Aeolis

Aeolis (Ancient Greek: Αἰολίς, Aiolís), or Aeolia (/iːˈoʊliə/; Αἰολία, Aiolía), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia, which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south and Lydia to the east.

Ancient Region of Anatolia
Aeolis (Αἰολίς)
Aeolian city of Smyrna
Location Western Anatolia
State existed: 8th-6th centuries BC (as Dodecapolis)
Language Aeolic Greek
Biggest city Smyrna
Roman province Asia
Asia Minor in the Greco-Roman period - general map - regions and main settlements
Map of Asia Minor/Anatolia in the Greco-Roman period.

Geography

Aeolis was an ancient district on the western coast of Asia Minor. It extended along the Aegean Sea from the entrance of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) south to the Hermus River (now the Gediz River). It was named for the Aeolians, some of whom migrated there from Greece before 1000 BC. Aeolis was, however, an ethnological and linguistic enclave rather than a geographical unit. The district often was considered part of the larger northwest region of Mysia.

History

Western Asia Minor Greek Colonization
Greek settlements in western Asia Minor, Aeolian area in dark red.

According to Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the floating island of Aeolia, where Aeolus son of Hippotas provided him with the west wind Zephyr.[1]

Aeolis Kyme Tetradrachm
Aeolis, Kyme; Tetradrachm; Silver; circa 165-140 BC; Obverse: Head of the Amazon Kyme right, wearing taenia; Reverse: Horse walking right, skyphos (one handled cup) below, ΚΥΜΑΙΩΝ left, ΣΕΥΘΗΣ (magistrate) in exergue, all within laurel-wreath; 34.2mm, 16.409g; Reference: SNG Von Aulock 1640; Oakley obv. die 59; Sg4183 var

By the 8th century BC the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent. They formed a league of twelve cities (a Dodecapolis): Cyme (also called Phriconis); Larissa; Neonteichos; Temnus; Cilla; Notion; Aegiroessa; Pitane; Aegae; Myrina; Gryneion; and Smyrna.[2]

The most celebrated of the cities was Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey), but in 699 BC, Smyrna became part of an Ionian confederacy. This league or confederation, known as the Ionian League, also called the Panionic League, was formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC.[3]

Croesus, king of Lydia (reigned 560-546 BC), conquered the remaining cities. Later they were held successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes.[4]

Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to the Roman Republic in 133 BC. Shortly afterwards it became part of the Roman province of Asia. At the partition of the Roman Empire (395 AD), Aeolis was assigned to the East Roman (Byzantine) empire and remained largely under Byzantine rule until the early 15th century, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.[5]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0218:book=10:card=1 - "Thence we went on to the Aeolian island where lives Aeolus son of Hippotas, dear to the immortal gods. It is an island that floats (as it were) upon the sea, iron bound with a wall that girds it."
  2. ^ Herodotus. The Histories: 1.149. Compare Ionian League.
  3. ^ Editors (2005). "Recent Finds in Archaeology: Panionion Sanctuary Discovered in Southwest Turkey". Athena Review. 4 (2): 10–11. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  4. ^ Each of the cities minted coins of its own, using different gods, animals and objects as identifying city badges. See asiaminorcoins.com - ancient coins of Aeolis
  5. ^ Smyrna fell to the Seljuk Turk Tzachas in 1076, to the Turkish Beylik of Aydın about 1330 and to the Turco-Mongol Timur in 1402 (after the Siege of Smyrna).

References

  • Pierluigi Bonanno, Aiolis. Storia e archeologia di una regione dell’Asia Minore alla fine del II millennio a.C., USA, 2006

Coordinates: 39°12′N 26°42′E / 39.2°N 26.7°E

Aeolis Mensae

Aeolis Mensae is tableland feature in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars. Its location is centered at 2.9° south latitude and 219.6° west longitude. It is 820 kilometres (510 mi) long and was named after a classical albedo feature name.

