Africa Star

The Africa Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom on 8 July 1943 for award to British and Commonwealth forces who served in North Africa between 10 June 1940 and 12 May 1943 during the Second World War.[1][2]

Three clasps were instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon: North Africa 1942–43, 8th Army and 1st Army.[1]

The Africa Star
WW2 Africa Star
Awarded to a South African, 314134 J.A. Jooste
Awarded by the Monarch of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
TypeMilitary campaign medal
EligibilityAll Ranks
Awarded forEntry into operational area
Campaign(s)North Africa 1940–1943
ClaspsNORTH AFRICA 1942–43
8th ARMY
1st ARMY
Statistics
Established8 July 1943
First awarded1943
Order of wear
Next (higher)Air Crew Europe Star
Next (lower)Pacific Star
Ribbon - Africa Star

Ribbon bar
Ribbon - Africa Star & Rosette
Ribbon - Africa Star & 8
Ribbon - Africa Star & 1

North Africa 1942–43, 8th Army and 1st Army insignia

The Second World War Stars

On 8 July 1943, the 1939–43 Star (later named the 1939–1945 Star) and the Africa Star became the first two campaign stars instituted, and by May 1945 a total of eight stars and nine clasps had been established by the United Kingdom to reward campaign service during the Second World War.[3] One more campaign star, the Arctic Star, and one more clasp, the Bomber Command Clasp, were belatedly added on 26 February 2013, more than sixty-seven years after the end of the war.[1][2][4]

Including the Arctic Star and the Bomber Command clasp, no-one could be awarded more than six campaign stars, with five of the ten clasps awarded denoting service that would have qualified for a second star. Only one clasp could be worn on any one campaign star. The maximum of six possible stars are the following:[1][4][3]

All recipients of campaign stars also received the War Medal.[14]

Institution

Between 10 June 1940 and 12 May 1943 British forces fought in North Africa against the Germans and Italians, who had control of large areas of Egypt, Libya and Tunisia and therefore threatened the Suez Canal and the approaching sea lanes. During the desert conflict the balance of power alternated between the two sides, until the remaining German forces surrendered at Tunis on 12 May 1943. Some historians consider the victory over the German forces in North Africa to have been the turning point in the war which led to the eventual defeat of Germany.[15]

The institution of the Africa Star was announced on 8 July 1943 and in August it was announced that the first uniform ribbon bars would be issued to qualifying personnel later in that year. The medals themselves were not intended to be available until after the cessation of hostilities. Some ribbon issues to overseas troops were delayed, but many had been received by the end of 1943.[2][16] By March 1944 1,500,000 personnel had received Africa Star ribbon bars, with further awards made by the end of the war.[17]

Three clasps were instituted: 'North Africa 1942–43', '8th Army' and '1st Army', of which only the first to be earned may be worn on the ribbon of the Africa Star.[10][18]

Award criteria

Medal

The Africa Star was awarded for a minimum of one day's service in an operational area of North Africa between 10 June 1940 and 12 May 1943. The operational area includes the whole of the area between the Suez Canal and the Strait of Gibraltar, together with Malta, Abyssinia, Kenya, the Sudan, both Somalilands and Eritrea. Areas not bordering on the Mediterranean only qualified for the Africa Star between 10 June 1940 and 27 November 1941 inclusive.[1][3]

  • Royal Navy and Merchant Navy personnel qualified for the award of the Africa Star through service in the Mediterranean between these two dates, or for service in the campaigns in Abyssinia, Somaliland and Eritrea between 10 June 1940 and 27 September 1941. Merchant Navy personnel also qualified with service in operations off the Moroccan coast between 8 November 1942 and 12 May 1943. For sea-going service there was no condition that the 1939-45 Star should already have been earned before the Africa Star could be awarded.[1][10]
  • Army personnel had to enter North Africa on the establishment of an operational unit, while service in Abyssinia, Sudan, Somaliland and Eritrea also qualified.[1]
  • Air Force personnel had to land in or have flown over any of the operational areas. The Africa Star was also awarded to crews of transport aircraft that flew over certain specified routes.[1][18]
  • Members of the Australian Imperial Force qualified for the award of the Africa Star for service in Syria between 8 June and 11 July 1941.[19]

Service in West Africa did not qualify for the award of the Africa Star.[1][10]

Clasps

Regulations issued in 1945 only allow one clasp, the first one qualified for, to be worn with the Africa Star. Despite this, both the 8th Army and 1st Army clasps were awarded to and worn by, inter alia, General Dwight Eisenhower and Field Marshal Harold Alexander.[3][20][21]

