Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.[1] "Aerobic" means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen",[2] and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism.[3] Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.[1]

When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking.

Aerobic exercise - public demonstration07
Cardio and muscle endurance

History

British physiologist Archibald Hill introduced the concepts of maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen debt in 1922.[4][5] Hill and German physician Otto Meyerhof shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work related to muscle energy metabolism.[6] Building on this work, scientists began measuring oxygen consumption during exercise. Notable contributions were made by Henry Taylor at the University of Minnesota, Scandinavian scientists Per-Olof Åstrand and Bengt Saltin in the 1950s and 60s, the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, German universities, and the Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre among others.[7][8]

After World War II, non-organized, individualistic, health-oriented physical and recreational activities such as jogging began to become popular.[9] The Royal Canadian Air Force Exercise Plans developed by Bill Orban and published in 1961 helped to launch modern fitness culture.[10][11] There was a running boom in the 1970s inspired by the Olympics.[12]

Dr. Kenneth Cooper and Col. Pauline Potts, a physical therapist, both of the United States Air Force advocated the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine. He conducted the first extensive research on aerobic exercise on over 5,000 U.S. Air Force personnel[13][14] after becoming intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one's health. Cooper published his ideas in a 1968 book "Aerobics". In 1970 he created his own institute (the Cooper Institute) for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine and published a mass-market version of his book "The New Aerobics" in 1979. Cooper encouraged millions into becoming active and is now known as the "father of aerobics".[15][16] Aerobics developed as an exercise form in the 1970s and became popular worldwide in the 1980s after the release of Jane Fonda's exercise videos in 1982.[17][18]

Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise

Exercise zones Fox and Haskell
Fox and Haskell formula showing the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate

Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle.[19]

New research on the endocrine functions of contracting muscles has shown that both aerobic and anaerobic exercise promote the secretion of myokines, with attendant benefits including growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases. Myokine secretion in turn is dependent on the amount of muscle contracted, and the duration and intensity of contraction. As such, both types of exercise produce endocrine benefits.[20]

In almost all conditions, anaerobic exercise is accompanied by aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system's capacity. What is generally called aerobic exercise might be better termed "solely aerobic", because it is designed to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that all carbohydrate is aerobically turned into energy.

Initially during increased exertion, muscle glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, which undergoes glycolysis producing pyruvate which then reacts with oxygen (Krebs cycle, Chemiosmosis) to produce carbon dioxide and water and releases energy. If there is a shortage of oxygen (anaerobic exercise, explosive movements), carbohydrate is consumed more rapidly because the pyruvate ferments into lactate. If the intensity of the exercise exceeds the rate with which the cardiovascular system can supply muscles with oxygen, it results in buildup of lactate and quickly makes it impossible to continue the exercise. Unpleasant effects of lactate buildup initially include the burning sensation in the muscles, and may eventually include nausea and even vomiting if the exercise is continued without allowing lactate to clear from the bloodstream.

As glycogen levels in the muscle begin to fall, glucose is released into the bloodstream by the liver, and fat metabolism is increased so that it can fuel the aerobic pathways. Aerobic exercise may be fueled by glycogen reserves, fat reserves, or a combination of both, depending on the intensity. Prolonged moderate-level aerobic exercise at 65% VO2 max (the heart rate of 150 bpm for a 30-year-old human) results in the maximum contribution of fat to the total energy expenditure. At this level, fat may contribute 40% to 60% of total, depending on the duration of the exercise. Vigorous exercise above 75% VO2max (160 bpm) primarily burns glycogen.[21][22]

Major muscles in a rested, untrained human typically contain enough energy for about 2 hours of vigorous exercise. Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call "hitting the wall". Training, lower intensity levels, and carbohydrate loading may allow postponement of the onset of exhaustion beyond 4 hours.[22]

Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a moderate pace is an aerobic exercise, but sprinting is not. Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic. Some sports are thus inherently "aerobic", while other aerobic exercises, such as fartlek training or aerobic dance classes, are designed specifically to improve aerobic capacity and fitness. It is most common for aerobic exercises to involve the leg muscles, primarily or exclusively. There are some exceptions. For example, rowing to distances of 2,000 m or more is an aerobic sport that exercises several major muscle groups, including those of the legs, abdominals, chest, and arms. Common kettlebell exercises combine aerobic and anaerobic aspects.

