Aegospotami

Aegospotami (Ancient Greek: Αἰγὸς Ποταμοί) or Aegospotamos[1] (i.e. Goat Streams) is the ancient Greek name for a small river issuing into the Hellespont (Modern Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı), northeast of Sestos.[2]

At its mouth was the scene of the decisive battle in 405 BC in which Lysander destroyed the Athenian fleet, ending the Peloponnesian War.[3][4] The ancient Greek township of the same name, whose existence is attested by coins of the 5th and 4th centuries,[5] and the river itself were located in ancient Thrace in the Chersonese.[1]

According to ancient sources including Pliny the Elder and Aristotle, in 467 BC a large meteorite landed near Aegospotami. It was described as brown in colour and the size of a wagon load; it was a local landmark for more than 500 years. A comet, tentatively identified as Halley's Comet, was reported at the time the meteorite landed. This is possibly the first European record of Halley's comet.[6][7]

Aegospotami is located on the Dardanelles, northeast of the modern Turkish town of Sütlüce, Gelibolu.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. “Aegospotami.” Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe).
  2. ^ John Freely -The companion guide to Turkey 1993 "... a stream known to the Greeks as Aegospotami, or Goats' River, which empties into the strait at Ince Limam, ..."
  3. ^ Guralnik, David B., Editor in Chief. “Aegospotami.” Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language. Second College Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 1986. ISBN 0-671-41809-2 (indexed), ISBN 0-671-41807-6 (plain edge), ISBN 0-671-41811-4 (pbk.), and ISBN 0-671-47035-3 (LeatherKraft).
  4. ^ Donald Kagan The Fall of the Athenian Empire 1991 p386 "'4 A key to understanding the course of events is that Aegospotami was only a beach, a place without a proper harbor, a little to the east of the modern Turkish town called Sütlüce, or Galata in its Greek form, the ancient town of ..."
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aegospotami" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 255.
  6. ^ Donald K. Yeomans (1991). Comets: A Chronological History of Observation, Science, Myth and Folklore. Donald Wiley and Sons. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-471-61011-3.
  7. ^ "Halley's comet 'was spotted by the ancient Greeks'". BBC. 10 September 2010.
  8. ^ Kagan, Donald (1991). The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Cornell University Press. pp. 386–388. ISBN 978-0-8014-9984-5.

Coordinates: 40°21′50.66″N 26°37′51″E / 40.3640722°N 26.63083°E

Agias of Sparta

Agias (Gr. Ἀγίας), the son of Agelochus and grandson of Tisamenus of Elea, was the Spartan seer of Lysander, who predicted that general's victory at the battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC. Some ancient writers considered Agias' prediction—that Lysander would capture the entire fleet except for ten triremes (which fled to Corcyra)--to have been the cause of the victory more than a mere prediction. Pausanias mentions seeing a bronze statue of Agias at the altar of Augustus in the marketplace in Sparta. There was also a statue in Delphi of both Agias and Lysander, reputedly erected by Lysander, which has been partially recovered.

Alypus

Alypus (Greek: Ἄλυπος) was a sculptor of ancient Greece, a native of Sicyon. He studied under Naucydes of Argos. His age may be fixed from his having executed bronze statues of some Spartans who shared in the victory of Lysander at Aegospotami around 405 BC. Pausanias also mentions some statues of victors of the Ancient Olympic Games made by him.

Amadocus I

Amadocus I (Ancient Greek: Ἀμάδοκος) was a Thracian king of the Odrysae from 410 BC until the beginning of 4th century. He was a friend of the Athenian statesman Alcibiades, and is mentioned at the time of the Battle of Aegospotami in 405. During his reign he experienced attacks from the Triballians and lost many of his territories.

At the beginning of Amadocus' reign he made Seuthes II ruler of his lands along the southern Aegean shore. He and Seuthes II were still the most powerful princes in Thrace when Xenophon visited the country in 400. They were, however, frequently at variance, but were reconciled to one another by Thrasybulus, the Athenian commander, in 390, and induced by him to become the allies of Athens. This Amadocus may perhaps be the same as the one said by Aristotle to have been attacked by his general Seuthes, a Thracian. Amadocus probably died a natural death around 390.

Amadok Point on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Amadocus.

Battle of Aegospotami

The Battle of Aegospotami ( ee-gəs-POT-ə-my) was a naval confrontation that took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. In the battle, a Spartan fleet under Lysander destroyed the Athenian navy. This effectively ended the war, since Athens could not import grain or communicate with its empire without control of the sea.