  • The North Africa 1942–43 Clasp was awarded for service with the 18th Army Group Headquarters between 15 February 1942 and 12 February 1943 inclusive, for Navy and Merchant Navy personnel in shore service, or for Air Force service in specified areas from 23 October 1942 to 12 May 1943 inclusive. In undress, a silver rosette worn on the ribbon bar denotes the award of this clasp.[3]
  • The 8th Army Clasp was awarded for service with the Eighth Army between 23 October 1942 and 12 May 1943 inclusive. An Arabic numeral "8" is worn on the ribbon bar in undress to denote the award of this clasp.[3]
  • The 1st Army Clasp was awarded for service with the First Army between 8 November 1942 and 12 May 1943 inclusive. An Arabic numeral "1" is worn on the ribbon bar in undress to denote the award of this clasp.[3]

Description

The set of nine campaign stars was designed by the Royal Mint engravers. The stars all have a ring suspender that passes through an eyelet formed above the uppermost point of the star. They are six–pointed stars, struck in yellow copper zinc alloy to fit into a 44 millimetres diameter circle, with a maximum width of 38 millimetres and 50 millimetres high from the bottom point of the star to the top of the eyelet.[18]

Obverse

The obverse has a central design of the Royal Cypher "GRI VI", surmounted by a crown. A circlet, the top of which is covered by the crown, surrounds the cypher and is inscribed "THE AFRICA STAR".[18]

Reverse

The reverse is plain.

Naming

The British Honours Committee decided that Second World War campaign medals awarded to British forces would be issued unnamed,[22] a policy applied by all but three British Commonwealth countries. The recipient's name was impressed on the reverse of the stars awarded to Indians, South Africans and, after a campaign led by veteran organisations, to Australians.[23] In the case of Indians, naming consisted of the recipient's force number, rank, initials, surname and service arm or corps, and in the case of South Africans of the force number, initials and surname, in block capitals.[1][18][24][25]

Clasps

North Africa 1942-43 Clasp
8th Army Clasp
1st Army Clasp

North Africa 1942-43 Clasp
8th Army Clasp
1st Army Clasp

All three clasps were struck in yellow copper zinc alloy and have a frame with an inside edge that resembles the perforated edge of a postage stamp. They are inscribed "NORTH AFRICA 1942–43", "8th ARMY" and "1st ARMY" respectively and were designed to be sewn onto the medal's ribbon. Regulations only allow one clasp, the first earned, to be worn with the Star. When the ribbon is worn alone, a silver Arabic numeral "8", numeral "1" or rosette is worn on the ribbon bar to denote the award of the respective clasp.[1][3][18]

Ribbon

The ribbon is 32 millimetres wide, with a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 1½ millimetres wide Navy blue band, a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 9 millimetres wide Army red band, a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 1½ millimetres wide Air Force blue band and a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band. The pale buff represents the sand of the Sahara Desert while the Royal Navy and Merchant Navy, the Armies and the Air Forces are represented by the dark blue, red and light blue bands respectively.[18]

The ribbons for this medal and the Defence Medal as well as those of the other Second World War campaign stars, with the exception of the Arctic Star, were devised by King George VI.[3][26]

Order of wear

The order of wear of the Second World War campaign stars was determined by their respective campaign start dates and by the campaign's duration. This is the order worn, even when a recipient qualified for them in a different order. The Defence Medal and War Medal are worn after the stars.[27] The Canadian Volunteer Service Medal is worn after the Defence Medal and before the War Medal, with other Commonwealth war medals worn after the War Medal.[27]

The Africa Star is therefore worn as shown:[27]

