Aeneas

In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (/ɪˈniːəs/;[1] Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus). His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy (both being grandsons of Ilus, founder of Troy), making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children (such as Hector and Paris). He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is cast as an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturluson identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr.[2]

Aeneas' Flight from Troy by Federico Barocci
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 (Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy)

Name

MACEDON, Aineia. Circa 510-480 BC
Coinage of Aenea, with portrait of Aeneas. Circa 510–480 BC.

Aeneas is the Latin spelling of Greek Αἰνείας (Aineías). In the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, Aeneas is first introduced with Aphrodite naming him Αἰνείας (Aineías) for the αὶνóν ἄχος ("terrible grief") he caused her, where Aineías derives from the adjective αὶνóν (ainon, meaning "terrible").[3] It is a popular etymology for the name, apparently exploited by Homer in the Iliad.[4] Later in the Medieval period there were writers who held that, because the Aeneid was written by a philosopher it is meant to be read philosophically.[5] As such, in the "natural order", the meaning of Aeneas' name combines Greek ennos ("dweller") and demas ("body"), which becomes ennaios, meaning "in-dweller" (i.e. as a god inhabiting a mortal body).[6] However, there is no certainty regarding the origin of his name.

Epithets

In imitation of the Iliad, Virgil borrows epithets of Homer, including; Anchisiades, magnanimum, magnus, heros, and bonus. Though he borrows many, Virgil gives Aeneas two epithets of his own in the Aeneid: pater and pius. The epithets applied by Virgil are an example of an attitude different from that of Homer, for whilst Odysseus is poikilios ("wily"), Aeneas is described as pius ("pious"), which conveys a strong moral tone. The purpose of these epithets seems to enforce the notion of Aeneas' divine hand as father and founder of the Roman race, and their use seem circumstantial: when Aeneas is praying he refers to himself as pius, and is referred to as such by the author only when the character is acting on behalf of the gods to fulfill his divine mission. Likewise, Aeneas is called pater when acting in the interest of his men.[7]

Greek myth and epos

Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite

William Blake Richmond - Venus and Anchises - Google Art Project
Painting Venus and Anchises by William Blake Richmond (1889 or 90)

The story of the birth of Aeneas is told in the "Hymn to Aphrodite", one of the major Homeric Hymns. Aphrodite has caused Zeus to fall in love with mortal women. In retaliation, Zeus puts desire in her heart for Anchises, who is tending his cattle among the hills near Mount Ida. When Aphrodite sees him she is smitten. She adorns herself as if for a wedding among the gods and appears before him. He is overcome by her beauty, believing that she is a goddess, but Aphrodite identifies herself as a Phrygian princess. After they make love, Aphrodite reveals her true identity to him and Anchises fears what might happen to him as a result of their liaison. Aphrodite assures him that he will be protected, and tells him that she will bear him a son to be called Aeneas. However, she warns him that he must never tell anyone that he has lain with a goddess. When Aeneas is born, Aphrodite takes him to the nymphs of Mount Ida. She directs them to raise the child to age five, then take him to Anchises.[8] According to other sources, Anchises later brags about his encounter with Aphrodite, and as a result is struck in the foot with a thunderbolt by Zeus. Thereafter he is lame in that foot, so that Aeneas has to carry him from the flames of Troy.[9]

Homer's Iliad

Aineias Ankhises Louvre F118
Aeneas carrying Anchises, black-figured oinochoe, ca. 520–510 BC, Louvre (F 118)

Aeneas is a minor character in the Iliad, where he is twice saved from death by the gods as if for an as-yet-unknown destiny, but is an honorable warrior in his own right. Having held back from the fighting, aggrieved with Priam because in spite of his brave deeds he was not given his due share of honour, he leads an attack against Idomeneus to recover the body of his brother-in-law Alcathous at the urging of Deiphobus.[10] He is the leader of the Trojans' Dardanian allies, as well as a second cousin and principal lieutenant of Hector, son of the Trojan king Priam. Aeneas's mother Aphrodite frequently comes to his aid on the battlefield, and he is a favorite of Apollo. Aphrodite and Apollo rescue Aeneas from combat with Diomedes of Argos, who nearly kills him, and carry him away to Pergamos for healing. Even Poseidon, who normally favors the Greeks, comes to Aeneas's rescue after he falls under the assault of Achilles, noting that Aeneas, though from a junior branch of the royal family, is destined to become king of the Trojan people. Bruce Louden presents Aeneas as a "type" in the tradition of Utnapishtim, Baucis and Philemon, and Lot; the just man spared the general destruction.[11] Apollodorus explains that "...the Greeks let him alone on account of his piety".[12]

