Achaea () or Achaia (; Greek: Ἀχαΐα, Akhaia, Ancient Greek: [akʰaía]) was (and is) the northernmost region of the Peloponnese, occupying the coastal strip north of Arcadia. Its approximate boundaries were to the south the mountain range of Erymanthus, to the south-east the range of Cyllene, to the east Sicyon, and to the west the Larissos river. Apart from the plain around Dyme, to the west, Achaea was generally a mountainous region.Achaeans (tribe)
The Achaeans (; Greek: Ἀχαιοί, Akhaioi) were one of the four major tribes into which the people of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Ionians and Dorians). According to the foundation myth formalized by Hesiod, their name comes from Achaeus, the mythical founder of the Achaean tribe, who was supposedly one of the sons of Xuthus, and brother of Ion, the founder of the Ionian tribe. Xuthus was in turn the son of Hellen, the mythical patriarch of the Greek (Hellenic) nation.Historically, the members of the Achaean tribe inhabited the region of Achaea in the northern Peloponnese. The Achaeans played an active role in the Greek colonization of southern Italy, founding the city of Kroton (Κρότων) in 710 BC. The city was to gain fame later as the place where the Pythagorean School was founded. Unlike the other major tribes (Ionians, Dorians and Aeolians), the Achaeans did not have a separate dialect in the Classical period, instead using a form of Doric.Achaeus (son of Xuthus)
In Greek mythology, Achaeus or Achaios (; Ancient Greek: Ἀχαιός Akhaiós, derived from αχος achos, "grief, pain, woe") was, according to nearly all traditions, a son of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently a brother of Ion and grandson of Hellen. His children were Archander and Architeles.Aegialeus (King of Sicyon)
Aegialeus (Ancient Greek: Αἰγιαλεύς derived from αἰγιαλός aigialos "beach, sea-shore") also Aegealeus, Aigialeus, Egialeus, in classical Greek semi-mythical historiography was considered the original settler of the Peloponnese and the founder and first ruler of the city-state of Aegialea, later known to history as Sicyon.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Caunos (mythology)
In Greek mythology, Caunus or Kaunos (Ancient Greek: Καῦνος) was a son of Miletus, grandson of Apollo and brother of Byblis.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Crobialus
Crobialus or Krobialos (Ancient Greek: Κρωβίαλος) was a town on the Black Sea coast of ancient Paphlagonia, mentioned by Apollonius Rhodius, with Cromna and Cytorus; and Gaius Valerius Flaccus has the same name. Stephanus of Byzantium quotes the verse of Apollonius. We may assume that it was in the neighbourhood of Cromna and Cytorus. Strabo observes of the line in Homer's Iliad "Κρῶμνάν τ᾽ Αἰγιαλόν τε καὶ ὑψηλοὺς Ἐρυθίνους" that some persons write Κώβιαλον, meaning 'at Cobialus', in place of Αἰγιαλόν, meaning 'at Aegialus'. Crobialus and Cobialus seem to be the same place. However, Crobialus and Aegialus were distinct.Its site is unlocated.Cytorus
Cytorus (Greek Κύτωρος, Kytoros;
also Cytorum, Κύτωρον, Kytoron and Κύτωρις) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of Asia Minor. Mentioned by Homer, Cytorus survives in the name of Gideros, which is both
a bay of the Black Sea and
the adjacent neighbourhood (mahalle) of the village of Kalafat in the district (ilçe) of Cide in the Kastamonu Province of Turkey.Gideros is 12 km west of the town of Cide, 15 km east of Kurucaşile.
Possibly the name of Cide itself is derived from Cytorus.Its mythical founder was Cytiorus, son of Phrixus, according to Ephorus and Stephanus of Byzantium.
In giving the Trojan battle order in Book 2 of the Iliad,
Homer mentions Cytorus and Sesamon as Paphlagonian settlements, along with others around the river Parthenius, today's Bartın River.