Battle of Arginusae

The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BC during the Peloponnesian War near the city of Canae in the Arginusae islands, east of the island of Lesbos. In the battle, an Athenian fleet commanded by eight strategoi defeated a Spartan fleet under Callicratidas. The battle was precipitated by a Spartan victory which led to the Athenian fleet under Conon being blockaded at Mytilene; to relieve Conon, the Athenians assembled a scratch force composed largely of newly constructed ships manned by inexperienced crews. This inexperienced fleet was thus tactically inferior to the Spartans, but its commanders were able to circumvent this problem by employing new and unorthodox tactics, which allowed the Athenians to secure a dramatic and unexpected victory. Slaves and metics who participated in the battle were granted Athenian citizenship.

The news of the victory itself was met with jubilation at Athens. Their joy was tempered, however, by the aftermath of the battle, in which a storm prevented the ships assigned to rescue the survivors of the 25 disabled or sunken Athenian triremes from performing their duties, and a great number of sailors drowned. A fury erupted at Athens when the public learned of this, and after a bitter struggle in the assembly six of the eight generals who had commanded the fleet were tried as a group and executed.

At Sparta, meanwhile, traditionalists who had supported Callicratidas pressed for peace with Athens, knowing that a continuation of the war would lead to the re-ascendence of their opponent Lysander. This party initially prevailed, and a delegation was dispatched to Athens to make an offer of peace; the Athenians, however, rejected this offer, and Lysander departed to the Aegean to take command of the fleet for the remainder of the war, which would be decided less than a year later by his total victory at Aegospotami.

Cleophon (politician)

Cleophon (Greek: Kλεoφῶν, Kleophōn; died 405 BC) was an Athenian politician and demagogue who was of great influence during the Peloponnesian War. He was a staunch democrat and vehement opponent of the oligarchs; his sparring with Critias rated a mention in Aristotle's Rhetoric.

On three separate occasions, he inspired the citizens of Athens to reject the Spartans' attempts to make peace; once after the Athenian victory at Cyzicus (410 BC), again after the Athenian victory at Arginusae (406 BC), and once again after the decisive Spartan naval victory at Aegospotami (405 BC). During Lysander's ensuing siege, the tide of opinion turned against the democrats, and the oligarchs used the opportunity to rid themselves of their rival. One of their members, Satyrus, brought a charge against Cleophon of neglect of military duty, leading to his arrest. Since it was by no means certain that Cleophon could be convicted of this, the commissioner for the publication of the Athenian laws, Nicomachus, was persuaded by bribery or partisanship to exhibit a "law" allowing the oligarch-dominated Boule to oversee Cleophon's trial by lot-chosen jury. The oligarchs used this assessorship (συνδικάζειν) over the jurors to ensure the conviction of Cleophon and his death sentence.

Cleophon was made the object of satire by the comic poet Plato in an eponymous play (now lost), and by Aristophanes in The Frogs. Both made fun of Cleophon's Thracian origins and accent: since his father is known to have been an Athenian citizen, his mother is conjectured to have been Thracian and Plato of his low Athenian birth (Andocides says that Cleophon was a harp-maker by trade, and Aelian comments on the poverty of his early life).

Conon

Conon (Greek: Κόνων) (before 444 BC – after 394 BC) was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, who led the Athenian naval forces when they were defeated by a Peloponnesian fleet in the crucial Battle of Aegospotami; later he contributed significantly to the restoration of Athens' political and military power.

Cressa (Thrace)

Cressa or Kressa (Ancient Greek: Κρῆσσα) was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Thrace, on the Thracian Chersonesus. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, in the second position of its recitation of the towns of the Thracian Chersonesus, along with Aegospotami, Cressa, Crithote and Pactya. It may be the same town cited by Pliny the Elder as Crissa on the Propontis.Its site is located 1.5 miles (2.4 km) northeast of Aigospotamoi, Turkey.

Crithote (Thrace)

Crithote or Krithote (Ancient Greek: Κριθωτή or Κριθώτη) was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, located in the region of the Thracian Chersonesos. It was on the Hellespont north of Gallipolis, and founded by Miltiades. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax among the cities of the Thracian Chersonesos: Aegospotami, Cressa, Crithote, and Pactya.At the time of Strabo it was in ruins. The geographer places it between the cities of Callipolis and Pactya. Pliny the Elder, for his part, says it was adjacent to the Propontis, where were also the cities of Tiristasis and Cissa.Isocrates highlights the excellent situation, from the strategic point of view, of the city, as a point of control of the Hellespont. Wherefore, the year 365 BCE, it was conquered, along with Sestos, by the Athenians under the command of Timotheus.Bronze coins minted by Crithote are preserved, dated between 350 BCE and 281 BCE, with the inscriptions ΚΡΙ, ΚΡΙΘΟ o ΚΡΙΘΟΥΣΙΩΝ.Its site is located 2 miles (3 km) est of Gelibolu, in European Turkey.

Ex voto of the Lacaedemonians

After the naval Battle of Aegospotami, the Lacedaemonians dedicated a majestic ex voto in Delphi.