Other sources

The Roman mythographer Gaius Julius Hyginus (c. 64 BCE – CE 17) in his Fabulae[13] credits Aeneas with killing 28 enemies in the Trojan War. Aeneas also appears in the Trojan narratives attributed to Dares Phrygius and Dictys of Crete

Roman myth and literature

Denier frappé sous César célébrant le mythe d'Enée et d'Anchise
Aeneas and Anchises

The history of Aeneas was continued by Roman authors. One influential source was the account of Rome's founding in Cato the Elder's Origines.[14] The Aeneas legend was well known in Virgil's day and appeared in various historical works, including the Roman Antiquities of the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus (relying on Marcus Terentius Varro), Ab Urbe Condita by Livy (probably dependent on Quintus Fabius Pictor, fl. 200 BCE), and Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus (now extant only in an epitome by Justin).

Virgil's Aeneid

Venus as Huntress Appears to Aeneas
Venus as Huntress Appears to Aeneas, by Pietro da Cortona

The Aeneid explains that Aeneas is one of the few Trojans who were not killed or enslaved when Troy fell. Aeneas, after being commanded by the gods to flee, gathered a group, collectively known as the Aeneads, who then traveled to Italy and became progenitors of Romans. The Aeneads included Aeneas's trumpeter Misenus, his father Anchises, his friends Achates, Sergestus, and Acmon, the healer Iapyx, the helmsman Palinurus, and his son Ascanius (also known as Iulus, Julus, or Ascanius Julius). He carried with him the Lares and Penates, the statues of the household gods of Troy, and transplanted them to Italy.

Several attempts to find a new home failed; one such stop was on Sicily, where in Drepanum, on the island's western coast, his father, Anchises, died peacefully.

Guérin Énée racontant à Didon les malheurs de la ville de Troie Louvre 5184
Aeneas tells Dido about the fall of Troy, by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin

After a brief but fierce storm sent up against the group at Juno's request, Aeneas and his fleet made landfall at Carthage after six years of wanderings. Aeneas had a year-long affair with the Carthaginian queen Dido (also known as Elissa), who proposed that the Trojans settle in her land and that she and Aeneas reign jointly over their peoples. A marriage of sorts was arranged between Dido and Aeneas at the instigation of Juno, who was told that her favorite city would eventually be defeated by the Trojans' descendants. Aeneas's mother Venus (the Roman adaptation of Aphrodite) realized that her son and his company needed a temporary respite to reinforce themselves for the journey to come. However, the messenger god Mercury was sent by Jupiter and Venus to remind Aeneas of his journey and his purpose, compelling him to leave secretly. When Dido learned of this, she uttered a curse that would forever pit Carthage against Rome, an enmity that would culminate in the Punic Wars. She then committed suicide by stabbing herself with the same sword she gave Aeneas when they first met.

After the sojourn in Carthage, the Trojans returned to Sicily where Aeneas organized funeral games to honor his father, who had died a year before. The company traveled on and landed on the western coast of Italy. Aeneas descended into the underworld where he met Dido (who turned away from him to return to her husband) and his father, who showed him the future of his descendants and thus the history of Rome.

Aeneas and Turnus
Aeneas defeats Turnus, by Luca Giordano, 1634–1705. The genius of Aeneas is shown ascendant, looking into the light of the future, while that of Turnus is setting, shrouded in darkness

Latinus, king of the Latins, welcomed Aeneas's army of exiled Trojans and let them reorganize their lives in Latium. His daughter Lavinia had been promised to Turnus, king of the Rutuli, but Latinus received a prophecy that Lavinia would be betrothed to one from another land — namely, Aeneas. Latinus heeded the prophecy, and Turnus consequently declared war on Aeneas at the urging of Juno, who was aligned with King Mezentius of the Etruscans and Queen Amata of the Latins. Aeneas's forces prevailed. Turnus was killed, and Virgil's account ends abruptly.

Other sources

The rest of Aeneas's biography is gleaned from other ancient sources, including Livy and Ovid's Metamorphoses. According to Livy, Aeneas was victorious but Latinus died in the war. Aeneas founded the city of Lavinium, named after his wife. He later welcomed Dido's sister, Anna Perenna, who then committed suicide after learning of Lavinia's jealousy. After Aeneas's death, Venus asked Jupiter to make her son immortal. Jupiter agreed. The river god Numicus cleansed Aeneas of all his mortal parts and Venus anointed him with ambrosia and nectar, making him a god. Aeneas was recognized as the god Jupiter Indiges.[15]

