Aeolic Greek

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (/iːˈɒlɪk/; also Aeolian /iːˈoʊliən/, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Arcadocypriot, Attic, Ionic, and Doric varieties), as well as many innovations.

Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).

In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian" (barbaros),[3] because of its difference from the Attic literary style:[4] "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".

Aeolic Greek
RegionBoeotia, Thessaly, Aeolis
Erac. 800 – 300 BC
Language codes
ISO 639-3
grc-aeo
Glottologaeol1234[1]
AncientGreekDialects (Woodard) en
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[2]
Western group: Central group:
  Aeolic
Eastern group:
  Attic
  Ionic

Phonology

Consonants

Labiovelars

Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek * changed to Aeolic p everywhere. By contrast, PIE * changed to Attic/Ionic, Arcadocypriot, and Doric t before e and i.

  • PIE *etwores → Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores "four"

Similarly PIE/PGk * always became b and PIE *gʷʰ > PGk *kʰʷ always became ph (whereas in other dialects they became alternating b/d and ph/th before back/front vowels).

Labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages.

Sonorant clusters

A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European *s) and a sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant in Aeolic (rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to lengthen by compensatory lengthening.

PIE VsR or VRs → Attic/Ionic-Doric VVR.
VsR or VRs → Aeolic VRR.[5]
  • PIE *h₁ésmi → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Aeolic emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ēmi (= εἰμί) "I am"

Loss of h

Lesbian Aeolic lost in initial h- (psilosis "stripping") from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-. By contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it.

  • PIE *seh₂u̯elios → Proto-Greek *hāwelios → Lesbian āélios, Ionic ēélios ~ Attic hēlios "sun"

Retention of w

In Thessalian and Boeotian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) and Doric, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek semi-vowel w (digamma) was retained at the beginning of a word.

  • PIE wekʷ-es- → Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos "word", "epic" (compare Latin vōx "voice")

Vowels

Long a

In Aeolic and Doric, Proto-Greek long ā remains. By contrast, in Attic, long ā changes to long ē in most cases; in Ionic, it changes everywhere.[6]

  • PIE *meh₂ter- → Aeolic, Doric mātēr ~ Attic/Ionic mētēr "mother"

Boeotian

In Boeotian, the vowel-system was, in many cases, changed in a way reminiscent of the modern Greek pronunciation.

  • Attic/Ionic αι /ai/ ~ Boeotian η /eː/ ~ Modern Greek αι /e/
  • Attic/Ionic ει /eː/ ~ Boeotian ει /iː/ ~ Modern Greek ει /i/
  • Attic/Ionic οι /oi/ ~ Boeotian υ /yː/ ~ Mediaeval Greek and Old Athenaean οι /yː/ ~ Modern Greek οι /i/

Accent

In Lesbian Aeolic, the accent of all words is recessive (barytonesis), as is typical only in the verbs of other dialects.[7]

  • Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos "river"

Morphology

Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic (-mi) in Aeolic.[8]

  • Ionic philéō, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phílēmi "I love"

The same is also found in Irish, where this selection has been generalized, i.e. -im, also in Slovak -m.

Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or (Lesbian) -menai. ~ Attic/Ionic has -enai.

  • Lesbian émmen, émmenai; Thessalian, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai (spurious diphthong) "to be"

In the Lesbian dialect this ending also extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer.

Proto-Greek -ans and -ons-ais and -ois (first- and second declension accusative plural). ~ Attic/Ionic -ās and -ōs (= -ους).[9][10]

Dative plural -aisi and -oisi. ~ Attic/Ionic -ais and -ois.

The participle has ois and ais for Attic ōs (= ους), ās.[11]

