An advocate is a professional or non-Professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law-based jurisdictions could be a barrister or a solicitor. However, in Scottish, South African, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Scandinavian, Polish, South Asian and South American jurisdictions, "advocate" indicates a lawyer of superior classification.
"Advocate" is in some languages an honorific for lawyers, such as "Adv. Sir Alberico Gentili". "Advocate" also has the everyday meaning of speaking out to help someone else, such as patient advocacy or the support expected from an elected politician; those senses are not covered by this article.
19th-century painting of advocates, by French artist Honoré Daumier
|Competencies||Good memory, advocacy and interpersonal skills, analytical mind, critical thinking, commercial sense|
|Barrister, Judge, Jurist|
In England and Wales, advocates and proctors practised civil law in the Admiralty Courts and also, but in England only, in the ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England, in a similar way to barristers and attorneys in the common law and equity courts.
Advocates lost their exclusive rights of audience in probate and divorce cases when the Crown took these matters over from the church in 1857, and in Admiralty cases in 1859. The Society of Advocates was never formally wound up, but its building was sold off in 1865 and the last advocate died in 1912.
Advocates are the only lawyers with rights of audience in the courts of the Isle of Man. An advocate's role is to give advice on all matters of law: it may involve representing a client in the civil and criminal courts or advising a client on matters such as matrimonial and family law, trusts and estates, regulatory matters, property transactions and commercial and business law. In court, advocates wear a horsehair wig, stiff collar, bands and a gown in the same way as barristers do elsewhere.
To become an advocate, it is normally necessary to hold either a qualifying law degree with no less than lower second class (2:2) honours, or else a degree in another subject with no less than lower second class (2:2) honours complemented by the Common Professional Examination. It is then necessary to obtain a legal professional qualification such as the Bar Professional Training Course or the Legal Practice Course. It is not, however, necessary actually to be admitted as an English barrister or solicitor to train as an advocate.
Trainee advocates (as articled clerks are now more usually known) normally undertake a period of two years’ training articled to a senior advocate; in the case of English barristers or solicitors who have been practising or admitted for three years this training period is reduced to one year. Foreign lawyers who have been registered as legal practitioners in the Isle of Man for a certain period of time may also undertake a shorter period of training and supervision. During their training, all trainee advocates are required to pass the Isle of Man bar examinations, which include papers on civil and criminal practice, constitutional and land law, and company law and taxation, as well as accounts. The examinations are rigorous and candidates are limited to three attempts to pass each paper.
Senior English barristers are occasionally licensed to appear as advocates in cases expected to be unusually long or complex, without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act in relation to the matter for which they have been licensed. Similarly, barristers and solicitors employed as public prosecutors may be licensed to appear as advocates without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act as such only for the duration of that employment.
The professional conduct of advocates is regulated by the Isle of Man Law Society, which also maintains a library for its members in Douglas. While advocates in the Isle of Man have not traditionally prefixed their names with 'Advocate' in the Channel Islands manner, some advocates have now started to adopt this practice.
Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh. The Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members, of whom about 460 are in private practice. About 75 are Queen's Counsel. The Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Treasurer, Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot.
The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which almost all advocates belong, that organises the stables and fee collection. This gives a guarantee to all newly called advocates of a place. Until the end of 2007 there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, which is the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been replaced by the Law Society. It remains the case that advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their instructing solicitor or with the client. Their fees are honoraria.
Advocates wear wigs, white bow-ties (or falls in the case of senior counsel), straps and gowns as dress in court.
The process of becoming an advocate is referred to as devilling. All Intrants will be Scottish solicitors, i.e. hold a Bachelor of Laws degree and the Diploma in Legal Practice, and must have completed the traineeship of two years (which in some cases may be reduced to eighteen months) required to qualify as a solicitor; or else will be members of the Bar in another common law jurisdiction.
At the end of the devilling period, a devil's admission to the Faculty is dependent on certification by the principal devilmaster that the devil is a fit and proper person to be an advocate and that the devil has been involved in a wide range of work in the course of devilling. A devil's competence in a number of aspects of written and oral advocacy is assessed during devilling, and if a devil is assessed as not competent, he or she will not be admitted to the Faculty. Further details of this process can be found in the assessment section.