Aeolis Palus

Aeolis Palus is a plain between the northern wall of Gale crater and the northern foothills of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp) on Mars. It is located at 4.47°S 137.42°E / -4.47; 137.42.The NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission landed the Curiosity rover on Aeolis Palus in August 2012. Curiosity spent two (Earth) years exploring the plain as it drove towards Aeolis Mons. The rover left the plain in September 2014 when it reached the mountain's foothills.

Aeolis quadrangle

The Aeolis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Aeolis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-23 (Mars Chart-23).

The Aeolis quadrangle covers 180° to 225° W and 0° to 30° south on Mars, and contains parts of the regions Elysium Planitia and Terra Cimmeria. A small part of the Medusae Fossae Formation lies in this quadrangle.

The name refers to the name of a floating western island of Aiolos, the ruler of the winds. In Homer's account, Odysseus received the west wind Zephyr here and kept it in bags, but the wind got out.It is famous as the site of two spacecraft landings: the Spirit rover landing site (14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785) in Gusev crater (January 4, 2004), and the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater (4.591817°S 137.440247°E / -4.591817; 137.440247) (August 6, 2012).A large, ancient river valley, called Ma'adim Vallis, enters at the south rim of Gusev Crater, so Gusev Crater was believed to be an ancient lake bed. However, it seems that a volcanic flow covered up the lakebed sediments. Apollinaris Patera, a large volcano, lies directly north of Gusev Crater.Gale Crater, in the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle, is of special interest to geologists because it contains a 2–4 km (1.2–2.5 mile) high mound of layered sedimentary rocks, named "Mount Sharp" by NASA in honor of Robert P. Sharp (1911–2004), a planetary scientist of early Mars missions. More recently, on 16 May 2012, "Mount Sharp" was officially named Aeolis Mons by the USGS and IAU.Some regions in the Aeolis quadrangle show inverted relief. In these locations, a stream bed may be a raised feature, instead of a valley. The inverted former stream channels may be caused by the deposition of large rocks or due to cementation. In either case erosion would erode the surrounding land but leave the old channel as a raised ridge because the ridge will be more resistant to erosion

Yardangs are another feature found in this quadrangle They are generally visible as a series of parallel linear ridges, caused by the direction of the prevailing wind.

Aigai (Aeolis)

Aigai, also Aigaiai (Ancient Greek: Αἰγαί or Αἰγαῖαι; Latin: Aegae or Aegaeae; Turkish: Nemrutkale or Nemrut Kalesi) was an ancient Greek, later Roman (Ægæ, Aegae), city and bishopric in Aeolis. Aegae is mentioned by both Herodotus and Strabo as being a member of the Aeolian dodecapolis. It was also an important sanctuary of Apollo. Aigai had its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty, which ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd and 2nd century BC.

The remains of the city are located near the modern village of Yuntdağı Köseler in Manisa Province, Turkey. The archaeological site is situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of Mount Gün (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları).

Bathurst Inlet (rock)

Bathurst Inlet is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp"), in Gale crater on the planet Mars. The rock was encountered by the Curiosity rover on the way from Bradbury Landing to Glenelg Intrique on September 30, 2012 and was named after Bathurst Inlet, a deep inlet located along the northern coast of the Canadian mainland. The "approximate" site coordinates are: 4.59°S 137.44°E / -4.59; 137.44.

The NASA rover team had assessed the rock to be a suitable target for one of the first uses of Curiosity's contact instruments, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and the Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS). The rock is dark gray and seems to contain grains or crystals, if any at all, that are finer than Curiosity's cameras can resolve - less than 80 µm in size.

Boeddicker (crater)

Boeddicker is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 15° south latitude and 197.7° west longitude. It is 109 km in diameter and was named after Otto Boeddicker, a German astronomer (1853–1937).Boeddicker Crater was discussed as a landing site for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers. It was one of 25 from a list of 185 after the FirstLanding Site Workshop for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, January 24–25, 2001, at NASA Ames Research Center.

