Advertising campaign

An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). An IMC is a platform in which a group of people can group their ideas, beliefs, and concepts into one large media base. Advertising campaigns utilize diverse media channels over a particular time frame and target identified audiences.

The campaign theme is the central message that will be received in the promotional activities and is the prime focus of advertising campaign, as it sets the motif for the series of individual advertisements and other marketing communications that will be used. The campaign themes are usually produced with the objective of being used for a significant period but many of them are temporal due to factors like being not effective or market conditions, competition and marketing mix.[1]

Advertising campaigns are built to accomplish a particular objective or a set of objectives. Such objectives usually include establishing a brand, raising brand awareness, aggrandizing the rate of conversions/sales. The rate of success or failure in accomplishing these goals is reckoned via effectiveness measures. There are 5 key points at which an advertising campaign must consider to ensure an effective campaign. These points are, integrated marketing communications, media channels, positioning, the communications process diagram and touch points.

Launch of advertising campaign for visitors to 2014 World Cup in Johannesburg 2010-07-09 1
Launch of the advertising campaign for visitors to the 2014 FIFA World Cup

Integrated marketing Communication: (IMC)

Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a conceptual approach used by the majority of organizations to develop a strategic plan on how they are going to broadcast their marketing and advertising campaigns. Recently there has been a shift in the way marketers and advertisers interact with their consumers and now see it as a conversation between Advertising/ Marketing teams and consumers. IMC has emerged as a key strategy for organizations to manage customer experiences in the digital age.[2] The more traditional advertising practices such as newspapers, billboards, and magazines are still used but fail to have the same effect now as they did in previous years.

The importance of the IMC is to make the marketing process seamless for both the brand and the consumer. IMC attempts to meld all aspects of marketing into one cohesive piece. This includes sales promotion, advertising, public relations, direct marketing, and social media. The entire point of IMC is to have all of these aspects of marketing work together as a unified force. This can be done through methods, channels, and activities all while using a media platform. The end goal of IMC is to get the brands message across to consumers in the most convenient way possible.[3]

Advantages of using IMC are that it has the ability to communicate the same message through several channels to create brand awareness. IMC is the most cost-effective solution when compared to mass media advertising to interact with target consumers on a personal level.[4] IMC also benefits small businesses, as they are able to submerge their consumers with communication of various kinds in a way that pushes them through the research and buying stages creating a relationship and dialogue with their new customer. Popular and obvious examples of IMC put into action are the likes of direct marketing to the consumer that the organisation already has a knowledge that the person is interested in the brand by gathering personal information about them from when they previously shopped there and then sending mail, emails, texts and other direct communication with the person.[1] In-store sales promotions are tactics such as ‘30% off’ sales or offering loyalty cards to consumers to build a relationship. Television and radio advertisement are also a form of advertising strategy derived from IMC.[1] All of the components of IMC play an important role and a company may or may not choose to implement any of the integration strategies[5]

Media Channels

Media channels, also known as, marketing communications channels, are used to create a connection with the target consumer.[6] Traditional methods of communication with the consumer include newspapers, magazines, Radio, television, billboards, telephone, post and door to door sales. These are just a few of the historically traditional methods.

Along with traditional media channels, comes new and upcoming media channels. Social media has begun to play a very large role in the way media and marketing intermingle to reach a consumer base. Social media has the power to reach a wider audience. Depending on the age group and demographic, social media can influence a company's overall image. Using social media as a marketing tool has become a widely popular method for branding. A brand has the chance to create an entire social media presence based around their own specific targeted community.[7]

With advancements in digital communications channels, marketing communications allow for the possibility of two-way communications where an immediate consumer response can be elicited. Digital communications tools include: websites, blogs, social media, email, mobile, and search engines as a few examples. It is important for an advertising campaign to carefully select channels based on where their target consumer spends time to ensure market and advertising efforts are maximized.

Modern day implications to the advantages & disadvantages of traditional media channels

In the rapidly changing marketing and advertising environment, exposure to certain consumer groups and target audiences through traditional media channels has blurred. These traditional media channels are defined as print, broadcast, out-of-home and direct mail.[8] The introduction of various new modern-day media channels has altered their traditional advantages and disadvantages. It is imperative to the effectiveness of the Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) strategy that exposure to certain demographics, consumer groups and target audiences is anticipated to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact.[9]

Print media is mainly defined as newspapers and magazines. With the transition in last decade [2006 – 2016] to digital information on phones, computers and tablets, the demographic that still are exposed to traditional print media is going to be older. It is also estimated that there will be a reduction of print material in coming years. This has to be taken into account by the advertisers and in some cases, they could use this to their advantage. Newspapers advantages would be that it is low cost, timely, reader controls exposure and has moderate coverage to the older generations in western society. Disadvantages would obviously be the aging demographic, short life, clutter and low attention-getting capabilities. Magazines are similar in some cases but have defined differences as they are a niche product increasing segmentation potential; they also have high informational content and longevity. Disadvantages are they are visual only, lack of flexibility and a long lead time for advertisement placement.[1]

Traditional broadcast media's primary platforms are television and radio. These are still relatively prominent in modern-day society, but with the emergence of online content such as YouTube, Instagram and Vine it would difficult to anticipate where the market is headed in the next decade. Televisions advantages are that it has mass coverage, high reach, quality reputation, low post per exposure and impacts human senses. Disadvantages would be that it has low selectivity, short message life and high production costs. Alternatively, radio offers flexibility, high frequency and low advertising & production costs. Disadvantages to radio are that its audio only, low attention-getting and short message.

