An advisory board is a body that provides non-binding strategic advice to the management of a corporation, organization, or foundation. The informal nature of an advisory board gives greater flexibility in structure and management compared to the board of directors. Unlike the board of directors, the advisory board does not have authority to vote on corporate matters or bear legal fiduciary responsibilities. Many new or small businesses choose to have advisory boards in order to benefit from the knowledge of others, without the expense or formality of the board of directors.
The function of an advisory board is to offer assistance to enterprises with anything from marketing to managing human resources to influencing the direction of regulators. Advisory boards are composed of accomplished experts offering innovative advice and dynamic perspectives. Meeting quarterly or biannually, boards can provide strategic direction, guide quality improvement, and assess program effectiveness.
Entrepreneurs, especially from startup companies or small business may not want to dilute their control of their business by establishing a board of directors with formal responsibilities and authorities. Thus, an advisory board may be a more suitable solution to entrepreneurs who want access to high-quality advice and network in the industry. Advisory board, as an external group, could also provide non-biased information and advice to entrepreneurs.
Advisory boards can be implemented in various different areas, including science, medicine, technology, editorial policy, citizen participation, and other topics.
The main reason to create an advisory board is to seek expertise outside of the company. Advisory board members should provide the company with knowledge, understanding and strategic thinking of the industry or management of the company.
Companies should seek advisory board members whose qualities complement the existing board of directors and not mask gaps in knowledge or skill in the main board. An advisory board strengthens the existing board, but does not interfere with authorities of the existing board. The former editor of The Economist, also an advisory board member, once said, “They (advisory boards) are there to give focus to or sometimes challenge research and intelligence work being done in the company, thus avoiding groupthink and giving direction on big picture issues.”.
There are two key questions to be asked when creating and operating an advisory board. The first question is who is trying to achieve what from an advisory board. The second question is how the business of the board should be conducted. The following issues need to be addressed.
The type of advisory board members should be determined by the nature of what is sought and expected from them by the enterprise. Advisory board members should have distinctive knowledge on different aspects of business such as marketing, product development, sales techniques that are of use to the directors.
A lack of definition in “what is sought from the advisory board” or “what sort of advice is to be sought of” would lead to a disorganized board, which eventually could lead to an advisory board that provide less value per dollar or hour invested than a well-mandated one. Eventually, it could result in a waste of resources and time for the enterprise and the advisory board members.
The advisory board must determine what the focus of the committee is, whether it is a broad focus or a narrow one on a specific product feature. Individuals in an advisory board should share a common goal or similar interests.
Size of an advisory board influences the efficiency of delivering ongoing information and effectiveness of organizing board meetings. A large advisory board may result in managerial issues. Therefore, it is recommended that an advisory board begin with the advisory board leader, and grow from a fairly small size to its ultimate number. Group dynamics suggests the maximum size for an advisory board is eight members, which takes into account of the need for enterprise people and other facilitators at meetings. Some advisory board’s mandate may require more significant representation of a specific and large number of constituencies.
The functioning of an advisory board is affected significantly by how effectively the group’s activities are organized and directed. A fixed meeting should be held regularly (monthly, annually or other) and advisory board members must be well informed of the purpose and background information of the meeting in order for them to provide valuable advice.
A corollary should be provided to advisory board members, which should be of an appropriate length, organized, comprehensible and informative. While it should be concise, it should provide enough details to provide advisory board members a suitable foundation for them to advise on the business. Confidentiality of the information discussed in the meeting shall be considered.
A skilled facilitator, administrator or corporate secretary is required to organize schedules of advisory board meetings and meeting materials. The facilitator or chair of the board should be committed and aware of time management for the meeting. An agenda could improve the organization and time management for the meeting.
Advisory board members could be appointed to specific terms i.e. one, two or three years so that it ensures them to actively commit to the company and prevent them to get too comfortable with their positions. Term of membership is also important when it comes to expansion of the board; term of membership ensures that the size of the advisory board remains efficient and manageable.
Advisory board members serve an enterprise for a range of reasons, from personal loyalty to direct compensation.
The benefits of having an advisory board over board of directors may include the following:
Multinational companies have local companies running their business in a particular foreign jurisdiction for lower costs e.g. tax, price of raw materials, and organizational benefits. However, giving authority to an outside group of directors in the local company may increase risks and instability of the multinational corporation. Since an advisory board can operate in a different location, with different cultural and business norms, in a different language, multinational companies may choose to have an advisory board instead of a localized board of directors in order to avoid loss of control.
