Aegis Combat System

The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin. It uses powerful computer and radar technology to track and guide weapons to destroy enemy targets.

Initially used by the United States Navy, Aegis is now used also by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, Spanish Navy, Royal Norwegian Navy, Republic of Korea Navy and Royal Australian Navy. Over 100 Aegis-equipped ships have been deployed. It is also part of NATO's European missile defence system.[1]

US Navy 031109-N-9769P-076 Guided missile cruiser USS Lake Champlain (CG 57) steams in the Southern California operating area
USS Lake Champlain, a Ticonderoga-class Aegis guided missile cruiser, launched in 1987. Beginning with USS Bunker Hill (CG-52), this version is equipped with the Mark 41 VLS, whereas earlier versions were equipped with the Mark-26 twin-arm missile launcher system.


The word "Aegis" is a reference that dates back to Greek mythology, with connotations of a protective shield, as the Aegis was the buckler (shield) of Zeus, worn by Athena.


Aegis Combat System
Diagram of the Aegis Combat System (Baseline 2-6)
USS Normandy (CG-60) CIC consoles
Combat Information Center (CIC) consoles aboard USS Normandy, 1997

The Aegis Combat System (ACS) is an advanced command and control (command and decision, or C&D, in Aegis parlance) and weapon control system (WCS) that uses powerful computers and radars to track and guide weapons to destroy enemy targets.

The ACS is composed of the Aegis Weapon System (AWS), the fast-reaction component of the Aegis Anti-Aircraft Warfare (AAW) capability, along with the Phalanx Close In Weapon System (CIWS), and the Mark 41 Vertical Launch System.[2] Mk 41 VLS is available in different versions that vary in size and weight. There are three lengths: 209 in (5.3 m) for the self-defense version, 266 in (6.8 m) for the tactical version, and 303 in (7.7 m) for the strike version. The empty weight for an 8-cell module is 26,800 lb (12,200 kg) for the self-defense version, 29,800 lb (13,500 kg) for the tactical version, and 32,000 lb (15,000 kg) for the strike version, thus incorporating anti-submarine warfare (ASW) systems and Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missiles (TLAM). Shipboard torpedo and naval gunnery systems are also integrated.

AWS, the heart of Aegis, comprises the AN/SPY-1 Radar, MK 99 Fire Control System, WCS, the Command and Decision Suite, and SM-2 Standard Missile family of weapons; these include the basic RIM-66 Standard, the RIM-67 extended range missile, and the newer RIM-161 designed to counter ballistic missile threats. A further SM-2 based weapon, the RIM-174 Standard ERAM was deployed in 2013. Individual ships may not carry all variants. Weapons loads are adjusted to suit assigned mission profile. The Aegis Combat System is controlled by an advanced, automatic detect-and-track, multi-function three-dimensional passive electronically scanned array radar, the AN/SPY-1. Known as "the Shield of the Fleet", the SPY high-powered (6 megawatt) radar is able to perform search, tracking, and missile guidance functions simultaneously with a track capacity of well over 100 targets at more than 100 nautical miles (190 km).[3] However the AN/SPY-1 Radar is mounted lower than the AN/SPS-49 radar system and so has a reduced radar horizon.[4]

The Aegis system communicates with the Standard missiles through a radio frequency (RF) uplink using the AN/SPY-1 radar for mid-course update missile guidance during engagements, but still requires the AN/SPG-62 radar for terminal guidance. This means that with proper scheduling of intercepts, a large number of targets can be engaged simultaneously.

The computer-based command-and-decision element is the core of the Aegis Combat System. This interface makes the ACS capable of simultaneous operation against almost all kinds of threats. The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMD) program is intended to enable the Aegis system to act in a sea-based ballistic missile defense function, to counter short- and medium-range ballistic missiles of the variety typically employed by a number of potential opponent states. As of January, 2014, the US and Japan were the only countries to purchase or deploy the Aegis BMD.[5][6]


Aegis was initially developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, which was later acquired by General Electric. The division responsible for the Aegis systems became Government Electronic Systems. This, and other GE Aerospace businesses, were sold to Martin Marietta in 1992.[7] This became part of Lockheed Martin in 1995.