Benefits

Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are:[23]

  • Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs
  • Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning
  • Improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure
  • Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen
  • Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression, as well as increased cognitive capacity.[24]
  • Reducing the risk for diabetes. One meta-analysis has shown, from multiple conducted studies, that aerobic exercise does help lower Hb A1Clevels for type 2 diabetics.[25]

As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women.

In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance benefits:

Some drawbacks of aerobic exercise include:

  • Overuse injuries because of repetitive, high-impact exercise such as distance running
  • Is not an effective approach to building muscle
  • Effective for fat loss only when used consistently

Both the health benefits and the performance benefits, or "training effect", require a minimum duration and frequency of exercise. Most authorities suggest at least twenty minutes performed at least three times per week.[26]

Cooper himself defines aerobic exercise as the ability to use the maximum amount of oxygen during exhaustive work. Cooper describes some of the major health benefits of aerobic exercise, such as gaining more efficient lungs by maximising breathing capacity, thereby increasing ability to ventilate more air in a shorter period of time. As breathing capacity increases, one is able to extract oxygen more quickly into the blood stream, increasing elimination of carbon dioxide. With aerobic exercise the heart becomes more efficient at functioning, and blood volume, hemoglobin and red blood cells increase, enhancing the ability of the body to transport oxygen from the lungs into the blood and muscles. Metabolism will change and enable consumption of more calories without putting on weight. Aerobic exercise can delay osteoporosis as there is an increase in muscle mass, a loss of fat and an increase in bone density. With these variables increasing, there is a decrease in likelihood of diabetes as muscles use sugars better than fat. One of the major benefits of aerobic exercise is that body weight may decrease slowly; it will only decrease at a rapid pace if there is a calorie restriction, therefore reducing obesity rates.[27]

Aerobic exercise in the gym
Aerobic workout

Aerobic capacity

Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the heart, lungs and blood vessels). Aerobic capacity refers to the maximum amount of oxygen consumed by the body during intense exercises, in a given time frame.[28] It is a function both of cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and use oxygen from circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion. The individual is typically connected to a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption, and the speed is increased incrementally over a fixed duration of time. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply put, the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness. The Cooper and multi-stage fitness tests can also be used to assess functional aerobic capacity for particular jobs or activities.

The degree to which aerobic capacity can be improved by exercise varies very widely in the human population: while the average response to training is an approximately 17% increase in VO2max, in any population there are "high responders" who may as much as double their capacity, and "low responders" who will see little or no benefit from training.[29] Studies indicate that approximately 10% of otherwise healthy individuals cannot improve their aerobic capacity with exercise at all.[30] The degree of an individual's responsiveness is highly heritable, suggesting that this trait is genetically determined.[29]

Obesity table
Obesity Table

Alternatives

Higher intensity exercise, such as High-intensity interval training (HIIT), increases the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the 24 hours following high intensity exercise,[31] ultimately burning more calories than lower intensity exercise; low intensity exercise burns more calories during the exercise, due to the increased duration, but fewer afterwards.

Commercial success

Aerobic exercise has long been a popular approach to achieving weight loss and physical fitness, often taking a commercial form.

  • In the 1970s Judi Sheppard Missett helped create the market for commercial aerobics with her Jazzercise program
  • In the 1980s Richard Simmons hosted an aerobic exercise show on television, and also released a series of exercise videos
  • In the 1990s Billy Blanks's Tae Bo helped popularize cardio-boxing workouts that incorporated martial arts movements