List of Thracian Greeks

This is a list of ancient Greeks in Thrace

List of ancient Milesians

The Milesians were the inhabitants of Miletus, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River. Settlers from Crete moved to Miletus sometime in 16th century BC. By the 6th century BC, Miletus had become a maritime empire, and the Milesians spread out across Anatolia and even as far as the Crimea and Olbia, Ukraine, founding new colonies.

Noted Milesians:

Miletus, the mythological founder of the city

Cadmus of Miletus, a historian, perhaps mythical

Arctinus of Miletus, 8th century BC Greek epic poet

Thales (c. 624–c. 546 BC), considered by many the "first" Greek natural philosopher; "the father of science"

Anaximander (c. 610–c. 546 BC), philosopher; pupil of Thales

Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 585–c. 528 BC), philosopher; friend or pupil of Anaximander

Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550–c. 476 BC), historian

Hippodamus of Miletus (498–408 BC), Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, considered the "father of European urban planning"

Aspasia (c. 470-c. 400 BC), wife or courtesan of Pericles

Timotheus of Miletus (c. 446–357 BC), Greek musician and poet

Theopompus, pirate captain who served under Lysander in the Battle of Aegospotami (405 BC)

Eubulides (fl. 4th century BC), philosopher; formulated the "liar paradox"

Aristides of Miletus (fl. 2nd century BC), writer of shameless and amusing Milesian tales

Alexander Polyhistor or Alexander of Miletus (fl. first half of the 1st century BC), Greek historian and geographer

Aeschines of Miletus (fl. 1st century BC), Greek orator, a contemporary of Cicero

Hesychius of Miletus or Hesychius Illustrius, 6th century chronicler and biographer

Isidore of Miletus, 6th century Byzantine Greek architectMilesian tyrants:

Aristagoras (fl. late 6th century-early 5th century BC)

Histiaeus (died 493 BC)

Timarchus of Miletus (fl. 3rd century BC)

Lysander

Lysander (; died 395 BC, (Doric Greek: Λύσανδρος, romanized: Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC. The following year, he was able to force the Athenians to capitulate, bringing the Peloponnesian War to an end. He then played a key role in Sparta's domination of Greece for the next decade until his death at the Battle of Haliartus.

Pactya

Pactya or Paktye (Ancient Greek: Πακτύη) was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Thrace, on the Thracian Chersonesus. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, in its recitation of the towns of the Thracian Chersonesus, along with Aegospotami, Cressa, Crithote and then Pactya, situated 36 stadia from Cardia. It is said that Miltiades founded it.Strabo places it on the Propontis between Crithote and Macron Teichos. According to Herodotus, Miltiades the Elder ordered a wall built between Cardia, which was on the coast of Gulf of Melas and Pactya, which was on the Propontis side, to prevent invasion of the Chersonesus by the Apsinthii. Alcibiades retired here the Athenians had for the second time deprived him of the command. Pliny the Elder points out that both Cardia and Pactya later joined to form Lysimachia.Its site is located 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Bolayır, Turkey.

Paralus (ship)

The Paralus or Paralos (Greek: Πάραλος, "sea-side", named after a mythological son of Poseidon) was an Athenian sacred ship and a messenger trireme of the Athenian navy during the late 5th century BC. Its crew were known for their vehement pro-democracy views. It played a notable role in several episodes of the Peloponnesian War.

The Paralus appears more often in the literary and epigraphical sources for the classical period than any other individual ship; it carried almost all recorded Athenian diplomatic missions in the 5th and 4th centuries, and it appears that on most of these missions the treasurer (tamias) of Paralus acted as the chief ambassador.The crew of the Paralus (the Paraloi) was known for its exceptionally strong pro-democracy views; its remarkable unity on this matter may indicate that it was composed of the members of a single genos of the name Paraloi. This crew was instrumental in preventing an oligarchic coup at Samos in 411 BC. On bringing the news of this event to Athens, however, they found that a successful oligarchic coup had taken place there, and were interned; one crew member, escaping, brought the news of this event to the fleet at Samos, beginning the period of open division between the city and the fleet.

In 405 BC, the Paralus was one of ten ships that escaped from the Athenian disaster at Aegospotami with Conon; it was then dispatched to inform Athens of the defeat, its arrival setting off a citywide panic.

Pausanias of Sparta

Pausanias (Greek: Παυσανίας) was the Agiad King of Sparta from 445 BC to 426 BC and then from 408 BC to 395 BC. He was the son of the Spartan Agiad king Pleistoanax.

His first reign was as a minor after his father, Pleistoanax, was temporarily deposed and exiled after being charged by the Spartans with taking a bribe, probably from the Athenian leader, Pericles, to withdraw from the plain of Eleusis in Attica (Athens) after leading the Peloponnesian forces there following the revolts of Euboea and Megara from the Athenian empire. In 426 BC, Pleistoanax was recalled and restored as Agiad King of Sparta and ruled until his death in 409 BC.