USS Vincennes (CG-49) Aegis large screen displays
Large screen displays on USS Vincennes, typical of early Aegis platforms 1988

By the late 1950s, the U.S. Navy replaced guns with guided missiles on its ships. These were sufficient weapons but by the late 1960s, the U.S. Navy recognized that reaction time, firepower, and operational availability in all environments did not match the anti-ship missile threat. The new threat of Soviet anti-ship missiles exposed a weakness in contemporary naval radar. The requirements of both tracking and targeting these missiles was limited by the number of radars on each ship, which was typically 2–4. In 1958 the navy started the Typhon Combat System, a prophetic program culminating in the futuristic but unreliable AN/SPG-59 phased array radar, which was never made viable and was canceled in 1963 to be replaced by the Advanced Surface Missile System (ASMS).[8]

As a result, the US Navy decided to develop a program to defend ships from anti-ship missile threats. An Advanced Surface Missile System (ASMS) was promulgated and an engineering development program was initiated in 1964 to meet the requirements.[9] ASMS was renamed "Aegis" in December 1969 after the aegis, the shield of the Greek god Zeus. The name was suggested by Captain L. J. Stecher, a former Tartar Weapon System manager, after an internal U.S. Navy contest to name the ASMS program was initiated. Captain Stecher also submitted a possible acronym of Advanced Electronic Guided Interceptor System although this definition was never used.[10] The main manufacturer of the Aegis Combat System, Lockheed Martin, makes no mention of the name Aegis being an acronym, nor does the U.S. Navy.

In 1970 then–Captain Wayne Meyer was named Manager Aegis Weapons System. Under his leadership the first systems were successfully deployed on various US Navy vessels.

USS John S. McCain (DDG-56) Aegis large screen displays
Large screen displays on USS John S. McCain, circa 1997. Destroyers have two displays while cruisers have four.

The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in a test ship, USS Norton Sound, in 1973.[11] During this time frame, the Navy envisioned installing the Aegis Combat System on both a nuclear-powered "strike cruiser" (or CSGN) and a conventionally-powered destroyer (originally designated DDG 47). The CSGN was to be a new, 17,200 ton cruiser design based on the earlier California and Virginia-class cruisers. The Aegis destroyer design would be based on the gas turbine powered Spruance class. When the CSGN was cancelled, the Navy proposed a modified Virginia-class design (CGN 42) with a new superstructure designed for the Aegis Combat System and with a displacement of 12,100 tons. As compared to the CSGN, this design was not as survivable and had reduced command and control facilities for an embarked flag officer. Ultimately this design was also cancelled during the Carter Administration due to its increased cost compared to the non-nuclear DDG 47. With the cancellation of the CGN 42, the DDG 47 Aegis destroyer was redesignated as CG 47, a guided missile cruiser.

The first cruiser of this class was USS Ticonderoga, which used two twin-armed Mark-26 missile launchers, fore and aft. The commissioning of the sixth ship of the class, USS Bunker Hill opened a new era in surface warfare as the first Aegis ship outfitted with the Martin Marietta Mark-41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), allowing a wider missile selection, more firepower, and survivability. The improved AN/SPY-1B radar went to sea in USS Princeton, ushering in another advance in Aegis capabilities. USS Chosin introduced the AN/UYK-43/44 computers, which provide increased processing capabilities.

During 1980, a destroyer was designed using an improved sea-keeping hull form, reduced infrared and radar cross-sections, and upgrades to the Aegis Combat System. The first ship of the Arleigh Burke class, USS Arleigh Burke, was commissioned during 1991.

Flight II of the Arleigh Burke class, introduced in 1992, incorporated improvements to the SPY radar, and to the Standard missile, active electronic countermeasures, and communications. Flight IIA, introduced in 2000, added a helicopter hangar with one anti-submarine helicopter and one armed attack helicopter. The Aegis program has also projected reducing the cost of each Flight IIA ship by at least $30 million.