Medieval accounts

Snorri Sturlason in the Prologue of The Edda, tells of the world as parted in three continents: Africa, Asia and the third part called Europe or Enea.[2][16] Snorri also tells of a Trojan named Munon or Menon, who marries the daughter of the High King (Yfirkonungr) Priam called Troan and travels to distant lands, marries the Sybil and got a son, Tror, who, as Snorri tells, is identical to Thor. This tale resemble some episodes of the Aeneid.[17] Continuations of Trojan matter in the Middle Ages had their effects on the character of Aeneas as well. The 12th-century French Roman d'Enéas addresses Aeneas's sexuality. Though Virgil appears to deflect all homoeroticism onto Nisus and Euryalus, making his Aeneas a purely heterosexual character, in the Middle Ages there was at least a suspicion of homoeroticism in Aeneas. The Roman d'Enéas addresses that charge, when Queen Amata opposes Aeneas's marrying Lavinia, claiming that Aeneas loved boys.[18]

Medieval interpretations of Aeneas were greatly influenced by both Virgil and other Latin sources. Specifically, the accounts by Dares and Dictys, which were reworked by 13th-century Italian writer Guido delle Colonne (in Historia destructionis Troiae), colored many later readings. From Guido, for instance, the Pearl Poet and other English writers get the suggestion[19] that Aeneas's safe departure from Troy with his possessions and family was a reward for treason, for which he was chastised by Hecuba.[20] In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (late 14th century) the Pearl Poet, like many other English writers, employed Aeneas to establish a genealogy for the foundation of Britain,[19] and explains that Aeneas was "impeached for his perfidy, proven most true" (line 4).[21]

Family and legendary descendants

B. PINELLI, Enea e il Tevere
Aeneas and the god Tiber, by Bartolomeo Pinelli

Aeneas had an extensive family tree. His wet-nurse was Caieta,[22] and he is the father of Ascanius with Creusa, and of Silvius with Lavinia. Ascanius, also known as Iulus (or Julius),[23] founded Alba Longa and was the first in a long series of kings. According to the mythology outlined by Virgil in the Aeneid, Romulus and Remus were both descendants of Aeneas through their mother Rhea Silvia, making Aeneas the progenitor of the Roman people.[24] Some early sources call him their father or grandfather,[25] but considering the commonly accepted dates of the fall of Troy (1184 BC) and the founding of Rome (753 BC), this seems unlikely. The Julian family of Rome, most notably Julius Cæsar and Augustus, traced their lineage to Ascanius and Aeneas,[26] thus to the goddess Venus. Through the Julians, the Palemonids make this claim. The legendary kings of Britain – including King Arthur – trace their family through a grandson of Aeneas, Brutus.[27]

Character and appearance

Affresco romano - Enea e di
Dido and Aeneas, from a Roman fresco, Pompeian Third Style (10 BC - 45 AD), Pompeii, Italy

Aeneas's consistent epithet in Virgil and other Latin authors is pius, a term that connotes reverence toward the gods and familial dutifulness.

In the Aeneid, Aeneas is described as strong and handsome, but neither his hair colour nor complexion are described.[28] In late antiquity however sources add further physical descriptions. The De excidio Troiae of Dares Phrygius describes Aeneas as ‘‘auburn-haired, stocky, eloquent, courteous, prudent, pious, and charming.’’[29] There is also a brief physical description found in 6th century AD John Malalas' Chronographia: ‘‘Aeneas: short, fat, with a good chest, powerful, with a ruddy complexion, a broad face, a good nose, fair skin, bald on the forehead, a good beard, grey eyes.’’[30]

Modern portrayals

Literature

Aeneas and Dido are the main characters of a 17th-century broadside ballad called "The Wandering Prince of Troy." The ballad ultimately alters Aeneas's fate from traveling on years after Dido's death to joining her as a spirit soon after her suicide.[31]

In modern literature, Aeneas is the speaker in two poems by Allen Tate, "Aeneas at Washington" and "Aeneas at New York." He is a main character in Ursula K. Le Guin's Lavinia, a re-telling of the last six books of the Aeneid told from the point of view of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus of Latium.

Aeneas appears in David Gemmell's Troy series as a main heroic character who goes by the name Helikaon.

In Rick Riordan's book series, The Heroes of Olympus, Aeneas is regarded as the first Roman demigod, son of Venus rather than Aphrodite.

Opera, film and other media

Aeneas is a title character in Henry Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas (c. 1688), and one of the principal roles in Hector Berlioz' opera Les Troyens (c. 1857). Canadian composer James Rolfe composed his opera Aeneas and Dido (2007; to a libretto by André Alexis) as a companion piece to Purcell's opera.

Despite its many dramatic elements, Aeneas's story has generated little interest from the film industry. Portrayed by Steve Reeves, he was the main character in the 1961 sword and sandal film Guerra di Troia (The Trojan War). Reeves reprised the role the following year in the film The Avenger, about Aeneas's arrival in Latium and his conflicts with local tribes as he tries to settle his fellow Trojan refugees there.