Following the Spartan victory over Athens in the Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC, the Spartans were in a position to finally force Athens to capitulate. Pausanias laid siege to Athens main city while the Spartan admiral Lysander's fleet blockaded the port of Piraeus. This action effectively closed the grain route to Athens through the Hellespont, thereby starving Athens. Realising the seriousness of the situation, the Athenian statesman, Theramenes, started negotiations with Lysander. These negotiations took three months, but in the end Lysander agreed to terms at Piraeus. An agreement was reached for the capitulation of Athens and the cessation of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC.

Lysander then put in place a puppet government in Athens with the establishment of the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants under Critias which included Theramenes as a leading member. However, in 403 BC Pausanias was able to undermine Lysander's dominance of Athens after Pausanias gained the command of the Peloponnesian League expedition against the Athenian democrats then based in Piraeus. Despite opposition from Lysander, Pausanias took the opportunity to promote a reconciliation between the democratic party in Piraeus and the oligarchs controlling Athens main city, thus allowing the re-establishment of democratic government in Athens. Pausanias was able to restore democracy in Athens while bringing the Athenians, temporarily, into an alliance with Sparta.

Pausanias's actions led to a major conflict with the Spartan ephors. Pausanias was prosecuted, but then acquitted.

Returning to Sparta in 395 BC, Lysander was instrumental in starting a war with Thebes and other Greek cities, which came to be known as the Corinthian War. The Spartans prepared to send out an army against this new alliance of Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos (with the backing of the Persians).

The Spartans arranged for two armies, one under Lysander and the other under Pausanias, to rendezvous at and attack the city of Haliartus, Boeotia. Lysander arrived at the city while Pausanias's forces were still several days away. Not willing to wait for Pausanias, Lysander advanced to Haliartus with his troops. In the ensuing Battle of Haliartus, Lysander was killed after bringing his forces too near the walls of the city. Pausanias's army arrived after Lysander's defeat but then left the battle scene primarily due to Athenian military opposition.

Because of his poor leadership at Haliartus, Pausanias was condemned to death by the Spartans and replaced as king by his young son Agesipolis I.

However, Pausanias was able to escape execution and fled Sparta to live in exile in Tegea. While living there he wrote a pamphlet. No fragments of the pamphlet have survived and its contents or purposes are not clear. However, it seems that he wrote the pamphlet to criticise his opponents in Sparta accusing them of violating traditional Spartan laws and advocating the abolition of the ephors.

The year of Pausanias's death is unknown. He was also the father of Cleombrotus I.

Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse, Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force in 413 BC. This ushered in the final phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War, or the Ionian War. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from the Achaemenid Empire, supported rebellions in Athens's subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens's empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. The destruction of Athens's fleet in the Battle of Aegospotami effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved, but Sparta refused.

The term "Peloponnesian War " was never used by Thucydides, by far its major historian: that the term is all but universally used today is a reflection of the Athens-centric sympathies of modern historians. As prominent historian J. B. Bury remarks, the Peloponnesians would have considered it the "Attic War".The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. On the level of international relations, Athens, the strongest city-state in Greece prior to the war's beginning, was reduced to a state of near-complete subjection, while Sparta became established as the leading power of Greece. The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens found itself completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. The war also wrought subtler changes to Greek society; the conflict between democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta, each of which supported friendly political factions within other states, made civil war a common occurrence in the Greek world.

Ancient Greek warfare, meanwhile, originally a limited and formalized form of conflict, was transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.The Peloponnesian War was soon followed by the Corinthian War (394-386 BC), which, although it ended inconclusively, helped Athens regain a little of its former greatness.

Telycrates

Telycrates the Leucadian was a Greek admiral who took part in the battle of Aegospotami. He fought in the side of Peloponnesian alliance, since Lefkas was a colony of Corinth. He is referred by Pausanias the Geographer in his 10th book. Pausanias refers concretely that during his travel in Delphi he saw the statues of allies of Lysander in the battle of Aegospotami. One of these was of Telycrates. Today the football club of Lefkas is named Tylikratis after him.

Thorax of Lacedaemonia

Thorax (Gr. Θώραξ) of Lacedaemonia is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus as acting under Spartan commander Callicratidas during his operations in Lesbos in 405 BC, and as having been commissioned by him, after the capture of Mithymna, to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene. In the following year we again find Thorax in command of the land-force which cooperated with the fleet under Lysander in the storming of Lampsacus; and he was left at Samos as harmost by Lysander, when the latter was on his way to Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC. According to Plutarch, when the satrap Pharnabazus sent to Sparta to complain of ravages committed in his territory by Lysander, the Lacedaemonian government put Thorax to death, as he was a friend and colleague of the accused admiral, and they had found money in his possession. The date and circumstances of this, however, are very doubtful.

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