Companies may choose to have an advisory board before they have a board of directors. The development of an effective board of directors requires a group of individuals with good chemistry and has the combination of appropriate skills to propel the business. Having an advisory board allows companies to assess the commitments and capabilities of each individual and observe the chemistry between them before appointing them to a board of directors.
A large board of directors may grow to an unmanageable size where organizational complexity and communication breakdown may occur, leading to ineffective and inefficient function of the board. A smaller advisory board, without the complexity of authority involved in board of directors, may work more effectively compared to a board of directors that grows in size as the corporation grows.
The complexity and speed of enterprises often make it difficult to seek advice on any particular topic. Enterprises may also find building trust in any person or group to provide on-going and meaningful guidance difficult. An advisory board can then provide the degree of consistency, longevity and background knowledge as advisory board members provide reliable advice on particular issues. Advisory board members receive compensation for committing to their positions. This gives incentives to advisory board members to provide quality advice and ensure that a request for assistance is taken formally.
Executives can express partially defined or tentative view to an advisory board since advisory board’s sole purpose is to provide advice. This allows them to “test-drive options” before they face the board of directors which demands definitive and assertive business decisions. The board of directors assesses the CEO and establishes his or her compensation. While an advisory board may induce change in the company for the benefits of the company, a board of directors inducing change in the company could suggest a lack of confidence in the senior management team. This imposes great pressure on senior executives and could become a barrier for senior executives to express their issues and seek advice from the board. Thus, an advisory board could be a ‘safe harbor’ for senior executives to seek advice and test business options.
Directors and Assistant Directors are still required to bring any changes to policy or financial matters to the board for direction. No directors or assistant directors are to make any changes without board approval.
An enterprise may need advice on a particular aspect of its business (such as marketing, product direction, customer service or contact network expansion). While board of directors need to take into account of all aspects and go through a series of administrative proceedings e.g. formal approvals, ratification, an advisory board can focus directly on a particular issue and give advice.
The drawbacks of having an advisory board instead of a board of directors may include the following:
An advisory board deals with a more narrow range of issues and meet less often than board of directors. There is less commitment for advisory board members compared to directors in the board. This is reflected in the lower compensation advisory board members receive as compared to those in the board of directors. Nevertheless, the compensation for advisory board members depends on various factors, including return of investments, time, organization and cost.
Board of directors is exposed to a variety of legislated liabilities, fiduciary and other duties. Responsibilities include unpaid wages, unpaid taxes, environmental damage, etc. By subjecting directors to such liabilities and fiduciary, directors are forced to make decisions and establish policies in a way that minimizes risks. Whereas, an advisory board is not subjected to fiduciary duties or liabilities and therefore could influence the enterprise by providing risky advice.
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Distributed by Minnesota Public Radio's distribution arm, American Public Media, A Prairie Home Companion was heard on 690 public radio stations in the United States at its peak in spring 2015 and reached an audience of four million U.S. listeners each week. The show borrowed its name from a radio program in existence in 1969 that was named after the Prairie Home Cemetery near Concordia College, in Moorhead, Minnesota. It inspired a 2006 film of the same name, written by Keillor, directed by Robert Altman, and featuring Keillor, Kevin Kline, Lily Tomlin, Meryl Streep, and Lindsay Lohan.AllAfrica.com
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The current news and the archived news stories that the site presents are organizable by pull-down menus; the 1000 or so stories that are presented daily can be displayed by categories and subcategories such as country, region, and by dozens of standard news topics like business news, sports news, culture, climate, military, NGOs, World Cup, etc.
In 2008, AllAfrica.com rolled out a comment board system for hosted stories.
The President of AllAfrica Global Media, Amadou Mahtar Ba, is a member of the International Advisory Board of the African Press Organization.Antiquities Advisory Board
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CuriosityStream is a global nonfiction subscription video-on-demand streaming service. It exclusively delivers nonfiction documentaries and series about science, technology, history and nature. Launched on March 18, 2015, CuriosityStream is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. CuriosityStream offers its users over 1,800 original and licensed titles and about 600 hours of nonfiction media worldwide.