Air Crew Europe Star
Africa Star
Pacific Star

Air Crew Europe Star
Africa Star
Pacific Star

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Stephen Stratford Medals site: British Military & Criminal History, 1900 to 1999. 1939–45 Star (Access date 1 April 2015)
  2. ^ a b c War Service (Decorations) – Statement in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill on 3 August 1943 (HC Deb 03 August 1943 vol 391 cc2091-3) (Access date 9 April 2015)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Committee on the Grant of Honours, Decorations and Medals in Time of War (May 1945). "Campaign Stars and the Defence Medal (Regulations)". London: HM Stationery Office. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b c The National Archives – Ministry of Defence – Arctic Star and Bomber Command Clasp (Access date 1 April 2015)
  5. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The 1939–45 Star Eligibility Rules Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  6. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Atlantic Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 4 April 2015)
  7. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Air Crew Europe Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  8. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The France and Germany Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  9. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Arctic Star (Access date 12 April 2015)
  10. ^ a b c d e New Zealand Defence Force – The Africa Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  11. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Pacific Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 9 April 2015)
  12. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Burma Star Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  13. ^ a b New Zealand Defence Force – The Italy Star Eligibility Rules Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 12 April 2015)
  14. ^ Captain H. Taprell Dorling. Ribbons and Medals. pp. 97-98. Published A.H.Baldwin & Sons, London. 1956.
  15. ^ GOV.UK - Defence and armed forces – guidance - Medals: campaigns, descriptions and eligibility - Africa Star (Access date 9 April 2015)
  16. ^ Overseas Service (Recognition) - Statement in the House of Commons by Clement Attlee on 8 July 1943 (HC Deb 08 July 1943 vol 390 c2250)
  17. ^ "War decorations and medals – statement in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill on 22 March 1944". London: Hansard. 22 March 1944. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Extract from the Regulations: The Africa Star (Access date 8 October 2018)
  19. ^ Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. S134 dated 10 April 1995
  20. ^ The Churchill Society, London - As visible in Alexander's photograph on the Churchill Society website
  21. ^ As visible in a photograph of Field Marshal Alexander
  22. ^ Joslin, Litherland and Simpkin. British Battles and Medals. p. 246. Published by Spink, London. 1988.
  23. ^ A distinction almost denied: the naming of Australia's Second World War medals, Trevor Turner. Orders & Medals Research Society Journal, September 2018, pp 148-157
  24. ^ Memoirs - My Days With The I.A.F (1940-48) - V S C Bonarjee, IAS Archived 25 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 14 April 2015)
  25. ^ Rear Side of the Medals Archived 14 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 14 April 2015)
  26. ^ Forces War Records - Medals - 1939-1945 Star (Access date 2 April 2015)
  27. ^ a b c "No. 40204". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 June 1954. p. 3538.
  28. ^ Captain H. Taprell Dorling. Ribbons and Medals. p. 97. Published A.H.Baldwin & Sons, London. 1956.
  29. ^ New Zealand Defence Force - The Defence Medal Eligibility Rules Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 21 April 2015)
  30. ^ New Zealand Defence Force - The War Medal 1939-45 Eligibility Rules Archived 29 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Access date 22 April 2015)
1939–1945 Star

The 1939–1945 Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom on 8 July 1943 for award to British and Commonwealth forces for service in the Second World War. Two clasps were instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon, Battle of Britain and Bomber Command.

Africa Service Medal

The Africa Service Medal is a South African campaign medal for service during the Second World War, awarded to members of the Union Defence Forces, the South African Police and the South African Railways Police. The medal was originally intended for service in Africa, but it was later extended to cover service anywhere in the world.

Air Crew Europe Star

The Air Crew Europe Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British and Commonwealth air crews who participated in operational flights over Europe from bases in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.Two clasps were instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon: Atlantic and France and Germany.

Arctic Star

The Arctic Star is a military campaign medal instituted by the United Kingdom on 19 December 2012 for award to British Commonwealth forces who served on the Arctic Convoys north of the Arctic Circle, during the Second World War.

Atlantic Star

The Atlantic Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British Commonwealth forces who took part in the Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous campaign of the Second World War.Two clasps were instituted and could be worn on the medal ribbon, Air Crew Europe and France and Germany.

British campaign medals

British campaign medals are awarded to members of the British Armed Forces, Allied forces and civilians participating in specified military campaigns. Examples include the Defence Medal, for homeland defence in World War II, and the Atlantic Star for World War II sea service in the Atlantic.

Burma Star

The Burma Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British and Commonwealth forces who served in the Burma Campaign from 1941 to 1945, during the Second World War.One clasp, Pacific, was instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon.

Defence Medal (United Kingdom)

The Defence Medal is a campaign medal instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945, to be awarded to subjects of the British Commonwealth for both non-operational military and certain types of civilian war service during the Second World War.

France and Germany Star

The France and Germany Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British Commonwealth forces who served in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands or Germany and adjacent sea areas between 6 June 1944 and 8 May 1945, during the Second World War.One clasp, 'Atlantic', could be worn on the medal ribbon.

