Location in Eritrea
|Region||Northern Red Sea|
was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1988th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 988th year of the 2nd millennium, the 88th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1980s decade.
In the 20th century, the year 1988 has the most Roman numeral digits (11).
1988 was a crucial year in the early history of the Internet—it was the year of the first well-known computer virus, the 1988 Internet worm. The first permanent intercontinental Internet link was made between the United States (NSFNET) and Europe (Nordunet) as well as the first Internet-based chat protocol, Internet Relay Chat. The concept of the World Wide Web was first discussed at CERN in 1988.The Soviet Union began its major restructuring towards a mixed economy at the beginning of 1988 and began its gradual dissolution. The Iron Curtain began to disintegrate in 1988 as Hungary began allowing freer travel to the West. The first extrasolar planet, Gamma Cephei Ab (confirmed in 2002) was detected this year and the World Health Organization began its mission to eradicate polio.Afabet Subregion
Afabet Subregion is a subregion in the Northern Red Sea (Zoba Semienawi Keyih Bahri) region of Eritrea. Its capital lies at Afabet.Battle of Afabet
The Battle of Afabet was fought from March 17 through 20 March 1988 in and around the town of Afabet, as part of the Eritrean War of Independence.Eritrean People's Liberation Front
The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Tigrinya: ህዝባዊ ግንባር, ህግ, Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير إريتريا) was an armed Marxist organization that fought for the independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia. It emerged in 1970 as an intellectual left-wing group that split from the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). After achieving Eritrean independence in 1991, it transformed into the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which serves as Eritrea's only legal political organisation.Eritrean War of Independence
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists from September 1961 to May 1991.
Eritrea was claimed by the Ethiopian Empire from 1941 after Eritrea was liberated from Italy's occupation as part of Italian East Africa during World War II. Ethiopia and some of the predominantly Christian part of Eritrea advocated for union with Ethiopia, while the predominantly Muslim and other areas of Eritrea wanted a separate Eritrean state. The United Nations General Assembly in an effort to satisfy both sides decided to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia in 1950, and Eritrea became a constituent state of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea in 1952. Eritrea's declining autonomy and growing discontent with Ethiopian rule caused an independence movement led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1961, leading Ethiopia to dissolve the federation and annex Eritrea the next year.
Following the Ethiopian Revolution in 1974, the Derg abolished the Ethiopian Empire and established a Marxist-Leninist communist state, bringing the Eritrean War of Independence into the Ethiopian Civil War and Cold War conflicts. The Derg enjoyed support from the Soviet Union, Cuba, and other Second World nations in fighting against Eritrean separatists supported by the United States and various other nations.
The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) became the main separatist group in 1977, expelling the ELF from Eritrea, then exploiting the Ogaden War to launch a war of attrition against Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government under the Workers Party of Ethiopia lost Soviet support at the end of the 1980s and were overwhelmed by Eritrean separatists and Ethiopian anti-government groups, allowing the EPLF to defeat Ethiopian forces in Eritrea in May 1991.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), with the help of the EPLF, defeated the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) when it took control of the capital Addis Ababa a month later. In April 1993, the Eritrean people voted almost unanimously in favour of independence in the Ethiopia-supported Eritrean independence referendum, with formal international recognition of an independent, sovereign Eritrea later the same year.Halhal, Eritrea
Halhal (Arabic: حلحل), also spelled Hal-Hal, is a town in the Anseba region (Zoba Anseba) of Eritrea. It is the capital of the Halhal subregion, and is sometimes known as Fisho (from Italian officiale) to distinguish it from the subregion as a whole. It is chiefly populated by the Bet Tawqe subtribe of the Bilen people.