Glossary

Aeolian

  • ἀέλιος āélios "sun" Doric also (Attic hēlios; Cretan abelios; Laconian bela; Pamphylian babelios) (PIE *sawel-)
  • ἄγωνος ágōnos "struggle" (Attic ἀγῶν agōn; Elean dat. pl. agōnois for agōsi)
  • ἀθρήματα athrḗmata gifts sent by kin to Lesbian brides (Sappho fr.) (compare Homeric hedna, eedna)
  • Αἰολίωνες Aiolíōnes "Aeolians" (Attic Αἰολεῖς Aioleîs) (aiolizō "speak Aeolic, compose in the Aeolian mode, trick out with false words" Sophocles Fr.912 ) (aioleō vary, adorn, diversify (aiolos quick-moving, glittering, shifty)
  • ἀκλάδες aklades (unpruned vineyards) (Attic akladeutoi ampeloi)
  • ἀκόντιον akontion (part of troops) (Attic spear) (Macedonian rhachis, spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone)
  • ἀμένης -τος amenēs -tos (Attic ὑμήν humēn) thin skin, membrane.
  • ἀμώνες amōnes (Attic ἀνεμώνες anemones
  • ἄορος aoros (Attic ἄϋπνος ahypnos, without sleep) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • ἄρπυς arpys (Attic ἔρως Eros, Love) attested in Crinagoras, ἁρπάζειν harpazein to snatch. Homeric harpaleos attractive,devouring
  • ἄσφε asphe to them (Attic sphe, sphi)
  • βακχόα bakchoa (Attic βόθρος bothros sacred dungeon, pit)
  • βάλλα balla threshold (Attic βῆλος bēlos) (Doric balos)
  • βελφιν belphin dolphin (Attic delphis) and Βέλφοι Belphoi Delphi
  • βᾶμα bama Doric also (Attic βῆμα bema walking, step)
  • βλῆρ blēr incitement (Attic delear) τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ αἶθμα. παρὰ Ἀλκαίῳ ἡ λέξις
  • βραδανίζω bradanizō brandish, shake off. (Cf.Elean bratana Common rhatane)
  • βραδινός bradinos slender, soft (Attic rhadinos) Sapph.90,104.
  • βράιδιον braidion (Attic ῥάιδιον rhaidion easy)
  • βράκειν brakein to understand (dysbrakanon imprehensible)
  • βράκος brakos long robe, Sapph.70 Homeric ῥάκος ϝράκος rhakos wrakos
  • βρίζα briza root (Attic rhiza)
  • βρόδον brodon (Attic ῥόδον rhodon, rose) and vagina metaphorically in Erotic Glossary.
  • βροδόπαχυς brodopachus with pink, rosy forearms (Attic rhodopuches) (βροδόπαχυν brodopachun Sappho) and brododaktulos with rosy fingers
  • βροχέως brocheos or βρουκέων broukeon (Attic βραχύ brachy short) (Sapph.fr. 2,7)
  • δράσειν drasein (Attic θύειν to sacrifice)
  • δνόφος dnophos darkness Ionic also (Attic ζόφος zophos) (akin to knephas)
  • εἴδη eide (Attic ὕλη, forest) (εἴδη Ionian also)
  • Ἐννησιάδες Ennesiades Lesbian Nymphs
  • ἐπιάλτης epialtēs and epialēs nightmare (Attic ephialtēs) (wiki Ephialtes)
  • ζάδηλον zadelon with holes in it, open (Attic diadelon obvious) (Alcaeus 30 D 148P)
  • ἴμβηρις imbēris eel (Attic ἔγχελυς enchelys) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • ἴρον iron holy (Attic ἱερόν hierón) (Doric hiarón) (Ionic hirón)
  • Ἰσσα Issa old name of Lesbos Island Cf. Antissa
  • ἴσσασθαι issasthai (Attic κληροῦσθαι klerousthai to take sth by lot)
  • καγκύλη kankulē (Attic κηκῖς kēkis wet,vapour, mordant dyeing)
  • κάμμαρψις kammarpsis dry Measure (Attic ἡμιμέδιμνον hemimedimnon, one half of a medimnos)
  • καραβίδες karabides (Attic γρᾶες graes) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • καυαλέον kaualeon Hsch (Attic αἶθος aithos fire, burning heat) (Cf.kaiō burn)
  • κλᾷδες klaides Doric also (Attic kleides bars, bolts, keys)
  • Mεσοστροφώνια Mesostrophonia Lesbian festival
  • μέσσυϊ messui (Attic ἐν μέσῳ in the middle)
  • μόλσος molsos (Attic δημός, fat)
  • ξέννος xennos foreigner, guest-friend, strange (Attic xenos) (Ionic xeinos)
  • ξίμβα ximba (Attic ῥοιά rhoia pomegranate-tree) (Boeotian sida)
  • ὄθματα othmata (Attic ommata eyes)
  • ὄν ónὄνα óna (Attic ἀνά aná) upon,through,again (Arcadocypriot also)
  • πασσύριον passyrion (Attic passydia totally,all together,with the whole army)
  • πεδαμείβω pedameivō (Attic metameivo exchange) (πεδέχω pedecho μετέχω metecho), pedoikos metoikos peda for meta
  • πέμπε pempe five (Attic πέντε pente, Pamphylian πέδε pede ) ( πεμπάσσειν pempassein to count per five) (Attic pempe imp. of pempō send)
  • Πέῤῥαμος Perrhamos Priamus (Alcaeus 74D,111P (it means also king)
  • πέσδος pésdos pedestrian,infantry) (Attic πεζός pezós)
  • πέσσον pesson plain (Attic πεδίον pedion)
  • πέσσυρες pessyres four (Lesbian πίσυρες pisyres) (Boeotian πέτταρες pettares) (Attic τέσσαρες tessares) (Doric tetores)
  • σάωμι saōmi save (Attic σῴζω sōizō ) (Homeric σαόω saoō)
  • σίγλαι siglai ear-rings (Attic enōtia, Laconian exōbadia)
  • σκίφος skiphos Attic xiphos sword (skiptō, given as etym. of skiphos and xiphos, Sch.Il.1.220; cf. skipei: nussei, it pricks,pierces)
  • σπόλα spóla(Attic στολή stolē) equipment, garment (spaleis, the sent one, for staleis)
  • στρότος strótos (Attic stratós) army
  • συρξ syrx (Attic σάρξ flesh) (dative plural σύρκεσιν syrkesi Attic σαρξίν sarxin)
  • τενεκοῦντι tenekounti (Attic enoikounti dative singular of ἐνοικῶν enoikōn inhabiting)
  • τράγαις tragais you break, grow rough and hoarse and smell like a goat
  • τῦδε tude tudai and tuide here) (Ionic tēde)
  • ὔσδος usdos (Attic ozos twig, branch)
  • φαυόφορος phauophoros priestess (Attic ἱέρεια hiereia) (light-keeper) (Aeolic phauō for Homeric phaō shine) (Homeric phaos light, Attic phōs and phōtophoros)
  • φηρία phēria (Attic θηρία thēria beasts)
  • Ψάπφω Psapphō, (Attic Σαπφώ Sapphō)