In recent years, increasing numbers of advocates have come to the Scottish Bar after some time as solicitors, but it is possible to qualify with a law degree, after twenty-one months traineeship in a solicitor's office and almost a year as a 'devil', or apprentice advocate. There are exceptions for lawyers who are qualified in other European jurisdictions, but all must take the training course as 'devils'.
Until 2007, a number of young European lawyers were given a placement with advocates under the European Young Lawyers Scheme organised by the British Council. They are known as 'Eurodevils', in distinction to the Scottish 'devils'. This scheme was withdrawn by the British Council. In January 2009, a replacement scheme began.
Lawyers qualified in other European Union states (but not in England and Wales) may have limited rights of audience in the Scottish supreme courts if they appear with an advocate, and a few solicitors known as 'solicitor-advocates' have rights of audience, but for practical purposes advocates have almost exclusive rights of audience in the supreme courts - the High Court of Justiciary (criminal), and the Court of Session (civil). Advocates share right of audience with solicitors in the sheriff court and Justice of the Peace Court.
It used to be the case that Advocates were completely immune from suit etc. while conducting court cases and pre-trial work, as they had to act 'fearlessly and independently'; the rehearing of actions was considered contrary to public interest; and Advocates are required to accept clients, they cannot pick and choose. However, the seven-judge English ruling of Arthur J.S. Hall & Co. (a firm) v. Simons 2000 (House of Lords) declared that none of these reasons justified the immunity strongly enough to sustain it. This has been followed in Scotland in Wright v Paton Farrell (2006) obiter insofar as civil cases are concerned.
The Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey (Guernsey, together with the two semi-autonomous Islands of Alderney and Sark, and together with other Islands) are two separate legal jurisdictions, have largely two different sets of laws and have two separate, but similar, legal professions. In both jurisdictions, advocates—properly called Advocates of the Royal Court—are the only lawyers with general rights of audience in their courts.
To be eligible to practise as an advocate in Jersey, it is necessary first to have a law degree from a British university or a graduate diploma in law and to have qualified as a recognized legal professional in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. Thereafter, a candidate must undertake two years of practical experience in a law office dealing with Jersey law, enroll on the Jersey Law Course provided by the Institute of Law, Jersey and pass examinations in six subjects. Alternatively, a person may apply to become a Jersey advocate two years after qualifying as a Jersey solicitor.
To become an advocate in Guernsey, one has to possess a valid law degree or diploma, plus a qualification as an English barrister or solicitor, or a French avocat. They must then study for the Guernsey Bar. Three months of study of Norman law at the Université de Caen (University of Caen) is required; this is no longer required for entry into the legal profession in Jersey.
Guernsey Advocates dress in the same way as barristers, but substitute a black biretta-like toque for a wig, while those in Jersey go bare-headed. Advocates are entitled to prefix their names with 'Advocate'; e.g. Mr Tostevin is called to the Guernsey Bar and is henceforth known as Advocate Tostevin.
The head of the profession of advocate in each Bailiwick is called the Bâtonnier.
The Nordic countries have a united legal profession, which means that they do not draw a distinction between lawyers who plead in court and those who do not. To get an official recognition with an advocates title, the candidate must have a legal degree, that is, completed ca. 5–6 years of legal studies from an accredited university in his or own country, and in addition have worked for some time (around 2 – 5 years) under the auspices of a qualified advocate and have some experience from court. When qualified, the candidate may obtain a license as an advocate, the equivalent of being called to the bar. In all the Scandinavian languages the title is advokat; in Finland advokat is the Swedish title for such a qualified lawyer, with the equivalent title in Finnish being asianajaja.
However, one does not necessarily have to be an advocate to legally represent a party in the Nordic countries. In Norway a person with an appropriate law degree for example can practice law as a registered legal advisor (rettshjelper) instead, which gives many of the same rights as an advocate's title. Both in Sweden and Norway any adult in theory can represent a party in court without any prior approval, training, licence or advocate title. In practice it's unusual, and in Norway it's subject to the approval of the court, which is unlikely to give it except in very simple cases.