Varieties

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor or outdoor

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Sharon A. Plowman; Denise L. Smith (1 June 2007). Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7817-8406-1. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  2. ^ Kenneth H. Cooper (1997). Can stress heal?. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7852-8315-7. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  3. ^ William D. McArdle; Frank I. Katch; Victor L. Katch (2006). Essentials of exercise physiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-7817-4991-6. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  4. ^ Hale, Tudor (2008-02-15). "History of developments in sport and exercise physiology: A. V. Hill, maximal oxygen uptake, and oxygen debt". Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (4): 365–400. doi:10.1080/02640410701701016. ISSN 0264-0414. PMID 18228167.
  5. ^ Bassett, D. R.; Howley, E. T. (1997). "Maximal oxygen uptake: "classical" versus "contemporary" viewpoints". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29 (5): 591–603. ISSN 0195-9131. PMID 9140894.
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  7. ^ Seiler, Stephen (2011). "A Brief History of Endurance Testing in Athletes" (PDF). SportScience. 15 (5).
  8. ^ "History of Exercise Physiology". Human Kinetics Europe. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  9. ^ Fit Bodies. Fitness Culture and Gym Sassatelli, Roberta. 2006.
  10. ^ KRUCOFF, CAROL (1998-06-22). "Going Back to the Basics With Calisthenics". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  11. ^ "Five basic exercises for fitness in 1961". CBC Archives. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  12. ^ Stracher, Cameron. "Running on Empty: An American Sports Tradition Fades". Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  13. ^ Cooper, Kenneth H. (1983) [1968]. Aerobics (revised, reissue ed.). Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0553274479.
  14. ^ Netburn, Deborah (March 30, 2009), "Dr. Kenneth Cooper got a nation moving through aerobics", Los Angeles Times
  15. ^ ""Father of Aerobics" Kenneth Cooper, MD, MPH to receive Healthy Cup Award from Harvard School of Public Health". News. 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  16. ^ "Dr. Kenneth Cooper and How He Became Known as the Father of Aerobics". Club Industry. 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  17. ^ "(PDF) The Fitness Revolution. Historical Transformations in a Global Gym and Fitness Culture". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  18. ^ Stern, Marc (2008). "The Fitness Movement and the Fitness Center Industry, 1960-2000" (PDF). Business and Economic History On-line. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  19. ^ Wayne, Jake (14 June 2011). "Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Fitness". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  20. ^ Muscle as a secretory organ. Pedersen BK. American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1337-1362, 2013. http://www.inflammation-metabolism.dk/index.php?pageid=21&pmid=23897689
  21. ^ "Fat vs. carbohydrate metabolism during aerobic exercise".
  22. ^ a b Matthew J Watt; et al. (June 2002). "Intramuscular triacylglycerol, glycogen and acetyl group metabolism during 4 h of moderate exercise in man". J Physiol. 541 (Pt 3): 969–78. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.018820. PMC 2290362. PMID 12068055.
  23. ^ "Aerobic exercise: the health benefits". myDr. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  24. ^ "Cardiovascular fitness is linked to intelligence".
  25. ^ Snowling, N. J., & Hopkins, W. G. (2006). Effects of Different Modes of Exercise Training on Glucose Control and Risk Factors for Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Patients A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 29(11), 518–2527. http://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1317
  26. ^ 'aerobic exercise', Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise, Michael Kent, Oxford University Press, 1997.
  27. ^ Cooper, Kenneth H. (2010). "The Benefits Of Exercise In Promoting Long And Healthy Lives – My Observations". Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal. 6 (4): 10–12. doi:10.14797/mdcj-6-4-10.
  28. ^ Hebestreit, Helge; Bar-Or, Oded (2008). The Young Athlete. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 443. ISBN 978-1-4051-5647-9. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  29. ^ a b Bouchard, Claude; Ping An; Treva Rice; James S. Skinner; Jack H. Wilmore; Jacques Gagnon; Louis Perusse; Arthus S. Leon; D. C. Rao (1 September 1999). "Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study". Journal of Applied Physiology. 87 (3): 1003–1008. doi:10.1152/jappl.1999.87.3.1003. PMID 10484570. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
  30. ^ Kolata, Gina (February 12, 2002). "Why Some People Won't Be Fit Despite Exercise". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
  31. ^ East Tennessee State University Thesis Archived March 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

References

  • Cooper, Kenneth C. The New Aerobics. Eldora, Iowa: Prairie Wind.
  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.
  • Hinkle, J. Scott. School Children and Fitness: Aerobics for Life. Ann Arbor, MI: ERIC
  • Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services.
  • Aberg MA, Pedersen NL, Torén K, Svartengren M, Bäckstrand B, Johnsson T, Cooper-Kuhn CM, Aberg ND, Nilsson M, & Kuhn HG. (2009) Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
  • Guiney, Hayley & Machado, Liana. Benefits of regular exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 2013.
  • Rendi, Maria, Szabo, Atila, Szabo, Tomas, Velenczei, Attila & Kovas, Arpad. Acute psychological benefits of aerobic exercise: A field study into the effects of exercise characteristics. Psychol, Health. Med. 2008.
Aerobic

Aerobic means "requiring air," in which "air" usually means oxygen.