Out-of-home (OOH) media a broad marketing concept that is no longer relegated to large, static billboards on the side of motorways. More current and innovative approaches to OOH media range from street furniture to aerial blimps. Due to the constant and contemporary nature of the outdoors there will always be new ways in which a campaign can revitalize this media channel. Advantages would be the accessibility and reach, geographic flexibility and relatively low cost. Disadvantages to OOH media are that it has a short life, difficult to measure / control and it can convey poor brand image.[8]

Direct mail is classified as messages sent directly to consumers through the mail delivery service. One of the more ‘dated’ media channels and in the modern day has very little advantages, other than it is highly selective and has high information content. Disadvantages are that it promotes a poor brand image – junk mail and that it has a high cost to contact ratio.[1]

Target Market

When an organisation begins to construct their advertising campaign they need to research each and every aspect of their target market and target consumer. The target consumer is the person or group of people who is most likely to buy from an organisation, he is also called 'potential customer'. A target consumer can be categorized by several key characteristics; Gender, age, occupation, marital status, geographical location, behavioral,[10] level of income and education to name the main factors.[11] This process is called segmenting customers on the basis of demographics.

Gender is simply whether a person is male or female. Age is usually broken up into bracketed intervals of ten or so years, for example, a person's age between 15–25 years old. By understanding which age bracket the target market falls into the advertisers can position their efforts accordingly. Occupation is also known as a profession and refers to what a person does for a living; this could be a particular job, student, unemployed etc. A person's marital status defines whether they are married or unmarried. Geographical location is a broad term specifying a particular area or place within a given country, state/ city, suburb or street as some examples. Income refers to how much money a person is earning annually which can help identify how much money they have left over after expenses to potential spend on a brand. The final factor to explain is education, whether a person went to school or not, what school they attended, what standard of education they have, diplomas, certificates, graduate, degrees, masters, Ph.D. or other forms of defining educational factors. Knowing this information can help an advertiser understand their target markets level of thinking to help adapt the advertising campaign to be understood by the given target consumer/s.

For a business to successfully find the appropriate Target Market for their products or services, it is important that they segment the market to better decide which customers to target. This is best done when the market is segmented into the four following areas: geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioural.

Geographic segmentation involves the market being divided into different nations, regions, states, counties, cities, or neighbourhoods. Segmenting the Target market geographically is effective as different areas have different needs, which can be affected by weather, fashion, etc.

Demographic segmentation separates the market into groups according to age, gender, family size, income, occupation, education, religion, nationality, and race. It is important to note that this is the easiest and least expensive way to segment the market, as the research has already been done.

Psychographic segmentation is the process of markets being divided into groups based on social class, personality characteristics, and values.

Behavioural segmentation “divides a market into groups based on consumer knowledge, attitude, use, or response to a product” (Krause, T. 2007). This is believed to be the best starting point, when a business is building a market segment. The behavioural segment is important because it focuses on why consumers consume products. For example, during Father's day and Mother's day, flowers were promoted due to the heavy demand of flowers during these holidays.[12]

Defining the target market helps businesses and individuals design a marketing campaign. This in turns helps businesses/ individuals avoid waste and get their advertisements to likely customers. While attempting to find the correct target market it is important to focus on specific groups of individuals that will benefit from your product. By marketing to specific groups of individuals that specifically relate to the product, businesses and individuals will more quickly and efficiently find those who will purchase the product. Businesses and individuals that monitor their existing data (customer and sales data) will find it easier to define their target market, and surveying existing customers will assist in finding more customers. Avoiding inefficiencies when finding a target market is equally as important. Wasting time and money advertising to a large group of potential customers is inefficient if only a handful become customers. A focused plan that reaches a tiny audience can work out well if they're already interested in what you're selling. Over time target markets can change. People interested today might not be interested tomorrow, and those not interested in the present time, might become interested over time. Analysing sales data and customer information helps businesses and individuals understand when their target market is increasing or decreasing.[13]

There are many advantages that are associated with finding your Target Market. One advantage is the “ability to offer the right product” (Suttle. R. 2016) through knowing the age and needs of the customer willing to purchase the item. Another advantage of Target Marketing assists businesses in understanding what price the customer will pay for the products or service. Businesses are also more efficient and effective at advertising their product, because they “reach the right consumers with messages that are more applicable” (Suttle. R. 2016).[14]