Boeotian

  • ἄας aas ἀεστητόν aestēton tomorrow (Attic αὔριον aurion) (Cf.Attic ēōs dawn)
  • ἀμίλλακας amillakas wine Theban (Attic oinos)
  • ἀνωδόρκας anōdorkas a fish βρίγκος ὁ ἰχθῦς, ὑπὸ Θηβαίων
  • βαιδύμην baidumēn (Attic ἀροτριᾶν arotrian to plough)
  • βανά bana (βαλάρα balara) woman ( Attic gunē ) (βανῆκες, banēkes βάττικες battikes women ( Attic gunaikes )
  • βάστραξ bastrax or bastax (Attic τράχηλος trachēlos neck) pl.bastraches
  • βλεερεῖ bleerei (Attic οἰκτείρει he feels pity) Cf. eleairei
  • γάδου gadou (ϝάδου wadou) (Attic ἡδύ hēdú) (Corinna.17)
  • Δεύς Deus instead of Zeus. Attested also in Laconian and Rhodian.
  • ἐμπυρία empyria divination (Attic manteia) (Hsch. public oath, Koine ordeal by fire)
  • ζεκελτίδες zekeltides gourds [12] Amerias zakeltides (Phrygian zelkia vegetables)
  • ἴδηφιν idephin sweet-voiced. Hsch.: ἴδηφιν ἴδαις· Βοιωτοί. [καὶ ὁ ἡδυλάλος διὰ τῆς διφθόγγου] (Attic hēduphōnon) ( Aeolic wad-, ad- )
  • ἰστάκη istake scythe (Attic δρέπανον drepanon)
  • ἰυγοδρομεῖν iugodromein (Attic ἐκβοηθεῖν, ekboēthein, and boēdromein, run to help) (Ἰύγγυϊ Dionysus, ἰυγή voice,scream (Soph. Phil. 752))(Iungios Thessalian month)
  • ἰώ and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge)
  • Καραιός Karaios Boeotian epithet for Zeus meaning tall,head. Boeotian eponym Karaidas[13]
  • κᾶρουξ karoux[14] (Attic kēryx herald)
  • κριδδέμεν kriddemen (Attic γελᾶν gelan to laugh) (Strattis fr. 47) Cf. (Cf.Attic krizō creak,screech)
  • κόριλλα korilla little girl (Koine korasion from Attic korasis girl) (Aetolian korudion)
  • μηλάτας mēlatas (Attic ποιμήν poimen shepherd) (homeric μῆλον mēlon sheep) (Attic mēlon apple, Aeolic-Doric malon)
  • μνάριον mnarion (Attic κάλλυντρον kallyntron broom, brush)
  • ὀπισθοτίλα opisthotila (Attic σηπία sēpia cuttlefish) (Strattis. fr. 47,3) (squirts its liquor from behind)
  • ὀπίττομαι opittomai (homeric opizomai I care,respect) (Laconian opiddomai)
  • ὀφρυγνᾷ ophrygnai (Attic ὀφρυάζειophryazei he winks raising the eyebrow,to be haughty)
  • σεῖα seia I persecuted (Attic ἐδίωξα edioxa) (Cf.Homeric seuō move quickly,chase)
  • συοβοιωτοί syoboiōtoi Hog-Boeotians (Cratinus.310)
  • τρίπεζα tripeza (Attic trapeza,table)(from tetrapeza four-footed) (tripeza three-footed) (in Aeolic it would-be tripesda)
  • ψώσματα psōsmata Boeotian word acc. Aristonymus