Aerobic may also refer to

Aerobic exercise, prolonged exercise of moderate intensity

Aerobics, a form of aerobic exercise

Aerobic respiration, the aerobic process of cellular respiration

Aerobic organism, a living thing with an oxygen-based metabolism

Aerobics

Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. A well-balanced aerobics class will have five components: warm-up (5–10 minutes), cardio vascular conditioning (25–30 minutes), muscular strength and conditioning (10–15 minutes), cool-down (5–8 minutes) and stretching and flexibility (5–8 minutes). Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class.

Anaerobic exercise

Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.

Burpee (exercise)

The burpee, or squat thrust, is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise. The basic movement is performed in four steps and known as a "four-count burpee":

Begin in a standing position.

Move into a squat position with your hands on the ground. (count 1)

Kick your feet back into a plank position, while keeping your arms extended. (count 2)

Immediately return your feet into squat position. (count 3)

Stand up from the squat position (count 4)

Cardiovascular fitness

Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues, and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity. A person's ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles is affected by many physiological parameters, including heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and maximal oxygen consumption.

Understanding the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and other categories of conditioning requires a review of changes that occur with increased aerobic, or anaerobic capacity. As aerobic/anaerobic capacity increases, general metabolism rises, muscle metabolism is enhanced, haemoglobin rises, buffers in the bloodstream increase, venous return is improved, stroke volume is improved, and the blood bed becomes more able to adapt readily to varying demands. Each of these results of cardiovascular fitness/cardiorespiratory conditioning will have a direct positive effect on muscular endurance, and an indirect effect on strength and flexibility.

To facilitate optimal delivery of oxygen to the working muscles, the person needs to train or participate in activities that will build up the energy stores needed for sport. This is referred to as metabolic training. Metabolic training is generally divided into two types: aerobic and anaerobic. A 2005 Cochrane review demonstrated that physical activity interventions are effective for increasing cardiovascular fitness.

Dirty dog exercise

Dirty dog exercise or hip side lifts or fire hydrant exercise is an exercise that is meant to strengthen the hips and buttocks, without the use of weights. It is so named due to resemblance to the way a dog urinates.

The exercise also improves core stability.

Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento = interior, rhino = nose, entorhinal = interior to the rhinal sulcus) is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory, navigation and the perception of time. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex. The EC-hippocampus system plays an important role in declarative (autobiographical/episodic/semantic) memories and in particular spatial memories including memory formation, memory consolidation, and memory optimization in sleep. The EC is also responsible for the pre-processing (familiarity) of the input signals in the reflex nictitating membrane response of classical trace conditioning, the association of impulses from the eye and the ear occurs in the entorhinal cortex.

Fartlek

Fartlek, which means "speed play" in Swedish, is continuous training with interval training. Fartlek runs are a very simple form of a long distance run. Fartlek training “is simply defined as periods of fast running intermixed with periods of slower running." For some people, this could be a mix of jogging and sprinting, but for beginners it could be walking with jogging sections added in when possible. A simple example of what a runner would do during a fartlek run is “sprint all out from one light pole to the next, jog to the corner, give a medium effort for a couple of blocks, jog between four light poles and sprint to a stop sign, and so on, for a set total time or distance." The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It differs from traditional interval training in that it is unstructured; intensity and/or speed varies, as the athlete wishes. Fartlek training is generally associated with running, but can include almost any kind of exercise.

Interval training

Interval training is a type of training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity. Varying the intensity of effort exercises the heart muscle, providing a cardiovascular workout, improving aerobic capacity and permitting the person to exercise for longer and/or at more intense levels.Interval training can refer to the organization of any cardiovascular workout (e.g., cycling, running, rowing). It is prominent in training routines for many sports, but is particularly employed by runners.

Jogging

Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running but more than walking, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time. Performed over long distances, it is a form of aerobic endurance training.

Jumping jack

A jumping jack (Canada & US) or star jump (UK and other Commonwealth nations), also called side-straddle hop in the US military, is a physical jumping exercise performed by jumping to a position with the legs spread wide and the hands touching overhead, sometimes in a clap, and then returning to a position with the feet together and the arms at the sides.

The name origin for the jumping jack exercise has sometimes erroneously been identified as World War I U.S. General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing, who is said to have developed the exercise, but in fact the name comes from the jumping jack children's toy, which makes similar arm swing and leg splay motions when the strings are tugged.

"Star jump" refers to the person's appearance with legs and arms spread.