The most recent cinematic portrayal of Aeneas was in the film Troy, in which he appears as a youth charged by Paris to protect the Trojan refugees, and to continue the ideals of the city and its people. Paris gives Aeneas Priam's sword, in order to give legitimacy and continuity to the royal line of Troy – and lay the foundations of Roman culture. In this film, he is not a member of the royal family and does not appear to fight in the war.

In the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem by White Wolf Game Studios, Aeneas figures as one of the mythical founders of the Ventrue Clan.

in the action game Warriors: Legends of Troy, Aeneas is a playable character. The game ends with him and the Aeneans fleeing Troy's destruction and, spurned by the words of a prophetess thought crazed, goes to a new country (Italy) where he will start an empire greater than Greece and Troy combined that shall rule the world for 1000 years, never to be outdone in the tale of men (The Roman Empire).

In the 2018 TV miniseries Troy: Fall of a City, Aeneas is portrayed by Alfred Enoch.[32]

Depictions in art

Scenes depicting Aeneas, especially from the Aeneid, have been the focus of study for centuries. They have been the frequent subject of art and literature since their debut in the 1st century.

Villa Valmarana

The artist Giovanni Battista Tiepolo was commissioned by Gaetano Valmarana in 1757 to fresco several rooms in the Villa Valmarana, the family villa situated outside Vicenza. Tiepolo decorated the palazzina with scenes from epics such as Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid.[33]

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 038
Aeneas Introducing Cupid Dressed as Ascanius to Dido, by Tiepolo (1757).
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 054
Venus Appearing to Aeneas on the Shores of Carthage, by Tiepolo (1757).
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo - Mercury Appearing to Aeneas - WGA22338
Mercury Appearing to Aeneas, by Tiepolo (1757).
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo - Venus and Vulcan - WGA22370
Venus and Vulcan, by Tiepolo (between 1762 and 1766).

Aeneas flees Troy

'Flight of Aeneas from Troy', fresco painting by Girolamo Genga, 1507-1510, Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena
Flight of Aeneas from Troy, by Girolamo Genga (between 1507 and 1510).
Aeneas and his Father Fleeing Troy by Simon Vouet, San Diego Museum of Art
Aeneas and his Father Fleeing Troy, by Simon Vouet (c. 1635).
Enée & Anchise Lepautre Louvre M.R.2028 noir
Aeneas & Anchises, by Pierre Lepautre (c. 1697).
Batoni, Pompeo — Aeneas fleeing from Troy — 1750
Aeneas fleeing from Troy, by Pompeo Batoni (c. 1750).

Aeneas with Dido

Dido and Aeneas LACMA M.81.199
Dido and Aeneas, by Rutilio Manetti (c. 1630)
Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland - The Meeting of Dido and Aeneas - Google Art Project
The Meeting of Dido and Aeneas, by Nathaniel Dance-Holland
Thomas Jones - Landscape with Dido and Aeneas - WGA11966
Landscape with Dido and Aeneas, by Thomas Jones (1769)
The-Meeting-Of-Dido-And-Aeneas
Dido meeting Aeneas, by Johann Heinrich the Elder Tischbein (3 January 1780)

Family tree

Family tree of Aeneas
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oceanus
 
Tethys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atlas
 
Pleione
 
Scamander
 
Idaea
 
Simoeis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus/Jupiter
 
Electra
 
 
Teucer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dardanus
 
 
 
 
Batea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilus
 
Erichthonius
 
Astyoche
 
 
Hieromneme
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Callirrhoe
 
 
 
 
 
Tros
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilus
 
 
 
Assaracus
 
 
 
 
Ganymede
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laomedon
 
Themiste
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Priam
 
 
 
Anchises
 
Aphrodite/Venus
 
Latinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creusa
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aeneas
 
 
 
Lavinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ascanius
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
Aeneas Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brutus of Britain
 
 
 
 
 
Latinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alba
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capetus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tiberinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agrippa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Romulus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aventinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Procas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numitor
 