Sesamon is today's Amasra. This town was Amastris for Strabo, who writes of its founding through a union of Cytorus, Sesamon, and two other settlements. He reports that Cytorus was an emporium of Sinope and was a source for boxwood. He derives the name of Cytorus (he uses the neuter Cytorum) from Cytorus, a son of Phryxus and therefore one of the Argonauts.In the Argonautica,
Apollonius of Rhodes mentions the settlement of Cytorus and related places in describing the voyage of the Argo. Unlike Strabo, he does not mention Cytorus as a son of Phryxus. Apollonius does apparently place Cytorus where Gideros Bay is today, between the Bartın River and the city of Sinop.Apollonius applies the epithet "woody" to Cytorus, alluding to the boxwood that Strabo mentions.
In the 4th of the Carmina, Catullus addresses "Box-tree-clad Cytórus", while
in the Georgics, Virgil says, "Fain would I gaze on Cytorus billowy with boxwood".
The Homeric commentator Eustathius of Thessalonica mentions a saying, "carry boxwood to Cytorus," with the meaning of "carry coals to Newcastle".Strabo's etymology notwithstanding, Bilge Umar finds the origin of the name Cytorus in the Luwian for "Big wall".There is also reported a folk etymology for the modern name of Gideros, based on its resemblance to the Turkish gideriz (we go). Villagers say that Roman ships once sought shelter from a storm at Gideros Bay, and when the villagers asked the sailors if they would stay, the sailors replied, "Kalamazsak, gideros"—If we can't stay, we go. Pleased at the prospect of not having the Romans around, the villagers called the bay Gideros.Eneti
The Eneti (Greek: Enetoi/ἐνετοί, Latin: Eneti, Heneti, Enete) was a people that inhabited a region close to Paphlagonia, mentioned by Homer and Strabo.
Homer's (fl. c. 850 BC) Iliad. In Book II, Homer says that the ἐνετοί (Enetoi) inhabited Paphlagonia on the southern coast of the Black Sea in the time of the Trojan War (c. 1200 BC). The Paphlagonians are listed among the allies of the Trojans in the war, where their king Pylaemenes and his son Harpalion perished.
Strabo mentioned that the inhabitants had disappeared by his time.Kaukauni
Cauconians or Kaukani or Cauconiatae is the name of an ancient tribe in Anatolia mentioned by Strabo. By his time he writes that they were extinct.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Pronoe
Pronoe (; Ancient Greek: Προνόη Pronóē means "forethought") refers to six characters in Greek mythology.
Pronoe, one of the Nereids.
Pronoe, daughter of Phorbus. She married King Aetolus of Aetolia and bore him Pleuron and Calydon.
Pronoe, daughter of Melampus, king of Argos, and Iphianeira, daughter of Megapenthes. She was considered to be a seer.
Pronoe, a nymph mother of the Trojan Lassus. This son was killed by Podalirius during the Trojan war.
Pronoe, a Naiad of a river in Lycia. She told Caunus what had happened to his sister Byblis (that she had killed herself), and persuaded him to stay with her on condition that he receive rulership of the country of Lycia or Caria. The couple had a son Aegialus who inherited the kingdom upon his father's death.
Pronoe, daughter of the river god Asopus, mother of Phocus by Poseidon.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Thymena
Thymena (Ancient Greek: Θύμηνα), also called Thymaena or Teuthrania (Τευθρανία), was a town on the Black Sea coast of ancient Paphlagonia, at a distance of 90 stadia from Aegialus.It is located near Uğurlu in Asiatic Turkey.Trojan Battle Order
The Trojan Battle Order or Trojan Catalogue is an epic catalogue in the second book of the Iliad listing the allied contingents that fought for Troy in the Trojan War. The catalogue is noted for its deficit of detail compared to the immediately preceding Catalogue of Ships, which lists the Greek contingents, and for the fact that only a few of the many Trojans mentioned in the Iliad appear there.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.