parang serenaders to pay nocturnal visits to the homes of family and friends, where part of the fun was waking the inhabitants of the household from their beds. Today, parang is especially vibrant in Trinidad and Tobago communities such as Paramin, Lopinot, and Arima.

A new form of parang, soca parang, has emerged. Soca parang is a combination of soca and parang.

Tambor

Tambor can refer to:

Tambor, Costa Rica, a town in Costa Rica

Tambor Airport, an airport that serves Tambor, Costa Rica

El Tambor River, river in Guatemala

Jeffrey Tambor (born 1944), American actor

Tambor (dance), Afro-Venezuelan music and dance

Tambor (Tower), 1998 orchestral composition by Joan Tower

USS Tambor (SS-198), lead ship of her class of submarine

Wat Tambor, a Separatist leader in the prequel era of the Star Wars universe

Tambor Williams (born 1941), American politician

Tambor (dance)

Tambor is a coastal Afro-Venezuelan music and dance. It is a cultural manifestation originating in the slaves from Africa.

Tapipa

Tapipa is a town in the state of Miranda, Venezuela, in the Venezuelan Coastal Range near the Tuy River. It was founded on 20 January 1784 as a settlement for labourers on surrounding cacao plantations. The population of Tapipa is largely Afro-Venezuelan. The 1971 census recorded 891 inhabitants.

Venezuelan merengue

Merengue is a musical form extended through all the Caribbean. The first occurrences of merengue in print in Venezuela are from scores of “dance merengue” of the second half of the 19th century. As a dance craze, merengue acquired popularity in Caracas during the 1920s. It is distinct from the vastly more popular Dominican merengue. Although they share the same name, the rhythms have very little in common, except that they were commonly written for partner dancing.

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