Amulius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhea Silvia
 
Ares/Mars
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hersilia
 
Romulus
 
Remus
 

See also

References

  1. ^ "Aeneas". Merriam-Webster. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  2. ^ a b The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturlson Translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur [1916] Prologue II at Internet Sacred Texts Archive. Accessed 11/14/17
  3. ^ Gregory Nagy (Translator), Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 198-199: "His name will be Aineias [Aeneas], since it was an unspeakable [ainos] akhos that took hold of me—grief that I had fallen into the bed of a mortal man."
  4. ^ Andrew Faulkner, The Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite: Introduction, Text, and Commentary (2008) p.257
  5. ^ Marilynn Desmond, Reading Dido: Gender, Textuality, and Medieval Aeneid (1994) pp. 85-86
  6. ^ John of Salisbury, Polycraticus 8.24-25; Bernard Sylvestris of Tours, Commentum supra sex libros Eneidos Vergilii
  7. ^ Milman Parry (Author), Adam Parry (Editor), The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry (1971) p.169
  8. ^ "Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite." trans by Gregory Nagy, University of Houston.
  9. ^ Virgil, The Aeneid
  10. ^ Homer, The Iliad, Book XIII, (Samuel Butler, trans.)
  11. ^ Louden, Bruce. "Aeneas in the Iliad: the One Just Man", 102nd Annual Meeting of CAMWS, Classical Association of the Middle West and South, 2006
  12. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome, (James G. Frazer ed.), Chap.V, 21
  13. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 115.
  14. ^ Stout, S.E. (1924). "How Vergil Established for Aeneas a Legal Claim to a Home and a Throne in Italy". The Classical Journal. 20 (3): 152–60. JSTOR 3288552.
  15. ^ Titus Livius. The History of Rome, (Rev. Canon Roberts, trans.), Vol. I, J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., London, 1905
  16. ^ Edda Snorra Sturlusonar GUÐNI JÓNSSON bjó til prentunar. Prologus 2
  17. ^ The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturlson Translated by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur [1916] Prologue III at Internet Sacred Texts Archive. Accessed 11/14/17
  18. ^ Eldevik, Randi (1991). "Negotiations of Homoerotic Tradition". PMLA. 106 (5): 1177–78. doi:10.2307/462692. JSTOR 462692.
  19. ^ a b Tolkien, J. R. R.; E. V. Gordon; Norman Davis, eds. (1967). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford UP. p. 70. ISBN 9780198114864.
  20. ^ Colonne, Guido delle (1936). Griffin, N. E., ed. Historia destructionis Troiae. Medieval Academy Books. 26. Cambridge: Medieval Academy of America. pp. 218, 234.
  21. ^ Laura Howes, ed. (2010). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Marie Boroff (trans.). New York: Norton. p. 3. ISBN 9780393930252. In Marie Boroff's translation, edited by Laura Howes, the treacherous knight of line 3 is identified as Antenor, incorrectly, as Tolkien argues.
  22. ^ Vergil Aeneid 7.1-4
  23. ^ Vergil, Aeneid 1983 1.267
  24. ^ C. F. L'Homond Selections from Viri Romae p.1
  25. ^ Romulus by Plutarch
  26. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities I.70.4
  27. ^ Charles Selby Events to be Remembered in the History of Britain p.1-2
  28. ^ What Does Aeneas Look like?, Mark Griffith, Classical Philology, Vol. 80, No. 4 (Oct., 1985), p. 309.
  29. ^ "Classical E-Text: Dares Phrygius, The Fall Of Troy". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
  30. ^ Lowden, John. Illuminated prophet books: a study of Byzantine manuscripts of the major and minor prophets Penn State Press, 1988, p. 62
  31. ^ English Broadside Ballad Archive, ballad facsimile and full text
  32. ^ "'Troy: Fall Of A City': Bella Dayne, Louis Hunter & More Join BBC/Netflix Epic". Deadline. March 30, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  33. ^ Michael Collins, Elise K. Kirk ed. Opera and Vivaldi p. 150

Sources

Further reading

  • Cramer, D. “Wrath of Aeneas.” Syllecta Classica, vol. 11, 2000, pp. 16–33.
  • De Vasconcellos, P. S. “A Sound Play on Aeneas' Name in the Aeneid: A Brief Note on VII.69.” Vergilius (1959-), vol. 61, 2015, pp. 125–129.
  • Farron, S. “The Aeneas-Dido Episode as an Attack on Aeneas' Mission and Rome.” Greece & Rome, vol. 27, no. 1, 1980, pp. 34–47.
  • Gowers, E. “Trees and Family Trees in the Aeneid.” Classical Antiquity, vol. 30, no. 1, 2011, pp. 87–118.
  • Grillo, L. “Leaving Troy and Creusa: Reflections on Aeneas’ Flight.” The Classical Journal, vol. 106, no. 1, 2010, pp. 43–68.
  • Noonan, J. “Sum Pius Aeneas: Aeneas and the Leader as Conservator/Σωτήρ” The Classical Bulletin. vol. 83, no. 1, 2007, pp. 65–91.
  • Putnam, M. C. J. The Humanness of Heroes: Studies in the Conclusion of Virgil's Aeneid. The Amsterdam Vergil lectures, 1. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011.
  • Starr, R. J. “Aeneas the Rhetorician : ‘Aeneid IV’, 279-295.” Latomus, vol. 62, no. 1, 2003, pp. 36–46.
  • Scafoglio, G. “Betrayal of Aeneas.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, vol. 53 no. 1, 2013, pp. 1–14.
  • Schauer, M. Aeneas dux in Vergils Aeneis. Eine literarische Fiktion in augusteischer Zeit. Zetemata vol. 128. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2007.