Aegis Open Architecture

The Multi-Mission Signal Processor (MMSP) provides Anti-Air Warfare (AAW)/Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) multi-mission capability for the first 28 ships (DDGs 51–78) of the US Navy's Arleigh Burke-class destroyers as part of the Aegis Open Architecture Modernization Program. This capability will also be incorporated in USS John Finn and following new construction, and as well as Aegis Ashore. MMSP modifies transmitters of the SPY-1D radar to enable dual-beam operation for reduced frame times and better reaction time, and provides stability for all D(V) waveforms. The SPY-1 radar system detects, tracks, and supports engagements of a broader range of threats. MMSP improves performance in littoral, ducted clutter, electronic attack (EA), and chaff environments and provides greater commonality in computer programs and equipment.[12][13] This will result in the merger with Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System.[14]

Technical development and issues

In 2010 it was reported that Aegis radar systems on board some individual warships were not being maintained properly. A Navy panel headed by retired Vice Adm. Phillip Balisle issued the "Balisle report," which asserted that over-emphasis on saving money, including cuts in crews and streamlined training and maintenance, led to a drastic decline in readiness, and left Aegis Combat Systems in low state of readiness.[15]

Iran Air Flight 655

Layout of the Combat Information Center of early Aegis cruisers

The Aegis system was involved in a disaster in which USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 in 1988 resulting in 290 civilian deaths.

It was determined by a formal military investigation[16] that the Aegis system was completely operational and did not have any maintenance problems. The investigation ruled that if the commanding officer had relied on the complete tactical data displayed by the Aegis system the engagement might never have occurred. Additionally, psychological effects of the crew subconsciously manipulating the data to accord with a predefined scenario greatly contributed to the false identification. The investigation found that the Aegis Combat System did not contribute to the incident, but did aid in the investigation by means of recorded target data. The discrepancies are as follows:

Aegis Data Report Personnel Report to CO
Iran Air Flight 655 continuously ascended in duration of flight Iran Air Flight 655, after attaining 9,000 to 12,000 ft (2,700 to 3,700 m), reportedly descended on an attack vector on USS Vincennes
Iran Air Flight 655 continuously squawked Mode III identification, friend or foe (IFF) in duration of flight Iran Air Flight 655 reportedly squawked Iranian F-14 Tomcat on Mode II IFF for a moment; personnel proceeded to re-label the target from "Unknown Assumed Enemy" to "F-14"
Iran Air Flight 655 held consistent climb speed in duration of flight Iran Air Flight 655 was reported to increase in speed to an attack vector similar to an F-14 Tomcat


Current operators

Aegis in other navies

Ship class Operator Total ships
Hobart  RAN 2 (3)
Hunter  RAN (9)
Maya  JMSDF (2)
Atago  JMSDF 2
Kongō  JMSDF 4
Fridtjof Nansen  RNoN 4
Sejong the Great ROKN 3 (6)
Álvaro de Bazán  AE 5
F110  AE (5)
Arleigh Burke  USN 66 (76)
Ticonderoga  USN 22
Aegis operators