Cyme (Aeolis)

Cyme (Greek: Κύμη or Κύμη Αιολίδας, Cyme of Aeolis) (modern Turkish Nemrut Limani) or Cumae was an Aeolian city in Aeolis (Asia Minor) close to the kingdom of Lydia.

The Aeolians regarded Cyme as the largest and most important of their twelve cities, which were located on the coastline of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). As a result of their direct access to the sea, unlike most non-landlocked settlements of the ancient world, trade is believed to have prospered.

Galdakao (crater)

Galdakao Crater is a topographic depression in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 13.5° South and 183.5° West. It is 35 km in diameter and was named after Galdakao, a town in Basque Country, northern Spain.

Gale (crater)

Gale is a crater, and probable dry lake, on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at 5.4°S 137.8°E / -5.4; 137.8. It is 154 km (96 mi) in diameter and estimated to be about 3.5-3.8 billion years old. The crater was named after Walter Frederick Gale, an amateur astronomer from Sydney, Australia, who observed Mars in the late 19th century. Aeolis Mons is a mountain in the center of Gale and rises 5.5 km (18,000 ft) high. Aeolis Palus is the plain between the northern wall of Gale and the northern foothills of Aeolis Mons. Peace Vallis, a nearby outflow channel, 'flows' down from the hills to the Aeolis Palus below and seems to have been carved by flowing water.The NASA Mars rover Curiosity, of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, landed in "Yellowknife" Quad 51 of Aeolis Palus in Gale at 05:32 UTC August 6, 2012. NASA named the landing location Bradbury Landing on August 22, 2012. Curiosity is exploring Aeolis Mons and surrounding areas.

Graff (Martian crater)

Graff is an impact crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 21.4°S latitude and 206.3°W longitude and is inside Terra Cimmeria. It is 158.0 km in diameter. It was named after German astronomer Kasimir Graff, and the name was approved in 1973.

List of plains on Mars

This is a list of plains on Mars. Such features are named after the nearest classical albedo feature in compliance with the International Astronomical Union's rules of planetary nomenclature. Plains may be named denoted "planitia" or "planum", depending on height.

Molesworth (crater)

Molesworth Crater is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 27.7° south latitude and 210.9° west longitude. It is 169 km in diameter and was named after Percy B. Molesworth, a British astronomer (1867–1908).Molesworth Crater has a central peak. Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually do not have a rim or ejecta deposits. As craters get larger (greater than 10 km in diameter) they usually have a central peak. The peak is caused by a rebound of the crater floor following the impact.

Mount Sharp

Mount Sharp, officially Aeolis Mons (IPA: [ˈiːəlɨs ˈmɒnz]), is a mountain on Mars. It forms the central peak within Gale crater and is located around 5.08°S 137.85°E / -5.08; 137.85, rising 5.5 km (18,000 ft) high from the valley floor. It has the ID of 15,000 in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature from the US Geological Survey.On August 6, 2012, Curiosity (the Mars Science Laboratory rover) landed in "Yellowknife" Quad 51 of Aeolis Palus, next to the mountain. NASA named the landing site Bradbury Landing on August 22, 2012. Aeolis Mons is a primary goal for scientific study. On June 5, 2013, NASA announced that Curiosity would begin an 8 km (5.0 mi) journey from the Glenelg area to the base of Aeolis Mons. On November 13, 2013, NASA announced that an entryway Curiosity would traverse on its way to Aeolis Mons was to be named "Murray Buttes", in honor of planetary scientist Bruce C. Murray (1931–2013). The trip was expected to take about a year and would include stops along the way to study the local terrain.On September 11, 2014, NASA announced that the Curiosity rover had reached Aeolis Mons, the rover mission's long-term prime destination.On October 5, 2015, possible recurrent slope lineae, wet brine flows, were reported on Mount Sharp near Curiosity.On June 1, 2017, NASA reported that an ancient striated lake had existed in Gale crater that could have been favorable for microbial life.As of April 22, 2019, Curiosity has been on the planet Mars for 2385 sols (2450 days) since landing on August 6, 2012. (See Current status.)