External links

Legendary titles
Preceded by
Latinus
Latin king Succeeded by
Ascanius
Aeneas (biblical figure)

Aeneas is a character in the New Testament. According to Acts 9:32-33, he lived in Lydda, and had been a cripple for eight years. When Peter said to him, "Jesus Christ heals you. Get up and roll up your mat," he was healed and got up.

F. F. Bruce suggests that Aeneas was "one of the local Christian group, though this is not expressly stated." According to David J. Williams, there is some ambiguity in the Greek text of verse 34, which contains a phrase normally translated as "make thy bed". The text would literally be rendered as Peter telling Aeneas to "spread for himself", which might not refer to his bedding, but something else he had been unable to do. Williams suggests it could, for example, mean "Get yourself something to eat".The account of Aeneas being healed is followed by an account of the raising of Dorcas.

Aeneas Coffey

Aeneas Coffey (1780–1839) was an Irish inventor and distiller.

Aeneas Mackay Jr.

Aeneas, Baron Mackay Jr. (29 November 1838 – 13 November 1909) was a Dutch Anti-Revolutionary politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1888 to 1891. Born into a noble family from Gelderland, he studied Law in Utrecht and worked as lawyer and a judge. He was elected into the House of Representatives in 1876, and retained his seat for twelve years before his premiership. In his cabinet, he served as minister of the Interior and minister of Colonial Affairs. After another thirteen years in the House, he became a member of the Council of State, receiving the honorary title Minister of State.

Aeneas Mackintosh

Aeneas Lionel Acton Mackintosh (1 July 1879 – 8 May 1916) was a British Merchant Navy officer and Antarctic explorer, who commanded the Ross Sea party as part of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. The Ross Sea party's mission was to support Shackleton's proposed transcontinental march by laying supply depots along the latter stages of the march's intended route. In the face of persistent setbacks and practical difficulties, Mackintosh's party fulfilled its task, although he and two others died in the course of their duties.

Mackintosh's first Antarctic experience was as second officer on Shackleton's Nimrod expedition, 1907–1909. Shortly after his arrival in the Antarctic, a shipboard accident destroyed his right eye, and he was sent back to New Zealand. He returned in 1909 to participate in the later stages of the expedition; his will and determination in adversity impressed Shackleton, and led to his Ross Sea party appointment in 1914.

Having brought his party to the Antarctic, Mackintosh was faced with numerous difficulties. Confused and vague orders meant he was uncertain of the timing of Shackleton's proposed march. His problems were compounded when the party's ship, SY Aurora, was swept from its winter moorings during a gale and was unable to return, causing the loss of vital equipment and supplies. In carrying out the party's depot-laying task, one man died; Mackintosh barely survived, owing his life to the actions of his comrades who brought him to safety. Restored to health, he and a companion disappeared while attempting to return to the expedition's base camp by crossing the unstable sea ice.

Mackintosh's competence and leadership skills have been questioned by polar historians. Shackleton commended the work of the party, and equated the sacrifice of their lives to those given in the trenches of the First World War, but was critical of Mackintosh's organising skills. Years later, Shackleton's son, Lord Shackleton, identified Mackintosh as one of the expedition's heroes, alongside Ernest Joyce and Dick Richards.

Aeneas Williams

Aeneas Demetrius Williams (; (born January 29, 1968) is a former American football player, who played with the Arizona Cardinals and St. Louis Rams of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for Southern University and was drafted in the third round (59th overall) of the 1991 NFL Draft. Williams was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2014. Aeneas started out as a cornerback then switched to free safety later in his career.

Aeneid

The Aeneid (; Latin: Aeneis [ae̯ˈneːɪs]) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed.

The hero Aeneas was already known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas's wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and his description as a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous pietas, and fashioned the Aeneid into a compelling founding myth or national epic that tied Rome to the legends of Troy, explained the Punic Wars, glorified traditional Roman virtues, and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders, heroes, and gods of Rome and Troy.

The Aeneid is widely regarded as Virgil's masterpiece and one of the greatest works of Latin literature.