In South Africa, there are two main branches of legal practitioner: attorneys, who do legal work of all kinds, and advocates, who are specialist litigators; see Attorneys in South Africa. In general, advocates (also called 'counsel') are 'briefed' by attorneys when a specialist skill in court based litigation, or in research into the law is required; advocates have no direct contact with clients, and are said to be in a 'referral' profession.
The key formal distinction, however, is the different rights with regard to the courts in which they may appear. Advocates have the right to appear in any court, while attorneys have the right to appear only in the lower courts. (And, under certain conditions, can acquire the right of appearance in the superior courts, by applying to the registrar of the provincial division of the relevant High Court.) A further distinction is that while attorneys practice in partnership, advocates are individual practitioners and never form partnerships; practice in "Chambers" and / or "Groups" is standard.
The requirements to enter private practice as advocates (Junior Counsel) are to hold the LL.B. degree, and to become a member of a Bar Association by undergoing a period of training (pupilage) for one year with a practicing Advocate, and to sit an admission examination. See Legal education in South Africa.
On the recommendation of the Bar Councils, an advocate "of proven experience and skill" with at least ten years experience, may be appointed by the President of South Africa as a Senior Counsel (SC; also referred to as a "silk"). When a junior advocate is viewed in the eyes of any particular Senior Counsel (Silk) as having commended him or herself in the profession so as to warrant recognition for excellence, he or she is commonly rewarded with a traditional gift of a red brief bag.
State advocates act as public prosecutor in High Court matters, typically in cases requiring preparation and research. They are appointed by the National Prosecuting Authority and are attached to the Office of the National Director of Public Prosecutions.
Different levels of Advocate exist in Pakistan:
The first level is the Advocate, who is eligible to practice in the district courts or lower courts in respective province. One can qualify as an Advocate after completion of a law degree (LL.B of three years), six months pupillage under a senior Advocate in his/her chambers and thereafter to go for Bar admission test, the Bar Council of the relevant province examine him/her that he is fit or not to become as an Advocate and is not convicted. After passing the multiple choice question examination and interview conducted by provincial Bar Council, the Bar Council will issue him/her the license for appearing before the Courts.
After completion of two years practice Advocate then can apply for Advocate High court practicing certificate/ license and after an interview they can apply for Advocate High Court license.
Advocate Supreme Court is the third level. After successful completion of ten years of practice in the High Courts by applicant, the panel of members of Pakistan Bar Council and one judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, review the application.(Before 1985 the requirement was successful completion of five years practice in the High Courts of Pakistan.) Over fifty percent of applications are accepted, after successful completion of the requirement. An unsuccessful application in one year, does not bar the candidate from re-applying in the next judicial year.
The highest level is the Senior Advocate Supreme Court. It is Pakistan's title equivalent to Queen's Counsel in the United Kingdom. After at least fifteen years of practice, by invitation or by an application to a panel of Supreme Court Judges headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, one can become Senior Advocate of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Very few applications are accepted and even fewer invitations are made. Attorneys General are usually invited by the Supreme Court on appointment, to the office. So are some notable High Court judges who upon retirement choose to practice before the Supreme Court, where they are still eligible to do so.
In India, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act, 1961 introduced and thought up by Ashok Kumar Sen, the then law minister of India, which is a law passed by the Parliament and is administered and enforced by the Bar Council of India. Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country.
Each State has a Bar Council of its own whose function is to enroll the Advocates willing to practice predominately within the territorial confines of that State and to perform the functions of the Bar Council of India within the territory assigned to them. Therefore, each law degree holder must be enrolled with a (single) State Bar Council to practice in India. However, enrollment with any State Bar Council does not restrict the Advocate from appearing before any court in India, even though it is beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the State Bar Council which he is enrolled in.
The advantage with having the State Bar Councils is that the work load of the Bar Council of India can be divided into these various State Bar Councils and also that matters can be dealt with locally and in an expedited manner. However, for all practical and legal purposes, the Bar Council of India retains with it, the final power to take decisions in any and all matters related to the legal profession on the whole or with respect to any Advocate individually, as so provided under the Advocates Act, 1961.