Thessalian

  • ἀβρεμής abremēs (Attic ἀβλεπής ablepēs ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι unworthy seeing, despicable (Cypriotic also) (Hes. text ἀβλεπής Κύπριοι καὶ Θετταλοί
  • ἀγορά agora (Attic λιμήν limen port, harbour) (Hes. text Θετταλοὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν λιμένα ἀγορὰν καλοῦσιν Κρῆτες δὲ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν
  • ἀλφινία alphinia white poplar (PIE *albho- 'white') (Attic leukē, PIE *leuk- 'bright,light') (Macedonian aliza)
  • Ἄπλουν Aploun Apollo (Attic Ἀπόλλων Apollōn) (Doric, Pamphylian Ἀπέλο̄ν Apelon)
  • ἀσπάλεια aspaleia safeness (Attic asphaleia)[15]
  • ἀστραλός astralos (Attic ψάρ -ος psar Starling)
  • βεβυκῶσθαι bebukousthai to be swollen (Homeric βυκτάων buktaon blowing)
  • βουσία bousia (Attic γογγυλίδι gongylidi turnip)
  • δάμοσσος dámossos public (Attic dēmósios) opp. ἰδδιούστικος iddioûstikos privative (Attic idiōtikós)[16][17]
  • δάρατος daratos Thessalian bread (Macedonian dramis) (Athamanian dramix) (PIE *der- cut,split)
  • δέσποινα despoina woman (Attic gunē, Doric guna) (fem. of despotes)
  • ἔνορμος enormos (agora, assembly, market and chōra) (Attic enormeō get in a harbour, hormos bay,anchorage
  • ἐρέας ereas children (Hsch.Attic τέκνα tekna) (Homeric ernos young sprout,scion) (Neo-Phrygian eiroi children)
  • θεανῶσται theanoustai (Attic ξυστῆρες xysters)
  • ἰθείη itheiē (Attic ἁμαξιτός hamaxitos chariot-road) (Homeric ἰθεῖα ὀρθή Ψ 580) (Attic ithys,eytheia straight line)
  • ἴμψας impsas past participle of impto (Attic ζεύξας zeuxas zeugnymi join together)(Ἴμψιος Impsios Ποσειδῶν ὁ ζύγιος Poseidon Zygius on horses)
  • κάλαφος kalaphos (Attic ἀσκάλαφος, Ascalaphus a bird (Magnesian)
  • καπάνη kapanē chariot (Attic ἀπήνη apēnē) also, a helmet(kapanikos plenteous
  • κίς kis who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Arcadocypriot sis)
  • καρπαία karpaia Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric karpalimos swift (for foot) eager,ravenous.
  • κῦῤῥος kyrrhos or kyrros sir,master (Attic kyrios)
  • Μακετοὺν Maketoun[18] 'Macedonian man' (Attic Μακεδών Makedōn) (Thessalian -ουν-oun suffix for Attic ων ōn in both nominative and genitive of participles,pronouns and nouns.
  • ματτύη mattuē a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin (Athenaeus)[19](Macedonian mattuēs a kind of bird)
  • νεαλεῖς nealeis new-comers, newly caught ones (Cf.nealeis,neēludes)
  • νεβεύω[20] nebeuō pray (Macedonian neuō) (Attic euchomai, neuō wink)
  • ὀνάλα onala, ὀνάλουμα onalouma (Attic analōma expense cost) ( on- in the place of Attic prefix ana-, ongrapsantas SEG 27:202
  • Πέτθαλος Pétthalos and Πεθθάλειος (Boeotian Φέτταλος Phéttalos) (Attic Θετταλός Thettalós) (Ionic, Koine Θεσσαλός Thessalós) 'Thesalian man' (Πετθαλια Petthalia Thessalia) (Petthaloi Thessalians) (Koine thessalisti the thessalian way) ( Attic ἐντεθετταλίζομαι entethettalizomai become a Thessalian, i.e. wear the large Thessalian cloak ( Thettalika ptera feathers' ), Eupolis.201. )
  • ταγεύω tageuō to be tagos archon in Thessaly ταγευόντουν τοῦμ Πετθαλοῦν