Anchises

Anchises (, ann-KY-seez; Greek: Ἀγχίσης, Ankhísēs) was a member of the royal family of Troy in Greek and Roman legend. He was said to have been the son of King Capys of Dardania and Themiste, daughter of Ilus, who was son of Tros. He is most famous as the father of Aeneas and for his treatment in Virgil's Aeneid. Anchises' brother was Acoetes, father of the priest Laocoon.He was a mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite (or in Roman mythology, the lover of Venus). One version is that Aphrodite pretended to be a Phrygian princess and seduced him. She later revealed herself and informed him that they would have a son named Aeneas. Aphrodite had warned him that if he boasted of the affair, he would be blasted by the thunderbolt of Zeus. He did not heed her warning and was struck with a thunderbolt, which in different versions either blinds him or kills him. The principal early narrative of Aphrodite's seduction of Anchises and the birth of Aeneas is the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. According to the Bibliotheca, Anchises and Aphrodite had another son, Lyrus, who died childless. He later had a mortal wife named Eriopis, according to the scholiasts, and he is credited with other children beside Aeneas and Lyrus. Homer, in the Iliad, mentions a daughter named Hippodameia, their eldest ("the darling of her father and mother"), who married her cousin Alcathous.

After the defeat of Troy in the Trojan War, the elderly Anchises was carried from the burning city by his son Aeneas, accompanied by Aeneas' wife Creusa, who died in the escape attempt, and small son Ascanius. The subject is depicted in several paintings, including a famous version by Federico Barocci in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. The rescue is also mentioned in a speech in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar when Cassius attempts to persuade Brutus to murder Caesar. Anchises himself died and was buried in Sicily many years later. Aeneas later visited Hades and saw his father again in the Elysian Fields.Homer's Iliad mentions another Anchises, a wealthy native of Sicyon in Greece and father of Echepolus.

Ascanius

Ascanius (; Ancient Greek: Ἀσκάνιος) (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus. He is a character in Roman mythology, and has a divine lineage, being the son of Aeneas, who is the son of the goddess Venus and the hero Anchises, a relative of the king Priam; thus Ascanius has divine ascendents by both parents, being descendants of god Jupiter and Dardanus. He is also an ancestor of Romulus, Remus and the Gens Julia. Together with his father, he is a major character in Virgil's Aeneid, and he is depicted as one of the founders of the Roman race.

Dido

Dido ( DY-doh; Ancient Greek: Δῑδώ, Latin pronunciation: [ˈdiːdoː]) was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is primarily known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is also known as Elissa ( ee-LISS-ə, Ἔλισσα).

Dido and Aeneas

Dido and Aeneas (Z. 626) is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. The dates of the composition and first performance of the opera are uncertain. It was composed no later than July 1688, and had been performed at Josias Priest's girls' school in London by the end of 1689. Some scholars argue for a date of composition as early as 1683. The story is based on Book IV of Virgil's Aeneid. It recounts the love of Dido, Queen of Carthage, for the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair when he abandons her. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works. It was also Purcell's only true opera, as well as his only all-sung dramatic work. One of the earliest known English operas, it owes much to John Blow's Venus and Adonis, both in structure and in overall effect. The influence of Cavalli's opera Didone is also apparent.

Founding of Rome

The tale of the Founding of Rome is recounted in traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves as the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, twins who were suckled by a she-wolf as infants in the 8th century BC. Another account, set earlier in time, claims that the Roman people are descended from Trojan War hero Aeneas, who escaped to Italy after the war, and whose son, Iulus, was the ancestor of the family of Julius Caesar. The archaeological evidence of human occupation of the area of modern-day Rome, Italy dates from about 14,000 years ago.

Ilioneus

In Greek mythology, the name Ilioneus (Ancient Greek: Ἰλιονῆος) may refer to:

Ilioneus, one of the Niobids.

Ilioneus, a Trojan, an only son of Phorbas, was killed by Peneleos.

Ilioneus, a Trojan elder, who implored Diomedes to spare him, but was killed nevertheless.

Ilioneus, a companion of Aeneas. He was one of those whose ships sank during the storm in which Aeneas and his people were caught. Being the eldest of the Trojan survivors with Aeneas, he was the first to speak to Dido when they entered her palace at Carthage.

Lausus

Lausus was the son of the ousted Etruscan king Mezentius, and fought with him against Aeneas and the Trojans in Italy. He appears in Virgil's Aeneid in Books VII and X. When his father is wounded by Aeneas, Lausus steps in between them, and Aeneas strikes them down. In doing so, Lausus embodies the idea of pietas that Virgil praises throughout, exemplified in the relationships of Anchises and Aeneas and of Pallas and Evander. Aeneas immediately feels remorse for having killed the boy, and reproaches Lausus' men for keeping a distance rather than caring for the body: "Then to the stripling's tardy followers / he sternly called, and lifted from the earth / with his own hand the fallen foe: dark blood / defiled those princely tresses braided fair."Lausus is considered a foil to Pallas, the son of King Evander: both are young, come down from royal blood, are handsome, strong, full of filial piety, and both die at the hands of greater heroes.