The process for being entitled to practice in India is twofold. First, the applicant must be a holder of a law degree from a recognized institution in India (or from one of the four recognised Universities in the United Kingdom) and second, must pass the enrollment qualifications of the Bar Council of the state where he/she seeks to be enrolled. For this purpose, the Bar Council of India has an internal Committee whose function is to supervise and examine the various institutions conferring law degrees and to grant recognition to these institutions once they meet the required standards. In this manner the Bar Council of India also ensures the standard of education required for practicing in India are met with. As regards the qualification for enrollment with the State Bar Council, while the actual formalities may vary from one State to another, yet predominately they ensure that the application has not been a bankrupt /criminal and is generally fit to practice before courts of India.
Enrollment with a Bar Council also means that the law degree holder is recognized as an Advocate and is required to maintain a standards of conduct and professional demeanor at all times, both on and off the profession. The Bar Council of India also prescribes "Rules of Conduct" to be observed by the Advocates in the courts, while interacting with clients and even otherwise.
All Advocates in India are at the same level and are recognized as such. Any distinction, if any, is made only on the basis of seniority, which implies the length of practice at the Bar. As a recognition of law practice and specialization in an area of law, there is a concept of conferral of Senior Advocate status. An Advocate may be recognized by the Judges of the High Court (in case of an Advocate practicing before that High Court) or by the Supreme Court (in case of the Advocate practicing before the Supreme Court). While the conferral of Senior Advocate status not only implies distinction and fame of the Advocate, it also requires the Senior Advocate to follow higher standards of conduct and some distinct rules. Also, a Senior Advocate is not allowed to interact directly with the clients. He can only take briefs from other Advocates and argue on the basis of the details given by them.From the year 2010 onwards a mandatory rule is made for lawyers passing out from the year 2009-10 to sit for an evaluation test named AIBE ( All India Bar Exam ) for one to qualify as an advocate and practice in the courts. However to practise Law before the Supreme Court of India, Advocates must first appear for and qualify in the Supreme Court Advocate on Record Examination conducted by the Supreme Court.
Further, under the Constitutional structure, there is a provision for elevation of Advocates as judges of High Courts and Supreme Court. The only requirement is the Advocate must have a ten years standing before the High Court(/s) or before the Supreme Court to be eligible for such. (Article 217 and 124 of the Constitution of India for High Courts and Supreme Court respectively)
In Bangladesh, after passing the Higher Secondary School Certificate, one can apply for admission for studying Law in Universities. There are several public and private universities which provide Bachelor of Laws and Master of Laws degree in Bangladesh. Generally the L.L.B. course is equivalent to four year bachelor's degree. Graduate lawyers have to seat for and pass the Bar Council Exam to become advocates.
By passing the Bar Council Exam, advocates are eligible to practice in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh and other courts. A license is obtained after successful completion of two year's practice in the lower courts by applicant, which is reviewed by a body of the relevant provincial Bar Council. Most applications after successful completion of the requirement, are accepted.
In Sri Lanka (formally Ceylon) till 1973 Advocate was a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients. Advocates had to pass the HSC exam and enter the Sri Lanka Law College and follow the relevant course. Following changers in 1973 the title was replaced with Attorney at law. The current equivalent to an advocate is a counsel who is a trial lawyer distinguished from an instructing attorney.
In Brazil, the bar examination occurs nationally in March, August and December. These examinations are unified and organized by the Order of Attorneys of Brazil. After 5 years in law school, Brazilian law students take the Bar exam, that consists of 2 phases: the multiple choice test and written test, without further requirements.
The Constitution of Brazil applies restrictions on professional practice of law embodied in the fulfillment of the requirements and qualifications they require, which may include, in addition to graduation formal submission of the applicant in the proficiency tests. And the Order exam is tied to Law No. 8609 of 4/7/1994:
"Article 8: For registration as an attorney is needed: IV - To pass the Examination of the Order;"
Within its powers expressly granted by the Constitution, the ordinary legislator demanded that whoever wishes to pursue the legal profession, possess the degree of Bachelor of Law and approval of Examination of Order, whose preparation and implementation is done by their own class. As seen, no unconstitutionality in sight. The Constitution itself provides for the restriction. Nor is there any illegality, since the Statute of Law requires the examination.