N165

N165 ("Coronation" rock) is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater on the planet Mars near the landing site ("Bradbury Landing") of the Curiosity rover. The "approximate" site coordinates are: 4.59°S 137.44°E / -4.59; 137.44.

On August 19, 2012, the rock was the first target of the rover's laser instrument, ChemCam, which can analyze targets at a distance using a laser and spectrometer. A Twitter feed for the rock was created, featuring an anthropomorphized account of its experiences. Its posts include a humor themed mix of social interaction and Mars content such as "Did you know I was born in a volcano? Basalts like me come from lava. That's why we call it Olympus Mom".The goal of this initial use of the laser on Mars was to serve as target practice for characterizing the instrument. The rock was primarily selected for its proximity to the rover, rather than any intrinsic scientific value. The rock was lasered thirty times over ten seconds. The mission's investigators thought the rock was a basalt prior to lasing, which was confirmed by preliminary results. The ChemCam team reported positive results; they worked on the instrument for eight years before getting to use it on Mars.

Peace Vallis

Peace Vallis is an valley network in Gale Crater in the Aeolis quadrangle on the planet Mars; it appears to have been carved by fluids, perhaps water. The valley 'flows' southeast down out of the hills of Gale Crater to Aeolis Palus below near "Mount Sharp" and is centered 4.21°S 137.23°E / -4.21; 137.23. Peace Vallis is near the landing site ("Bradbury Landing") of the Curiosity rover which started studying the valley in 2012. The name, Peace Vallis, was officially adopted by the IAU on September 26, 2012.

Curiosity rover landed near the end of the Peace Vallis fan. Peace Vallis fan covers 80 km2 and obtained water from an area of 730 km2. Peace Vallis enters Gale Crater through a 15 km wide gap in its rim. Calculations suggest that the fan has an average thickness of 9 m. Numerous inverted channels are visible on the western surface of the fan. Runoff through Peace Vallis that made the fan is estimated to be between 600 and 6000 m; therefore a hydrologic cycle probably lasted at least thousands of years. The water that flowed in Peace Vallis is believed to be from precipitation maybe in the form of snow.

Pitane (Aeolis)

Pitane (Greek: Πιτάνη), near Çandarlı, Turkey, was an ancient Greek town of the ancient region of Aeolis, in Asia Minor.

Reuyl (crater)

Reuyl is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 9.8° south latitude and 193.2° west longitude. It measures 85.9 kilometers in diameter and was named after Dirk Reuyl, a Dutch-American physicist and astronomer (1906–1972) who made astronomical measurements of the diameter of Mars in the 1940s.

Rocknest 3 (rock)

Rocknest 3 is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp"), in Gale crater on the planet Mars. The "approximate" site coordinates are: 4.59°S 137.44°E / -4.59; 137.44.

The rock was encountered at "Rocknest" by the Curiosity rover on its way from Bradbury Landing to the "Point Lake" overlook while traveling toward Glenelg Intrigue in October 2012. The rock measures about 10 cm (3.9 in) high and 40 cm (16 in) wide and was a target of the ChemCam and APSX instruments on the Curiosity rover.

Tintina (rock)

Tintina is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp), in Gale crater on the planet Mars. The approximate site coordinates are: 4.59°S 137.44°E / -4.59; 137.44.

The rock was encountered by the Curiosity rover on the way from Bradbury Landing to Glenelg Intrique in January 2013. The rover ran over the rock and broke it. revealing white surface area in the rock. This was the brightest material yet seen by MastCam up to that time.When the broken white area was analyzed with the rover's MastCam, strong signals of mineral hydration, as indicated by a ratio of near infrared reflectance intensities, were found. According to mission scientists, the mineral hydration signals were consistent with hydrated calcium sulfate and a "watery past" on Mars.

Historical regions of Anatolia

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