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aeolic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  3. ^ Protagoras by Plato - Greek text
  4. ^ James A. Towle, Commentary on Plato: Protagoras 341c
  5. ^ V = vowel, R = sonorant, s is itself. VV = long vowel, RR = doubled or long sonorant.
  6. ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 30 and note, 31: Attic long e, long a
  7. ^ Smyth, par. 162 note: (Lesbian) Aeolic recessive accent
  8. ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 656: contract verbs in Aeolic
  9. ^ Smyth, par. 214 note 9: first declension in dialects
  10. ^ Smyth, par. 230 note: second declension in dialects
  11. ^ Smyth, par. 305 note
  12. ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists -9.369
  13. ^ Boiotia —Anthedon
  14. ^ Boiotia — Orchomenos — early 1st century BC
  15. ^ Krannon — c. 250 - 215 BC SEG 23:437, 7
  16. ^ Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History [1] by David Malcolm Lewis, Peter John Rhodes
  17. ^ Skotoussa — 197-185 BC SEG 43:311
  18. ^ Thessalia — Larisa — 220-210 BC - SEG 27:202
  19. ^ Deipnosophists 14.663-4(pp.1059-1062)
  20. ^ MagnesiaDemetrias — late 2nd century BC [2]

Further reading

  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Bowie, Angus M. 1981. The poetic dialect of Sappho and Alcaeus. New York: Arno.
  • Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Page, Denis L. 1953. Corinna. London: Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.
  • West, Martin L. 1990. "Dating Corinna." Classical Quarterly 40 (2): 553–57.
-onym

The suffix -onym, in English and other languages, means "word, name", and words ending in -onym refer to a specified kind of name or word, most of which are classical compounds. For example, an acronym is a word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term (as radar). The use of -onym words provides a means of classifying, often to a fine degree of resolution, sets of nouns with common attributes.

In some words, the -onym form has been modified by replacing (or dropping) the "o". In the examples ananym and metanym, the correct forms (anonym and metonym) were pre-occupied by other meanings. Other, late 20th century examples, such as hypernym and characternym, are typically incorrectly formed neologisms for which there are more traditional words formed in -onym (hyperonym and charactonym).

The English suffix -onym is from the Ancient Greek suffix -ώνυμον (ōnymon), neuter of the suffix ώνυμος (ōnymos), having a specified kind of name, from the Greek ὄνομα (ónoma), Aeolic Greek ὄνυμα (ónyma), "name". The form -ōnymos is that taken by ónoma when it is the end component of a bahuvrihi compound, but in English its use is extended to tatpurusa compounds.

The suffix is found in many modern languages with various spellings. Examples are: Dutch synoniem, German Synonym, Portuguese sinónimo, Russian синоним (sinonim), Polish synonim, Finnish synonyymi, Indonesian sinonim.

According to a 1988 study of words ending in -onym, there are four discernible classes of -onym words: (1) historic, classic, or, for want of better terms, naturally occurring or common words; (2) scientific terminology, occurring in particular in linguistics, onomastics, etc.; (3) language games; and (4) nonce words. Older terms are known to gain new, sometimes contradictory, meanings (e.g., eponym and cryptonym). In many cases, two or more words describe the same phenomenon, but no precedence is discernible (e.g., necronym and penthonym). New words are sometimes created, the meaning of which duplicating existing terms. On occasion, new words are formed with little regard to historical principles.