Moreover, the argument that the exam is legitimate, but would be charging a very high level of legal knowledge, similar to competitions such as the judiciary or prosecutors, absolutely unfounded. The examination has been based for several years for practical intermediate level, some more difficult, others extremely simple, and absolutely commonplace themes and whose knowledge is absolutely necessary and indispensable to anyone who intends to practice law.
For comparison, in other Civil law countries, such as France and Italy, the method of the Bar examination is more difficult than in Brazil. The French situation is that concluded the law school, attend a compulsory course of 1 year and conduct a mandatory stage of 2 years, after completion of such compulsory course. Totaling of 8 years of study of law. The Italian situation is after graduation is essential that the applicant make a compulsory training of legal practice of 2 years. After the biennium, as evidenced by the practice participation in hearings and dispensing of pleadings, the applicant may submit to the examination. This consists of written and oral tests. Approved, can take the oath and sign up for organ class. However, the capacity is not total, due the Italian statute to demand 12 years of advocacy for candidacy before the Corte di Cassazione (Court of Cassation) and other High Courts (Law 27/1997).
In spite of that, the bar exam in Brazil approves very few candidates and is considered a hard exam. For instance, in February 2014, the Bar association made a release stating that only 19.64% of candidates had been approved in the last exam and, therefore, were able to register as lawyers.
In Dutch law, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act. Under the Act, the Dutch bar association (Orde van Advocaten) regulates the professional conduct and the professional education of the advocates.
A Dutch advocate has to complete Dutch bar education and fulfill certain requirements (which may vary among the various judicial regions within the Netherlands) under the supervision of a senior advocate for a period of at least three years, called the 'advocaat-stage'. After completing the bar education exams, the junior advocate is admitted unconditionally to the Dutch bar.
Bill de Blasio (; born Warren Wilhelm Jr.; May 8, 1961) is an American politician who is serving as the 109th Mayor of New York City. Prior to his first election to the position of Mayor, he served as New York City's public advocate from 2010 to 2013.
Born in Manhattan, he graduated from New York University and Columbia University before a brief stint as a campaign manager for Charles Rangel and Hillary Clinton. He started his career as an elected official by serving on the New York City Council representing the 39th district in Brooklyn from 2002 to 2009. His tenure as public advocate saw a reformation of various educational, housing, and campaign finance policies. He was elected Mayor of New York City in the landslide 2013 election and retained his office in 2017, another landslide election.
He initiated new de-escalation training for officers, reduced prosecutions for cannabis possession, implemented the usage of police body cameras, and ended the post-9/11 surveillance program of Muslim residents. He passed free universal Pre-K in the city, although his effort to start a millionaire tax was rejected by New York governor Andrew Cuomo. De Blasio attempted to install an unprecedented rent-freeze citywide for rent-stabilized apartments in 2015.
A self-identified populist, de Blasio has called attention to what he refers to as a stark level of economic inequality in New York City, what he described as a "tale of two cities" during his first campaign. He has publicly supported a socially liberal and progressive discourse on the city's economy, urban planning, public education, police relations, and privatization. De Blasio has maintained mixed approval rates throughout his tenure.Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service
The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service (Scottish Gaelic: Oifis an Ard-Ghnìomhachas agus Seirbheis Neach-casaid an Ard-Ghnìomhachas, Scots: Croun Office an Procurator Fiscal Service) is the independent public prosecution service for Scotland, and is a Ministerial Department of the Scottish Government. The department is headed by Her Majesty's Lord Advocate, who under the Scottish legal system is responsible for prosecution, along with the area procurators fiscal. In Scotland, virtually all prosecution of criminal offences is undertaken by the Crown. Private prosecutions are extremely rare.
The Service's responsibilities extend to the whole of Scotland, and include:
Investigation and prosecution of criminal offences
Investigation of sudden or suspicious deaths
The investigation and prosecution of criminal conduct by the police
Assessment and possession of bona vacantia
Assessment and possession of treasure troveThe Lord Advocate is assisted by the Solicitor General for Scotland, both Law Officers. The day-to-day running of the Service is done by the Crown Agent & Chief Executive and an executive board who are based in the service headquarters at Crown Office in Chambers Street, Edinburgh.