Map with Aegis operators in blue

DDG173 JDS Kongo

JS Kongō, the first non-US ship equipped with AWS

See also


  1. ^ "Fact Sheet on U.S. Missile Defense Policy - A "Phased, Adaptive Approach" for Missile Defense in Europe". Office of the Press Secretary. The White House. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  2. ^ Originally, the first five ships of the United States' Aegis equipped Ticonderoga-class cruisers were outfitted with Mark-26 twin-arm missile launchers; however, the ships with this system have been decommissioned and are no longer in service.
  3. ^ "Aegis Combat System". The Warfighter Encyclopedia. Warfighter Response Center. October 8, 2003. Archived from the original on November 5, 2004. Retrieved August 10, 2006..
  4. ^ "AN/SPY-1 Radar". Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  5. ^ "Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense". Missile Defense Agency. US Dept. of Defense. 8 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  6. ^ "Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense - Foreign Military Sales". Missile Defense Agency. US Dept. of Defense. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  7. ^ Lenorovitz, Jeffrey. "GE Aerospace to merge into Martin Marietta" Aviation Week & Space Technology. November 30, 1992. Accessed on July 19, 2007
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Aegis Cruisers". Careers. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  10. ^ Lockheed Martin. "Aegis Heritage". Presentation. November 20, 2002.
  11. ^ Dan Petty. "The US Navy -- Fact File: Aegis Weapon System". Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  12. ^ FY 2013 Presidential Budget (PB): Navy, February 2012. Exhibit R-2, Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) Budget Item Justification: Program Element (PE) 0604501N: Advanced Above Water Sensors, Page 2 of 37. [1]. Accessed on 04 April 2013
  13. ^ "pr_mission_aegis-live-tracking-041210 · Lockheed Martin".
  14. ^ "pr_mission_091610_aegis_bmd · Lockheed Martin".
  15. ^ Study says Aegis radar systems on the decline, by Philip Ewing, Navy Times, Wednesday July 7, 2010.
  16. ^ Fogarty, William M. (July 28, 1988). "Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Downing of Iran Air Flight 655 on 3 July 1988". 93-FOI-0184. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2006. Retrieved March 31, 2006.
  17. ^ "Fragatas F-110: presupuestados por ahora 174 millones en I+D+i y su diseño". ABC. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Subscribe to The Australian - Newspaper home delivery, website, iPad, iPhone & Android apps".
  19. ^ "PLA Navy shows off 'Chinese Aegis' at RIMPAC 2014". 2014-06-19. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14.
  20. ^ James R. Holmes, The Diplomat. "'Taipei must admit defeat in the arms race…' - The Diplomat". The Diplomat. Retrieved 29 January 2016.

External links


The AN/SPS-49 is a United States Navy two-dimensional, long range air search radar built by Raytheon that can provide contact bearing and range. It is a primary air-search radar for numerous ships in the U.S. fleet and in Spain, Poland, Taiwan aboard Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, Canada on its Halifax-class frigates, New Zealand on its Anzac-class frigates and Australia on its Adelaide-class frigates and Anzac-class frigates. It formerly served in a complementary role aboard Aegis cruisers with the AN/SPY-1 but the systems are currently being removed during routine upgrade with no replacement.


The AN/SPY-1 is a United States Navy 3D radar system manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The array is a passive electronically scanned system and is a key component of the Aegis Combat System. The system is computer controlled, using four complementary antennas to provide 360 degree coverage. The system was first installed in 1973 on USS Norton Sound and entered active service in 1983 as the SPY-1A on USS Ticonderoga. The -1A was installed on ships up to CG-58, with the -1B upgrade first installed on USS Princeton in 1986. The upgraded -1B(V) was retrofitted to existing ships from CG-59 up to the last, USS Port Royal.


The AN/SQQ-89 Undersea Warfare Combat System is a naval anti-submarine warfare (ASW) system for surface warships developed by Lockheed Martin for the United States Navy. The system presents an integrated picture of the tactical situation by receiving, combining and processing active and passive sensor data from the hull-mounted array, towed array and sonobuoys. AN/SQQ-89 is integrated with the AEGIS combat system and provides a full range of undersea warfare (USW) functions including active and passive sensors, underwater fire control, onboard trainer and a highly evolved display subsystem. It provides detection, classification, and targeting capability to the following platforms:

Ticonderoga class cruiser (CG-47)

Arleigh Burke Class destroyer (DDG-51)


The AN/UYK-7 was the standard 32-bit computer of the United States Navy for surface ship and submarine platforms, starting in 1970. It was used in the Navy's Aegis combat system and U.S. Coast Guard, and the navies of U.S. allies. It was also used by the U.S. Army. Built by UNIVAC, it used integrated circuits, had 18-bit addressing and could support multiple CPUs and I/O controllers (three CPUs and two I/O controllers were a common configuration). Its multiprocessor architecture was based upon the UNIVAC 1108. An airborne version, the UNIVAC 1832, was also produced.

In the mid-1980s, the UYK-7 was replaced by the AN/UYK-43 which shared the same instruction set. Retired systems are being cannibalized for repair parts to support systems still in use by U.S. and non-U.S. forces.