Aeolian

Aeolian or Eolian refers to things related to Aeolus, the Greek God of wind and patriarch of the Greeks of Aeolia. Specific items include:

Aeolian Islands, islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea

Aeolian or Aeolic order, an early order of Classical architecture

Aeolian processes, wind-generated geologic processes

Aeolian dust, atmospheric or wind-borne dust

Aeolians, an ancient Greek tribe allegedly descended from Aeolus, son of Hellen

Eolian, a volume of poetry by David Bates (poet)

Eolian (Solar car), a solar car designed at the University of Chile

Eolianite, a sandstone formed from wind-transported sedimentIn music:

Aeolian (album), an album by German post-metal band The Ocean Collective

Aeolian Company (1887–1985), a maker of organs, pianos, sheet music, and phonographs

Aeolian Hall (disambiguation), any one of a number of concert halls of that name

Aeolian harp, a harp that is played by the wind

Aeolian mode, a musical mode, the natural minor key

Aeolian Quartet (1952–1981), a string quartet based in London

Aeolian-Skinner (1932–1972), pipe organ builder

Aeolians

The Aeolians (; Greek: Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).

Aeolis

Aeolis (Ancient Greek: Αἰολίς, Aiolís), or Aeolia (; Αἰολία, Aiolía), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia, which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south and Lydia to the east.

Alcaeus of Mytilene

Alcaeus of Mytilene (; Ancient Greek: Ἀλκαῖος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος, Alkaios ho Mutilēnaios; c. 620 – 6th century BC) was a lyric poet from the Greek island of Lesbos who is credited with inventing the Alcaic stanza. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. He was an older contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho, with whom he may have exchanged poems. He was born into the aristocratic governing class of Mytilene, the main city of Lesbos, where he was involved in political disputes and feuds.

Barytonesis

In phonology, barytonesis, or recessive accent, is the shift of accent from the last or following syllable on any non-final or preceding syllable of the stem, as in John Donne's poetic line: but éxtreme sense hath made them desperate, the Balto-Slavic Pedersen's law and Aeolic Greek barytonesis. The opposite, the accent shift to the last syllable is called oxytonesis.

Boeotia

Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (; Greek: Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: [vi.oˈti.a], Ancient Greek: [bojɔːtía]; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, and its largest city is Thebes.

Boeotia was also a region of ancient Greece, since before the 6th century BC.

Corinna

Corinna or Korinna (Ancient Greek: Κόριννα, romanized: Kórinna) was an ancient Greek lyric poet from Tanagra in Boeotia, described by Herbert Weir Smyth as the most famous ancient Greek woman poet after Sappho. Although ancient testimonia portray her as a contemporary of Pindar (who lived between about 522 and 443 BC), not all modern scholars accept the accuracy of this tradition, and some claim that she is more likely to have lived in the Hellenistic period of 323 to 31 BC. Her works, which survive only in fragments, focus on local Boeotian legends. Though her poetry is of interest as the work of one of the few preserved female poets from ancient Greece, modern critics generally rate it poorly.

Erinna

Erinna (; Greek: Ἤριννα) was an ancient Greek poet. Biographical details about her life are uncertain. She is generally thought to have lived in the first half of the fourth century BC, though some ancient traditions have her as a contemporary of Sappho; Telos is generally considered to be her most likely birthplace, but Tenos, Teos, Rhodes, and Lesbos are all also mentioned by ancient sources as her home. Erinna is best known for her long poem, the Distaff, a three-hundred line hexameter lament for her childhood friend Baucis, who had died shortly after marriage. A large fragment of this poem was discovered in 1928 at Behnasa in Egypt. Along with the Distaff, three epigrams ascribed to Erinna are known, preserved in the Greek Anthology.