The Service employs both civil servants who carry out administrative and other duties and solicitors and advocates who represent the Crown in Court.Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Navy
The Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Navy (DJAG) is the second highest ranking JAG officer and lawyer in the United States Navy. As part of the Judge Advocate General’s Corps, the DJAG serves as Commander, Naval Legal Service Command (CNLSC), and as Deputy Department of Defense Representative for Ocean Policy Affairs.Devil's advocate
The Advocatus Diaboli (Latin for Devil's Advocate) is the popular name for a former official position within the Catholic Church, the Promoter of the Faith: one who "argued against the canonization (sainthood) of a candidate in order to uncover any character flaws or misrepresentation of the evidence favoring canonization".In common parlance, the term devil's advocate describes someone who, given a certain point of view, takes a position he or she does not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further. Despite being ancient, this idiomatic expression is one of the most popular present-day English idioms used to express the concept of arguing against something without actually being committed to the contrary view.Judge Advocate General's Corps
The Judge Advocate General's Corps (JAG Corps) is the branch or specialty of a military concerned with military justice and military law. Officers serving in a JAG Corps are typically called judge advocates. Only the chief attorney within each branch is referred to as the Judge Advocate General; however, individual JAG Corps officers are colloquially known as JAGs.
Judge Advocates serve primarily as legal advisors to the command to which they are assigned. In this function, they can also serve as the personal legal advisor to their commander. Their advice may cover a wide range of issues dealing with administrative law, government contracting, civilian and military personnel law, law of war and international relations, environmental law, etc. They also serve as prosecutors for the military when conducting courts-martial. In the United States military, they are charged with both the defense and prosecution of military law as provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Highly experienced officers of the JAG Corps often serve as military judges in courts-martial and courts of inquiry.Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Navy
The Judge Advocate General's Corps also known as the "JAG Corps" or "JAG" is the legal arm of the United States Navy. Today, the corps consists of a worldwide organization of more than 730 commissioned officers serving as judge advocates, 30 limited duty officers (law), 500 enlisted members (primarily in the Legalman rating) and nearly 275 civilian personnel, all serving under the direction of the Judge Advocate General of the Navy.
The headquarters of the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the United States Department of the Navy is located at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, D.C.Judge Advocate General's Corps, United States Army
The Judge Advocate General's Corps of the United States Army, also known as the U.S. Army JAG Corps, is the legal arm of the United States Army, founded on July 29, 1775 by General George Washington. The Corps is composed of Army officers who are also lawyers and who provide legal services to the Army at all levels of command, and also includes legal administrator warrant officers, paralegal noncommissioned officers and junior enlisted personnel, and civilian employees.
The Judge Advocate General of the United States Army (TJAG)—the commanding general of the Army JAG Corps—is a lieutenant general. All military officers are appointed by the U.S. President subject to the advice and consent of the Senate, but the Judge Advocate General is one of the few positions in the Army explicitly provided for by law in Title 10 of the United States Code, and which requires a distinct appointment. Officers who have already been appointed to another branch of the Army are administratively dismissed and simultaneously recommissioned anew as judge advocates, rather than merely transferring branches.Judge Advocate General of the Navy
The Judge Advocate General of the Navy (JAG) is the highest-ranking uniformed lawyer in the United States Department of the Navy. The Judge Advocate General is the principal advisor to the Secretary of the Navy and the Chief of Naval Operations on legal matters pertaining to the Navy. The Judge Advocate General also performs other duties prescribed to them under 10 U.S.C. § 5148 and those prescribed under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.Lord Advocate
Her Majesty's Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Scottish Gaelic: Morair Tagraidh, Scots: Laird Advocat), is the chief legal officer of the Scottish Government and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. He or she is the chief public prosecutor for Scotland and all prosecutions on indictment are conducted by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, nominally in the Lord Advocate's name.