Center for Surface Combat Systems

Center for Surface Combat Systems (CSCS) is one of eleven learning centers of Naval Education and Training Command, headquartered on Naval Support Facility Dahlgren operated learning centers for the education and training of United States Navy personnel on the operation and use of shipboard combat systems, including the Aegis Combat System, SSDS, Tactical Data Links and other systems that can be used in the ship's combat information center (CIC). Through 70,000 hours worth of curriculum in 700 courses, CSCS provides the fleet with highly trained surface warfare officers and enlisted personnel in the ratings of fire control men, electronic technicians, interior communications electricians, sonar technicians (surface), gunner’s mates, mine men, operations specialists, and boatswain’s mates.


The Erieye radar system is an Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) developed by Saab Electronic Defence Systems (formerly Ericsson Microwave Systems) of Sweden. It uses active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology. The Erieye is used on a variety of aircraft platforms, such as the Saab 340 and Embraer R-99. It has recently been implemented on the Bombardier Global 6000 aircraft as the Globaleye.

The Erieye Ground Interface Segment (EGIS; not to be confused with the Aegis combat system) is a major component of the software used by the Erieye system.

The radar provides 300 degree coverage and has an instrumental range of 450 km and detection range of 350 km in a dense hostile electronic warfare environment—in heavy radar clutter and at low target altitudes. In addition to this, the radar is also capable of identifying friends or foes, and has a sea surveillance mode.

The Erieye system has full interoperability with NATO air defence command and control systems.

Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

Joseph T. Threston

Joseph Thomas (Joe) Threston (born ca. 1935) is an American Navy systems engineer, known for his contributions to the development of the Aegis Combat System.Threston started his career in 1959 at Hughes Aircraft Company in the Guided Missile Laboratory, as entry-level engineer he participated in the further development and production of the Falcon Missile system, that the United States Air Force used since 1956. In the 1960s he joined RCA Corporation, where he made significant contributions to the development of the Aegis Combat System. After RCA was acquired by General Electric in 1986 Threston became General Manager of the Naval Systems Department. His department was part of GE Aerospace businesses, which was sold to Martin Marietta in 1992, and became part of Lockheed Martin in 1995. From General manager and president of manufacturing Threston became company president.Threston received several awards and honors. In 1991 he received the Harold E. Saunders Award from the American Society of Naval Engineers; and in 1995 he received the IEEE Simon Ramo Medal for his "leadership of the design, development and production of the AEGIS ship combat system."


KDX-IIA is an Aegis Combat System armed variant of the KDX-II, Chungmugong Yi Sun-shin-class destroyer of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN). As of 2011 ROKN planned to build at least 6 ships of this class with a proposed displacement of 5500 ~ 7500 tons over the 2019 to 2026 time frame. It is the final part of the Korean Destroyer eXperimental program. Although the South Korean government has not released detailed documents about this class, it is likely to use stealth technology like KDX-II as well as having a more integrated sonar and better data link capabilities. All of these improvements are expected to enhance littoral combat as well as blue-water capabilities.

The ROKN expects it to make up a major part of the fleet. Each unit will cost around $500~$700 million, comparable to the Freedom class of littoral combat ship.

Korean Destroyer eXperimental

KDX (Korean Destroyer eXperimental) is a substantial shipbuilding program embarked on by the Republic of Korea Navy.

It is a three-phased program consisting of three individual classes of ships:

KDX-I (3,800 tons),

KDX-II (5,500 tons),

Aegis Combat System-enabled KDX-III (11,000 tons).

KDX-IIA, planned derivative of KDX-II with Aegis combat system (5,500 ~ 7,500 tons)

Lockheed Martin Rotary and Mission Systems

Lockheed Martin Rotary and Mission Systems (LM RMS), formerly known as Mission Systems and Sensors (LM MS2) and then Mission Systems & Training (LM MST), is a Lockheed Martin business segment, headquartered in Washington, DC. Until October 2008 MST was headquartered in Moorestown Township, New Jersey, a suburb of Philadelphia; Moorestown remains the largest site in the business unit and is where many of the unit's top executives have their offices. As of 2013, MST is one of Lockheed Martin's five operating units; prior to that it was a part of the now-defunct Electronic Systems sector. MST was formerly known as Maritime Systems and Sensors (MS2) and prior to that NESS (Naval Electronics and Surveillance Systems). Dale Bennett is the current president of MST.