Neurobiological effects of physical exercise

The neurobiological effects of physical exercise are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition. A large body of research in humans has demonstrated that consistent aerobic exercise (e.g., 30 minutes every day) induces persistent improvements in certain cognitive functions, healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. The effects of exercise on cognition have important implications for improving academic performance in children and college students, improving adult productivity, preserving cognitive function in old age, preventing or treating certain neurological disorders, and improving overall quality of life.In healthy adults, aerobic exercise has been shown to induce transient effects on cognition after a single exercise session and persistent effects on cognition following regular exercise over the course of several months. People who regularly perform aerobic exercise (e.g., running, jogging, brisk walking, swimming, and cycling) have greater scores on neuropsychological function and performance tests that measure certain cognitive functions, such as attentional control, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory updating and capacity, declarative memory, spatial memory, and information processing speed. The transient effects of exercise on cognition include improvements in most executive functions (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, problem solving, and decision making) and information processing speed for a period of up to 2 hours after exercising.Aerobic exercise induces short- and long-term effects on mood and emotional states by promoting positive affect, inhibiting negative affect, and decreasing the biological response to acute psychological stress. Over the short-term, aerobic exercise functions as both an antidepressant and euphoriant, whereas consistent exercise produces general improvements in mood and self-esteem.Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an adjunct therapy for these disorders. There is clear evidence of exercise treatment efficacy for major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The American Academy of Neurology's clinical practice guideline for mild cognitive impairment indicates that clinicians should recommend regular exercise (two times per week) to individuals who have been diagnosed with this condition. Reviews of clinical evidence also support the use of exercise as an adjunct therapy for certain neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson's disease. Regular exercise is also associated with a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. A large body of preclinical evidence and emerging clinical evidence supports the use of exercise therapy for treating and preventing the development of drug addictions. Regular exercise has also been proposed as an adjunct therapy for brain cancers.

No pain, no gain

No pain, no gain (or "No gain without pain") is an exercise motto that promises greater value rewards for the price of hard and even painful work. Under this conception competitive professionals, such as athletes and artists, are required to endure pain (physical suffering) and stress (mental/emotional suffering) to achieve professional excellence.

Outline of exercise

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise:

Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Pelvic lift

Pelvic lift (also known as pelvic tilt) is an exercise to strengthen the lower back, glute muscles, lower abdominal muscles, and maintain hip muscle balance. It does not require weights, although they can be placed on the stomach.

Sit-up

The sit-up (or curl-up) is an abdominal endurance training exercise to strengthen and tone the abdominal muscles. It is similar to a crunch (crunches target the rectus abdominis and also work the external and internal obliques), but sit-ups have a fuller range of motion and condition additional muscles.

Skipping rope

A skipping rope (British English) or jump rope (American English) is a tool used in the sport of skipping/jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads. There are multiple subsets of skipping/jump rope including: single freestyle, single speed, pairs, three person speed (double dutch), and three person freestyle (double dutch freestyle). The events are often separated by sex and age. There are hundreds of competitive teams all around the world. There are a few major organisations that support jump rope as a sport as seen below, schools rarely have jump rope teams, and states do not sanction official events for high school or elementary school. In freestyle events, jumpers use a variety of basic and advanced techniques in a routine of one minute, which is judged by a head judge, content judges, and performance judges. In speed events, a jumper alternates their feet with the rope going around the jumper every time one of their feet hit the ground for 30 seconds, one minute, or three minutes. The jumper is judged on the number of times the right foot touches the ground in those times.

Water aerobics

Water aerobics (waterobics, aquatic fitness, aquafitness, aquafit) is the performance of aerobic exercise in fairly shallow water such as in a swimming pool. Done mostly vertically and without swimming typically in waist deep or deeper water, it is a type of resistance training. Water aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that requires water-immersed participants. Most water aerobics is in a group fitness class setting with a trained professional teaching for about an hour. The classes focus on aerobic endurance, resistance training, and creating an enjoyable atmosphere with music. Different forms of water aerobics include: aqua Zumba, water yoga, aqua aerobics, and aqua jog.

Zumba

Zumba is an exercise fitness program created by Colombian dancer and choreographer Alberto "Beto" Perez during the 1990s. Zumba involves dance and aerobic movements performed to energetic music. The choreography incorporates hip-hop, soca, samba, salsa, merengue and mambo. Squats and lunges are also included.The Zumba trademark is owned by Zumba Fitness, LLC, which does not charge licensing fees to gyms or fitness centers. Approximately 15 million people take weekly Zumba classes in over 200,000 locations across 180 countries. The Brazilian pop singer Claudia Leitte is the international ambassador for Zumba Fitness.

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