The president of halhal is Ahmed Mussa
The town and surrounding area saw intense fighting during the Eritrean War of Independence. In 1968, the Ethiopian Army commando post there was attacked by Omer Ezaz of the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF); Ezaz and about 70 of his soldiers were killed. The town was later taken by the ELF, and was controlled by the ELF from 1970 to 1981, when as a result of the Second Eritrean Civil War, control passed to the Eritrean People's Liberation Front. From 1983 to Eritrean independence in 1991, the town was controlled by the Ethiopian Army, except for a brief period of EPLF control in the spring of 1988 following the Battle of Afabet.List of cities in Eritrea
This is a list of cities and towns in Eritrea by population. It includes all settlements with a population of over 5,000.List of conflicts in Eritrea
This is a list of conflicts in Eritrea arranged chronologically from the early modern period to the present day. This list includes: colonial wars, wars of independence, revolutions, civil wars, riots, massacres, terrorist attacks, and any battles that occurred within the territory of what is today known as the, "State of Eritrea" but were themselves only part of a theater of a world war.List of massacres committed during the Eritrean War of Independence
The Eritrean War of Independence was fought as a guerrilla campaign by two main Eritrean liberation fronts, first by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) and then, after the Eritrean Civil War, by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) against the Imperial Army of the Ethiopian Empire, and later by the Marxist Derg. This asymmetrical campaign against Ethiopian control left the Army at a disadvantage and so it embarked on a policy of destroying Eritrean villages. It was hoped that this would prevent the separatists from continuing their campaign. Listed below are some of the major civilian massacres committed by both the Ethiopian Empire and the Derg.March 17
March 17 is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 289 days remaining until the end of the year.March 20
March 20 is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 286 days remaining until the end of the year. Typically the March equinox falls on this date, marking the vernal point in the Northern Hemisphere and the autumnal point in the Southern Hemisphere.Nakfa, Eritrea
Nakfa (Arabic: نقفة, Tigrinya: ናቕፋ, IPA: [naxʼfa]) is a town in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea. It is also the name of a sub region of Eritrea.Northern Red Sea Region
The Northern Red Sea Region (Tigrinya: ዞባ ሰሜናዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ) of Eritrea is one of the country's six regions. It lies along the northern three quarters of the Red Sea, and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and the coastal city of Massawa.
As of 2005, the region had a population of 653,300 compared to a population of 576,200 in 2001. The net growth rate was 11.80 per cent. The total area of the province was 27800.00 km2 and the density was 23.50 persons per km2.
The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) (originally Eritrean Liberation Front), social justice based government, rules the country and the region. The regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ.Public holidays in Eritrea
There are approximately sixteen nationally recognized public holidays in Eritrea, a country in the Horn of Africa. The primary national holiday is Independence Day (24/05), Martyrs Day (20/06), Revolution Day (September 1st - 01/09). Other commemorative public holidays include Fenkil Day -- commemorating the Battle of Massawa (February 10 - 10/02) and Afabet Day -- commemorating the Battle of Afabet (20/03). Additional holidays follow the calendar of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the two holy Eids ( Eid Aladaha and Eid Al-Fatir Muslim holidays are observed as public holidays in Eritrea.Regions of Eritrea
The regions of Eritrea are the primary geographical divisions through which Eritrea is administered. Six in total, they include the Maekel/Central, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Debub/Southern, Northern Red Sea and Southern Red Sea regions.
At the time of independence in 1993 Eritrea was arranged into ten provinces. These provinces were similar to the nine provinces operating during the colonial period. In 1996, these were consolidated into six regions (zobas). Gash-Barka Region was the largest and the most densely populated region and is called the "bread-basket".
The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) (originally Eritrean People's Liberation Front), an authoritarian government, rules the country and the region. The regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ.Shire Inda Selassie
Shire (ሺረ), also known as Inda Selassie (እንዳ ሥላሴ, Tigrinya "House of the Trinity"), is a town and separate woreda in Tigray, Ethiopia. The administrative center of the Semien Mi'irabawi Zone of the Tigray region, this town has a latitude and longitude of 14°6′N 38°17′E with an altitude of 1953 meters above sea level. It was part of Tahtay Koraro woreda.Subregions of Eritrea
The six regions of Eritrea are divided into administrative subregions.Telecommunications in Eritrea
Telecommunications in Eritrea are under the authority of the Government of Eritrea.