Current major products of MST include the Aegis combat system, the Mk41 Vertical Launching System, the Desert Hawk UAV, the AN/UYQ-70 display system, the AN/UYK-43 and AN/UYK-44 computers, AN/SPY-1 naval RADAR systems, AN/SQQ-89 SONAR system, P-3 Orion mission systems, and tactical avionics for the F-35 Lightning II and the F-16 Fighting Falcon. Products in development include the Space Fence radar, Integrated Deepwater System Program (in partnership with Northrop Grumman), Medium Extended Air Defense System, and the Littoral Combat Ship.

Mark 41 Vertical Launching System

The Mark 41 Vertical Launching System (Mk 41 VLS) is a shipborne missile canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The Vertical Launch System (VLS) concept was derived from work on the Aegis Combat System.

Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division

The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), named for Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, is located in Dahlgren, Virginia, with a geographically separated command, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Dam Neck Activity (NSWCDDDNA), located in Virginia Beach, VA, in close proximity to the largest fleet concentration area in the Navy. NSWCDD is part of the Naval Surface Warfare Centers under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA). The NSWCDD was initially established 16 October 1918 as a remote extension of Maryland's Indian Head Proving Ground used for testing naval guns. The Dahlgren site was named the Lower Station, Dahlgren Naval Proving Ground when it first opened. The location on the Potomac River was specifically chosen for the development of a long ballistic test range on the Potomac River, required for the testing of modern, high-powered munitions.The NSWCDD employs approximately 5,700 scientists & engineers at the Dalhgren organization and more than 350 at CDSADN. Prior to 2007, Panama City Coastal Systems Station located at the Naval Support Activity Panama City was part of Dahlgren Division, but in 2008, it became its own division within the NAVSEA Naval Surface Warfare Center structure.

The physical base where NSWCDD is located became officially known as the Naval Support Activity South Potomac (NSASP) in 2003 and the NSWCDD became a tenant. The name NSWCDD or NSWC is still commonly used to refer to the base. The base commander function, however, is no longer a secondary function of the Commander of the NSWCDD. There are a few other major tenant commands on the base such as the Joint Warfare Analysis Center and the Aegis Training and Readiness Center (ATRC) involved in the training and development for the Aegis Combat System, and training and development for other future shipboard combat systems.

NSASP was previously home to Naval Space Surveillance System Command before that function was transferred to the Air Force in 2004.The base is recognized by the Census Bureau as a census designated place (CDP), Dahlgren Center. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 599. It is entirely distinct from Dahlgren CDP, to the west.

RIM-66 Standard

The RIM-66 Standard MR (SM-1MR/SM-2MR) is a medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM), with a secondary role as anti-ship missile, originally developed for the United States Navy (USN). A member of the Standard Missile family of weapons, the SM-1 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-2 Terrier and RIM-24 Tartar that were deployed in the 1950s on a variety of USN ships. The RIM-67 Standard (SM-1ER/SM-2ER) is an extended range version of this missile with a solid rocket booster stage.

ROCS Tian Dan (PFG2-1110)

ROCS Tian Dan (田單, PFG2-1110) is the eighth ship of the Cheng Kung-class guided-missile frigates of the Republic of China Navy, which was based on the Oliver Hazard Perry class of the United States Navy. Tian Dan was laid down in December 2001, launched on 17 October 2002, and commissioned on 11 March 2004.

The relatively large six year time gap between the construction of Tian Dan and the previous Cheng Kung-class frigate, Chang Chien, can be accounted for by the fact that Tian Dan was not intended to be of the standard Cheng Kung design. Initially, the design of Tian Dan was to have been modified to receive a lighter version of the Aegis combat system that would later become the SPY-1F; and the drawings looked very much like the Spanish Navy Álvaro de Bazán (F-100) class frigates. However, due to uncertain risks at the time, such as the need for ROCN to bear the full cost of the SPY-1F design, and concerns of putting such a system on a small hull, the ROCN was forced to abandon this ambitious plan by mid 1990s. In addition to Tian Dan, the original plan called for three more SPY-1F AGEIS type frigates. Álvaro de Bazán can be seen as a realization of this plan with SPY-1F system.