Histiaeotis

Histiaeotis (Ancient Greek: Ἱστιαιῶτις, romanized: Histiaiōtis) or Hestiaeotis (Ἑστιαιῶτις - Hestiaiōtis) was a northwest district of ancient Thessaly, part of the Thessalian tetrarchy, roughly corresponding to modern Trikala regional unit. Anciently, it was inhabited by the Hestiaeotae (Ἑστιαιῶται), and the Peneius may be described in general as its southern boundary. It occupied the passes of Mount Olympus, and extended westward as far as Pindus. The demonym of the district's inhabitants is Histiaeotes (Ἱστιαιῶται, Histiaiōtai). In epigraphy, the regional name occurs as Hestiōtai, ambassadors in Athens and Histiōtai in the Thessalian grain decree for Rome (see Pelasgiotis) but most similarly written names are related to Histiaea, an Attic deme and a city in North Euboea. The epigraphical Aeolic Greek vocalism of Hestiaeotis is bizarre and idiomatic.Histiaeotis is first mentioned by Herodotus, when.. in the time of Dorus the son of Hellen, (Dorians) were in the territory around Mounts Ossa and Olympus, known as Histiaeotis. Then they were evicted from Histiaeotis by the Cadmeans and settled on Mount Pindus... Histiaeotis was also the seat of the Perrhaebi (Eth. Περραιβός), a warlike and powerful tribe, who possessed in historical times several towns strongly situated upon the mountains. They are mentioned by Homer as taking part in the Trojan War, and were regarded as genuine Hellenes, being one of the Amphictyonic states. The part of Hestiaeotis inhabited by them was frequently called Perrhaebia, but it never formed a separate Thessalian province. The Perrhaebi are said at one time to have extended south of the Peneius as far as the Lake Boebeis, but to have been driven out of this district by the mythical race of the Lapithae. It is probable that at an early period the Perrhaebi occupied the whole of Hestiaeotis, but were subsequently driven out of the plain and confined to the mountains by the Thessalian conquerors from Thesprotia.

Strabo also writes that in earlier times Histiaeotis was called Doris, "but when the Perrhaebians took possession of it, who had already subdued Histiaea in Euboea and had forced its inhabitants to migrate to the mainland, they called the country Histiaeotis after these Histiaeans, because of the large number of these people who settled there"; but this is an uncertified statement, probably founded alone upon similarity of name. Homer mentions another ancient tribe in this part of Thessaly called the Aethices, who are placed by Strabo upon the Thessalian side of Pindus near the sources of the Peneius. They are described as a barbarous tribe, living by plunder and robbery.Strabo adds that Histiaeotis and Dolopia comprise Upper Thessaly, which is in a straight line with Upper Macedonia, as is Lower Thessaly with Lower Macedonia.The towns of Hestiaeotis were: Aeginium, Azorus, Cyretiae, Doliche, Elone, Ericinium, Eritium, Gomphi, Ithome, Limnaea, Malloea, Meliboea, Metropolis, Mylae, Oechalia, Oloosson, Oxyneia, Pelinnaeum, Phacium, Phaestus, Phaloria, Pharcadon, Pheca or Phecadum, Pialia, Pythium, Silana, and Tricca; and subsequently, Atrax, Charax, Condylon, Eudieru, Gonnus or Gonni, Lapathus, Leimone, Orthe, Phalanna.

Notable sanctuaries of the region were of Asclepius at Tricca, of Aphrodite Kastnia at Metropolis and of Zeus at Pelinna. In the Catalogue of Ships: "they that held Tricca and Ithome of the crags, and Oechalia, city of Oechalian Eurytus, these again were led by the two sons of Asclepius, the skilled healers Podaleirius and Machaon".

Lesbian (disambiguation)

A lesbian is a homosexual woman.

Lesbian can also mean:

An inhabitant of Lesbos, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea.

Lesbian Greek dialect, an Aeolic Greek dialect

Lesbian rule, a flexible mason's rule made of lead

Lesbian wine, wine from the island of Lesbos

SS Lesbian, a name given to three ships

Lesbian language

Lesbian language can refer to:

Aeolic Greek, a dialect of Greek used on the island of Lesbos

a subset of Lavender linguistics, the study of gay and Lesbian language use

Lesbos Prefecture

Lesbos Prefecture (Greek: Νομός Λέσβου) was one of the prefectures of Greece. It comprised three main islands: Lesbos itself, Lemnos, and the smaller island of Agios Efstratios. Its capital was the town of Mytilene, on Lesbos. In 2011 the prefecture was abolished and the territory was divided between the regional units of Lesbos and Lemnos.

Odyssey

The Odyssey (; Greek: Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced [o.dýs.sej.ja] in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other Homeric epic. The Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad is the oldest. Scholars believe the Odyssey was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστῆρες) or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage.

The Odyssey continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more likely intended to be heard than read. The details of the ancient oral performance and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars. The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter. Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, and the influence on events of choices made by women and slaves, besides the actions of fighting men. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage.

The Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was not attributed to Homer. It was usually attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source, the Telegony was said to have been stolen from Musaeus of Athens by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene (see Cyclic poets).