Goldie Harvey

Susan Oluwabimpe "Goldie" Filani Harvey (23 October 1981 – 14 February 2013) was a Nigerian professional singer and a Big Brother Africa star.

HMS Reaper (D82)

USS Winjah (CVE-54) (originally AVG-54, later ACV-54), was a Bogue-class escort carrier of the United States Navy, leased to the Royal Navy during World War II.

Winjah was laid down on 5 June 1943 at Tacoma, Washington, by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding. She was assigned to the United Kingdom under lend-lease on 23 June; she was redesignated CVE-54 on 15 July; launched on 22 November; and delivered to the British on 18 February 1944. From March to August 1945 she was part of the British Pacific Fleet attached to the 30th Aircraft Carrier Squadron.

Renamed HMS Reaper (D82), the carrier operated in the Royal Navy for the duration of World War II. After arriving at Norfolk, Virginia, on 13 May 1946, Reaper was decommissioned on 20 May and returned to the United States Government. Authorized for disposal on 14 June, Winjah was struck from the Navy Registry on 8 July and sold to the Waterman Steamship Company of Mobile, Alabama on 12 February 1947 as South Africa Star. She was scrapped in Nikara, Japan in May 1967.

Just after World War II, Reaper was responsible for bringing from Cherbourg harbour many examples of former German Luftwaffe aircraft captured by the American military's Operation Lusty over to North America, such as the sole examples of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance bomber, and the Heinkel He 219 night fighter, that exist in American aviation museums in the 21st century. The aircraft arrived by air from Germany to Querqueville Airfield which is under a kilometer away from Cherbourg.

Italy Star

The Italy Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British Commonwealth forces who served in the Italian Campaign from 1943 to 1945, during the Second World War.

Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo Temple

The Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo Temple is a temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The intent to construct the temple was announced by church president Thomas S. Monson on 1 October 2011. The temple was announced concurrently with the Barranquilla Colombia, Durban South Africa, Star Valley Wyoming, and Provo City Center temples. When announced, this increased the total number of temples worldwide to 166.

A groundbreaking ceremony, to signify the beginning of construction, took place on 12 February 2016, with Neil L. Andersen presiding. A public open house is scheduled for March 2019. The lead negotiator for the temple, both with the government and with local subcontractors, has been Norman Kamosi, a former Air Congo executive and member of the Congolese Parliament. Kamosi joined the LDS Church in Washington DC, after having fled there when Kabile came to power.Following a public open house when the construction was completed, the temple was dedicated on April 14, 2019 by Dale G. Renlund and is the fourth operating temple in Africa.The temple is a single-story building with a concrete and fill structure and a steel superstructure. Unlike most other temples, the building is not topped with a statue of the Angel Moroni, although the building is designed to support one if added later. The temple is built on a 10-acre site that it shares with other existing buildings owned by the LDS Church.

List of military awards of World War II

Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants.

The following is from the article World War II, removed from that article for clarity, and represents an incomplete list of some of the awards.

List of universities in Burundi

This is a list of universities in Burundi.

Pacific Star

The Pacific Star is a military campaign medal instituted by the United Kingdom in May 1945 for award to British and Commonwealth forces who served in the Pacific Campaign from 1941 to 1945, during the Second World War.One clasp, Burma, was instituted to be worn on the medal ribbon.

Saturn Award for Best Animated Film

The Saturn Award for Best Animated Film (formerly Saturn Award for Best Animation) is one of the annual awards given by the American professionnel organization, the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. The Saturn Awards, which are the oldest film-specialized awards to reward science fiction, fantasy, and horror achievements (the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, awarded by the World Science Fiction Society who reward science fiction and fantasy in various media, is the oldest award for science fiction and fantasy films), included the Best Animated Film category for the first time only in 1978, was revived in 1982, and still currently reactivated since 2002.

It is one of the older awards to reward animated films. This award has been achieved sixteen times, including nine times to Pixar films.

Umrao Singh

Captain Umrao Singh Yadav VC (21 November 1920 – 21 November 2005) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the only non-commissioned officer in the Royal Artillery or the Royal Indian Artillery to be awarded the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, and the last survivor of only 40 Indian soldiers to be awarded the VC between 1912, when Indians first became eligible to be awarded the VC, to Indian independence in 1947.

War Medal 1939–1945

The War Medal 1939–1945 is a campaign medal which was instituted by the United Kingdom on 16 August 1945, for award to subjects of the British Commonwealth who had served full-time in the Armed Forces or the Merchant Navy for at least 28 days between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945.

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