The officeholder is one of the Great Officers of State of Scotland. The current Lord Advocate is The Rt Hon. James Wolffe, QC.Naval Justice School
The Naval Justice School (NJS) is an educational institution of the United States Navy whose mission is to instruct Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard officers and enlisted personnel in the fundamental principles of military justice, civil and administrative law, and procedure. In addition to being licensed attorneys in any state or territory of the U.S., all attorneys in the Judge Advocate General's Corps must undergo training either in this institution, or in the complementary institutions of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force, allowing them to act as trial or defense counsel at military courts-martial.
The Naval Justice School was founded in 1946 at Port Hueneme, California and moved to Newport, Rhode Island in 1950. It has additional campuses in Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California. Beginning in 1990, the institution also began instructing U.S. civilians and foreign government officials in human rights law.Naval Legal Service Command
The Naval Legal Service Command is a command of the United States Navy that provides legal services for members of the Navy and Marine Corps. It is responsible for running various Naval Legal Service Offices throughout the world.
The command is led by the Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Navy.New York City Public Advocate
The office of New York City Public Advocate is a citywide elected position in New York City, which is first in line to succeed the mayor. The office serves as a direct link between the electorate and city government, effectively acting as an ombudsman, or watchdog, for New Yorkers.The Advocate (LGBT magazine)
The Advocate is an American LGBT-interest magazine, printed bi-monthly and available by subscription. The Advocate brand also includes a website. Both magazine and website have an editorial focus on news, politics, opinion, and arts and entertainment of interest to lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and transgender (LGBT) people. The magazine, established in 1967, is the oldest and largest LGBT publication in the United States and the only surviving one of its kind that was founded before the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, an incident that is generally credited as the beginning of the LGBT rights movement.The Advocate (Louisiana)
The Advocate is Louisiana's largest daily newspaper. Based in Baton Rouge, it serves the southern portion of the state, including Baton Rouge, New Orleans and Lafayette. It also publishes weekly entertainment magazines: Red in Baton Rouge and Lafayette, and Beaucoup in New Orleans.The Devil's Advocate (1997 film)
The Devil's Advocate (marketed as Devil's Advocate) is a 1997 American supernatural horror film directed by Taylor Hackford, written by Jonathan Lemkin and Tony Gilroy, and starring Keanu Reeves, Al Pacino, and Charlize Theron. Based on Andrew Neiderman's novel of the same name, it is about an unusually successful young Floridian lawyer (Reeves) invited to New York City to work for a major firm. As his wife (Theron) becomes haunted by frightening visual phenomena, the lawyer slowly begins to realize the owner of the firm (Pacino) is not what he appears to be, and is in fact the Devil.
Pacino's character, Satan, takes the guise of a human lawyer named after the author of Paradise Lost, John Milton. The story and direction contain allusions to Milton's epic, Dante Alighieri's Inferno, and the legend of Faust. An adaptation of Neiderman's novel went into a development hell during the 1990s, with Hackford gaining control of the production. Filming took place around New York City and Florida.
The Devil's Advocate premiered to mixed reviews, with critics crediting it for entertainment value and Pacino's performance. It made over $152 million in the box office and won the Saturn Award for Best Horror Film. It also became the subject of a copyright lawsuit, Hart v. Warner Bros., Inc., for its visual art.The Newcastle Herald
The Newcastle Herald (branded as The Herald) is a local tabloid newspaper published daily, Monday to Saturday, in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. It is the only local newspaper that serves the greater Hunter Region and Central Coast region six days a week. It is owned by Fairfax Media.United States Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps
The Judge Advocate General's Corps also known as the "JAG Corps" or "JAG" is the legal arm of the United States Air Force.United States Marine Corps Judge Advocate Division
The United States Marine Corps' Judge Advocate Division serves both to advise the Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) and other officials in Headquarters, Marine Corps on legal matters, and to oversee the Marine Corps legal community. The head of the Judge Advocate Division (JAD) is the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant (SJA to CMC).
Judge Advocates (JAs) in the Marine Corps work under the supervision of the SJA to the CMC to advise Marine commanders regarding legal issues including the laws of war, and handling of criminal cases under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). Marine Corps lawyers are line officers, unlike their counterparts in the United States Navy and Army, which means they can fill any officer billet in the Fleet Marine Force.