Pelasgiotis

Pelasgiotis (Ancient Greek: Πελασγιῶτις, romanized: Pelasgiōtis) was an elongated district of ancient Thessaly, extending from the Vale of Tempe in the north to the city of Pherae in the south. The Pelasgiotis included the following localities: Argos Pelasgikon, Argyra, Armenium, Atrax, Crannon, Cynoscephalae, Elateia, Gyrton, Mopsion, Larissa, Kondaia, Onchestos river and town, Phayttos, Pherae, Scotussa, and Sykourion. The demonym of the district's inhabitants is Pelasgiotae

or Pelasgiotes (Πελασγιῶται, Pelasgiōtai).

Along with Achaea Phthiotis, Thessaliotis and Histiaeotis, the Pelasgiotis comprised the Thessalian tetrarchy, governed by a tagus, when occasion required.

The territory is mentioned by Strabo but not by Herodotus, who seems to include it in the district of Thessaliotis.In epigraphy, Pelasgiotes are mentioned among other Thessalian ambassadors in Athens c. 353 BC. A fragment of a marble stele at Larissa records that on request of the Roman consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus, son of Quintus, "friend and benefactor of our country [ethnei hēmōn]" in return for services rendered by him, his family and the Roman Senate and People, the Thessalian League decreed to send 43,000 coffers of wheat to Rome, to be taxed from different regions under the league. The Pelasgiotes and the Phthiotes are to provide 32,000 while the Histiaeotes and Thessaliotes must provide the remaining 11,000, with 25% going to the army, all in different months.The regional and ethnic toponym is a reminiscent Pelasgian element from the Thessalian past. As in other parts of Thessaly, Aeolic Greek inscriptions are attested and after 2nd century BC, Koine Greek.

During the Thessalian Games at Larissa to Zeus Eleuthereus in the 1st century BC, several winner athletes are described as "Thessalian from Larissa of Pelasgis" (Θεσσαλὸς ἀπὸ Λαρίσης τῆς Πελασγίδος, Thessalos apo Larisēs tēs Pelasgidos). The 3rd-century BC funerary epigram for Erilaos of Kalchedon mentions also Λάρισα τᾶι Πελασγίδι, Larisa tai Pelasgidi.

Sappho

Sappho (; Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω Psáppho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an Archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her lyric poetry, written to be sung while accompanied by a lyre. In ancient times, Sappho was widely regarded as one of the greatest lyric poets and was given names such as the "Tenth Muse" and "The Poetess". Most of Sappho's poetry is now lost, and what is extant has survived only in fragmentary form, except for one complete poem: the "Ode to Aphrodite". As well as lyric poetry, ancient commentators claimed that Sappho wrote elegiac and iambic poetry. Three epigrams attributed to Sappho are extant, but these are actually Hellenistic imitations of Sappho's style.

Little is known of Sappho's life. She was from a wealthy family from Lesbos, though the names of both of her parents are uncertain. Ancient sources say that she had three brothers; the names of two of them are mentioned in the Brothers Poem discovered in 2014. She was exiled to Sicily around 600 BC, and may have continued to work until around 570. Later legends surrounding Sappho's love for the ferryman Phaon and her death are unreliable.

Sappho was a prolific poet, probably composing around 10,000 lines. Her poetry was well-known and greatly admired through much of antiquity, and she was among the canon of nine lyric poets most highly esteemed by scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. Sappho's poetry is still considered extraordinary and her works continue to influence other writers. Beyond her poetry, she is well known as a symbol of love and desire between women, with the English words sapphic and lesbian being derived from her own name and the name of her home island respectively.

Temnos

Temnos or Temnus (Ancient Greek: Τῆμνος; Aeolic Greek: Τᾶμνος) was a small Greek polis (city-state) of ancient Aeolis, later incorporated in the Roman province of Asia, on the western coast of Anatolia. Its bishopric was a suffragan of Ephesus, the capital and metropolitan see of the province, and is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.The little town was near the Hermus River, which is shown on its coins. Situated at elevation it commanded a view of the territories of Cyme, Phocaea, and Smyrna. Under Augustus it was already on the decline; under Tiberius it was destroyed by an earthquake; and in the time of Pliny it was no longer inhabited. It was, however, rebuilt later.

One of the city's more noteworthy figures was the rhetorician Hermagoras.

Its site is located near Görece, Asiatic Turkey.

Theocritus

Theocritus (; Greek: Θεόκριτος, Theokritos; fl. c. 270 BC), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC.

Women writers

Women have made significant contributions to literature from the earliest times. The involvement of women in writing occurred in several early civilizations.

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