Lavinia

In Roman mythology, Lavinia (; Latin: Lāuīnĭa [laːˈwiːnia]) is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas.

Lavinia, the only child of the king and "ripe for marriage", had been courted by many men who hoped to become the king of Latium. Turnus, ruler of the Rutuli, was the most likely of the suitors, having the favor of Queen Amata. King Latinus is later warned by his father Faunus in a dream oracle that his daughter is not to marry a Latin.

"Propose no Latin alliance for your daughter,Son of mine; distrust the bridal chamber

Now prepared. Men from abroad will come

And be your sons by marriage. Blood so mingled

Lifts our name starward. Children of that stock

Will see all earth turned Latin at their feet,

Governed by them, as far as on his rounds

The Sun looks down on Ocean, East or West."

Lavinia has what is perhaps her most, or only, memorable moment in Book 7 of the Aeneid, lines 69–83: during sacrifice at the altars of the gods, Lavinia's hair catches fire, an omen promising glorious days to come for Lavinia and war for all Latins.

Aeneas and Lavinia had one son, Silvius. Aeneas named the city Lavinium for her. According to an account by Livy, Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia; and she ruled the Latins as a power behind the throne, for Ascanius was too young to rule.

Mezentius

In Roman mythology, Mezentius was an Etruscan king, and father of Lausus. Sent into exile because of his cruelty, he moved to Latium. He reveled in bloodshed and was overwhelmingly savage on the battlefield, but more significantly to a Roman audience he was a contemptor divum, a "despiser of the gods."

He appears in Virgil's Aeneid, primarily book ten, where he aids Turnus in a war against Aeneas and the Trojans. While in battle with Aeneas, he is critically injured by a spear blow, but his son Lausus bravely blocks Aeneas's final blow. Lausus is then killed by Aeneas, and Mezentius is able to escape death for a short while. Once he hears of Lausus' death, he feels ashamed that his son died in his place and returns to battle on his horse Rhaebus in order to avenge him. He is able to keep Aeneas on the defensive for some time by riding around Aeneas and loosing javelins. Eventually, Aeneas kills the horse with a spear and pins Mezentius underneath. He is overcome by Aeneas, but remains defiant and fearless unto his death, not begging for mercy as Turnus later does, but simply asking that he be buried with his son.

In the traditional myth that predates the Aeneid, Mezentius actually outlived Aeneas, who 'disappeared' into the river which Aeneas became associated with in a hero cult. However, since his benefactor Maecenas was a native Etruscan, Virgil portrayed Mezentius as a tyrant, attributing to him personally the evils which the Greek authors had previously accused the Etruscans of, such as torture and savagery, an ethnic prejudice already present in the Homeric Hymns. Thus he created something of a scapegoat of Mezentius and portrayed the Etruscan people as a good race who fight alongside Aeneas.

Pope Pius II

Pope Pius II (Latin: Pius PP. II, Italian: Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Latin: Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464. He was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble but impoverished family. His longest and most enduring work is the story of his life, the Commentaries, which is the only autobiography ever written by a reigning pope.

Silvius (mythology)

In Roman mythology, Silvius, or Sylvius, (Latin: Silvǐus; Greek: Σιλούιος; said to have reigned 1139-1110 BC), or Silvius Postumus, was either the son of Aeneas and Lavinia or the son of Ascanius. He succeeded Ascanius as King of Alba Longa.According to the former tradition, upon the death of Aeneas, Lavinia is said to have hidden in a forest from the fear that Ascanius would harm the child. He was named after his place of birth, Silva being the Latin word for forest or wood.

According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a dispute arose on who should succeed Ascanius, either Silvius (the brother of Ascanius) or Iulus (the son of Ascanius). The dispute was decided in favor of Silvius by the people who believed that it was his right as the grandson of Latinus. Julus was awarded the priesthood. All the kings of Alba following Silvius bore the name as their cognomen.

His son, Aeneas Silvius, was also king of Alba Longa, and his other son, Brutus, was the first king of Britain.

Turnus

A satirical poet of the time of Nero and Vespasian also bears this name.

In Virgil's Aeneid, Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas.

Turnus (Ancient Greek: Τυρρηνός Tyrrhênós) was a legendary king of the Rutulians in Roman history.

According to Virgil's Aeneid, Turnus is the son of Daunus and the nymph Venilia and is brother of the nymph Juturna.

Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil () in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him.Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory.

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