On December 8, 2015, Amazon Prime began offering CuriosityStream as part of its add-on subscription service. Amazon-CuriosityStream is a separate subscription from CuriosityStream's main SVOD plan in that it will only permit access via Amazon Prime's platforms and is only available to Amazon Prime members. On November 1, 2017, it was announced that CuriosityStream would partner with VRV, an aggregate provider of streaming content, to allow access to CuriosityStream's content through their service. On November 8, 2017, Comcast began offering the service, in CuriosityStream's first MVPD distribution deal. On December 7, 2017, Sling TV began offering the service as an add-on option to their customers. On June 26, 2018, CuriosityStream formalized its first international distribution deal with Starhub, expanding its reach dramatically. On July 11, 2018, CuriosityStream began being offered as an add-on channel on YouTube TV.Editorial board
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The format can be used for podcasting, which uses the RSS format as a means of delivering content to media-playing devices, as well as Smart TVs. Media RSS allows for a much more detailed description of the content to be delivered to the subscriber than the RSS standard. The standard is also used by content publishers to feed media files into Yahoo! Video Search, which is a feature of Yahoo! Search that allows users to search for video files.National Gallery of Australia
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Department of Commerce:
Jason Boehm, Ph.D., Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation, National Institute of Standards and Technology Division Head
Department of Defense :
David Christian Hassell, Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Programs
Department of Energy:
Sharlene Weatherwax, Ph.D., Associate Director of Science for Biological and Environmental Research
Department of Health and Human Services
Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Disease
Sally Phillips, R.N., Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
CAPT Carmen Maher, Deputy Director, Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats (OCET), Office of the Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration
Michael W. Shaw, Ph.D., Senior Advisor for Laboratory Science, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Department of Homeland Security
Wendy Hall, Ph.D., Special Senior Advisor for Biological Threats, Office of Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Policy
Department of the Interior
Anne E. Kinsinger, Associate Director for Biology, U.S. Geological Survey
Department of Justice
Edward You, Supervisory Special Agent, FBI Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate
Department of State
Christopher Park, Director, Biological Policy Staff, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation
Department of Veterans Affairs
Brenda A. Cuccherini, Ph.D., M.P.H. Special Assistant to the Chief Research and Development Officer, Veterans Health Administration
Environmental Protection Agency,
Gregory Sayles, Ph.D., Acting Director, National Homeland Security Research Center
Executive Office of the President
Gerald Epstein, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Biosecurity and Emerging Technologies, National Security and International Affairs Division, Office of Science and Technology Policy
Amanda Dion-Schultz, Ph.D., Office of the Chief Scientist
Robert M. Miceli, Ph.D., Biological Issue Manager and Advisor to the Director, Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
David R. Liskowsky, Ph.D., Director, Medical Policy & Ethics, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer
Department of Agriculture
Steven Kappes, Ph.D. Deputy Administrator, Animal Production and ProtectionNational Security Council (India)
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The council met a total of four times, with its final meeting on January 17, 2012. In 2013, the authorization for the council was not renewed, causing the council to be permanently shut down.President's Intelligence Advisory Board
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Dave Winer, the lead author of several RSS specifications and a longtime evangelist of syndication, created the board to maintain the RSS 2.0 specification in cooperation with Harvard's Berkman Center.
In January 2006, RSS Advisory Board chairman Rogers Cadenhead announced that eight new members had joined the group, continuing the development of the RSS format and resolving ambiguities in the RSS 2.0 specification. Netscape developer Christopher Finke joined the board in March 2007, the company's first involvement in RSS since the publication of RSS 0.91.
In June 2007, the board revised its version of the specification to confirm that namespaces may extend core elements with namespace attributes, as Microsoft has done in Internet Explorer 7. In its view, a difference of interpretation left publishers unsure of whether this was permitted or forbidden.
In January 2008, Netscape announced that the RSS 0.9 and RSS 0.91 specifications, document type definitions and related documentation that it had published since their creation in 1999 were moving to the board.
Yahoo transferred the Media RSS specification to the board in December 2009.Scopus
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The first edition of the Encyclopedia was published in 1964 with Richard Frey as Editor-in-Chief; it was the only one with an edition revised for an overseas market (The Bridge Players' Encyclopedia, 1967). The seventh and latest edition was published in 2011 following intermediate editions in 1971, 1976, 1984, 1994 and 2001. The Executive Editor for the first six was Alan Truscott, bridge editor of The New York Times. For the fourth through sixth editions, Henry Francis succeeded Frey as Editor-in-Chief. Frey and Francis were also successive editors of the ACBL monthly membership magazine. Numerous contributing editors to the Encyclopedia were listed in each edition as were members of Editorial Advisory Boards.
The redesigned seventh edition, in preparation since 2006, was released in November 2011. Editor was Brent Manley, with primary assistance from Mark Horton, Barry Rigal and Tracey Yarbro. This is the first edition to depart from the traditional alphabetical listing of individual entries and present a compilation of entries grouped into chapters, such as Bidding, Conventions and Card Play. Numerous photographs are included, together with 2 CDs; one containing the full printed version of the Encyclopedia and the other with biographies and tournament results.Wikimedia Foundation
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