Like her sister ships, Tian Dan was constructed by China SB Corp., at its primary shipyard in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, Republic of China. But this ship is different from her sister ships by not having the two Bofors 40mm/L70 guns installed. Tian Dan is named after Tian Dan, a general of the Warring States period.

As of 2006, Tian Dan is home ported at ROCN Tso-Ying naval base.

On March 14, 2014, Tian Dan, along with two of Taiwan's Coastguard patrol vessels, arrived in the South China Sea between Malaysia and Vietnam to join the multi-national search and rescue operation for the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 flight.

Strike cruiser

A strike cruiser (proposed hull designator: CSGN) was a proposal from DARPA for a class of cruisers in the late 1970s. The proposal was for the Strike Cruiser to be a guided missile attack cruiser with a displacement of around 17,200 long tons (17,500 t), armed and equipped with the Aegis combat system, the SM-2, Harpoon anti-ship missile, the Tomahawk missile, and the Mk71 8-inch gun.

A prototype strike cruiser was to be the refurbished USS Long Beach; at a cost of roughly $800 million, however this never came to pass.

Originally, eight to twelve strike cruisers were projected. The class would have been complemented by the Aegis-equipped fleet defense (DDG-47) version of the Spruance-class destroyers. Plagued with design difficulties and escalating cost the project was canceled in the closing days of the Ford administration. After the cancellation of the class, the Aegis destroyers were expanded into the Ticonderoga class (CG-47) Aegis cruiser program.

Type 052D destroyer

The Type 052D destroyer (NATO/OSD Luyang III-class destroyer) is a class of guided missile destroyers in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force. The Type 052D is a larger variant of the Type 052C; the Type 052D uses a canister-type, instead of revolver-type, vertical launching system (VLS) and has flat-panelled active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. The new VLS is not limited to anti-air missiles, making the Type 052D China's first dedicated multi-role destroyer.Chinese media informally calls the Type 052D the Chinese Aegis, portraying it as a peer of contemporary United States Navy ships equipped with the Aegis Combat System. The appearance of the Type 052D, with flat-panelled radar and canister-based VLS, has encouraged the moniker's use.

Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate

The Álvaro de Bazán class (also known as the F100 class of frigates) are a class of Aegis combat system-equipped air defence frigates in service with the Spanish Navy. The vessels were built by Spanish shipbuilder Navantia in Ferrol, with the class named for Admiral Álvaro de Bazán. In February 2018, it was announced that a design based on the class was selected as one of five finalists for the U.S. Navy's FFG(X) program.

The ships are fitted with American Aegis weapons technology allowing them to track hundreds of airborne targets simultaneously as part of its air defence network. The F100 Álvaro de Bazán-class multi-role frigates are one of the few non-US warships to carry the Aegis Combat System and its associated AN/SPY-1 radar. Japan's Kongō class, South Korea's Sejong the Great class, the F100-derived Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen class of frigates also use the Aegis system.

The class are also the basis of the Australian Hobart-class destroyer (previously known as the "Air Warfare Destroyer"). The Australian government announced in June 2007 that, in partnership with Navantia, three F100 vessels will be built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) with the first due for delivery in 2014 ,however this was delayed until 2017 when lead ship HMAS Hobart was commisioned. She was joined in late 2018 by sister ship, HMAS Brisbane. This will be followed by HMAS Sydney in late 2019.

The Australian Government also confirmed in April 2016 that a modified F100 class was one of three vessels shortlisted to replace the Anzac-class frigates currently in service with the RAN. As of December 2017, it is one of three submitted proposals for Canada's Single Class Surface Combatant Project program.In both cases the Type 26 frigate won the competition.

The Álvaro de Bazán-class frigates are the first modern vessels of the Spanish Navy to incorporate ballistic resistant steel in the hull, along with the power plants being mounted on anti-vibration mounts to reduce noise and make them less detectable by submarines. The original contract for four ships was worth €1,683m but they ended up costing €1,810m. As of 2010 it was estimated that the final vessel, F-105 would cost €834m (~US$1.1bn).

History and
Divisions and
Joint ventures
Active products


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.