However, there are several disadvantages that can be associated with Target Marketing. Firstly, finding your Target Market is expensive. Often businesses conduct primary research to find whom their Target Market is, which usually involves hiring a research agency, which can cost “tens of thousands of dollars” (Suttle, R. 2016). Finding ones Target Market is also time-consuming, as it often “requires a considerable amount of time to identify a target audience” (Suttle, R. 2016). Also focusing on finding your Target Market can make you overlook other customers that are interested in your product. Businesses/ Individuals may find that their ‘average customer’ might not include those that fall just outside of the average customers “demographics” (Suttle, R. 2016), which will limit the sale of their products. The last disadvantage to note is the ethical ramifications that are associated with Target Marketing. An example of this would be a “beer company that may target less educated, poorer people with larger-sized bottles” (Suttle, R. 2016).[15]


In advertising various brands compete to overtake the perceptual mapping in a consumers mind. Everyday consumers view advertising and rank particular brands compared to their competitors. Individuals rank these specific brands in an order of what is most important to them. For example, a person may compare brands of cars based on how sporty they think they look, affordability, practicality and classiness. How one person perceives a brand is different to another but is largely left to the advertising campaign to manipulate and create the perception that they want you to envision as the consumer.

Positioning is an important marketing concept that businesses implement to market their products or services. The positioning concept focuses on creating an image that will best attract the intended audience. Businesses that implement the positioning concept focus on promotion, price, placement and product. When the positioning concept is effective and productive it elevates the marketing efforts made by a business, and assists the buyer in purchasing the product.[16]

The positioning process is imperative in marketing because of the specific level of consumer-based recognition is involved. A company must create a trademark brand for themselves in order to be recognizable by a broad range of consumers. For example, a fast food restaurant positions itself as fast, cheap, and delicious. They are playing upon their strengths and most visible characteristics. On the other hand, a luxury car brand will position its brand as a stylish and expensive platform because they want to target a specific brand very different than the fast food brand.[17]

For the positioning concept to be effective one must focus on the concepts of promotion, price, place and product.

There are three basic objectives of promotion, which include: presenting product information to targeted business customers and consumers, increase demand among the target market, and differentiating a product and creating a brand identity. Tools that can be used to achieve these objectives are advertising, public relations, personal selling, direct marketing, and sales promotion.

Price of an object is crucial in the concept of positioning. Adjusting or decreasing the product price has a profound impact on the sales of the product, and should complement the other parts of the positioning concept. The price needs to ensure survival, increase profit, generate survival, gain market shares, and establish an appropriate image.

Positioning a product is essential in the positioning concept. It is the process marketers use to communicate their products’ attributes to the intended target market. In order for products to be successful businesses must focus on the customer needs, competitive pressures, available communication channels and carefully crafted key messages.[18]

Product Positioning presents several advantages in the advertising campaign, and to the businesses/ individuals that implement it. Positioning connects with superior aspects of a product and matches “them with consumers more effectively than competitors” (Jaideep, S. 2016). Positioning can also help businesses or individuals realise the consumer's expectations of the product/s they are willing to purchase from them. Positioning a product reinforces the companies name, product and brand. It also makes the brand popular and strengthens customer loyalty. Product benefits to customers are better advertised through positioning the product, which results in more interest and attention of consumers. This also attracts different types of consumers as products posse's different benefits that attract different groups of consumers, for example: a shoe that is advertised for playing sports, going for walks, hiking and casual wear will attract different groups of consumers. Another advantage of positioning is the competitive strength it gives to businesses/ individuals and their products, introducing new products successfully to the market and communicating new and varied features that are added to a product later on.[19]

Communication Process Diagram

The Communication of processes diagram refers to the order of operation an advertising campaign pieces together the flow of communication between a given organisation and the consumer. The diagram usually flows left to right (unless shown in a circular array) starting with the source. An advertising campaign uses the communication process diagram to ensure all the appropriate steps of communication are being taken in order.

The source is the person or organisation that has a message they want to share with potential consumers.[20] An example of this is Vodafone wanting to tell their consumers and new consumers of a new monthly plan.

The diagram then moves on to encoding which consists of the organisation putting messages, thoughts and ideas into a symbolic form that be interpreted by the target consumer using symbols or words.[20]

The third stage in the diagram is channel message. This occurs when the information or meaning the source wants to convoy, is put into a form to easily be transmitted to the targeted audience.[20] This also includes the method that communication gets from the source to the receiver. Examples of this is Vodafone advertising on TV, bus stops and university campuses as students may be the intended consumer for the new plan.

Decoding is the processes that the viewer interprets the message that the source sent.[20] Obviously it is up to the source to ensure that the message encoded well enough so that it is received as intended.

The receiver is also known as the viewer or potential consumer.[20] This is the person who interprets the source message through channeling whether they are the intended target audience or not. Every day we interpret different advertisements even if we are not the target audience for that advertisement.

In between these steps there are external factors acting as distractions, these factors are called noise. Noise distorts the way the message gets to the intended target audience.[20] These distractions are from all other forms of advertising and communication from every other person or organisation. Examples of noise are State of mind, unfamiliar language, unclear message, Values, Attitudes, Perceptions, Culture and Knowledge of similar products or services to name a few forms of noise.[20]

Finally there is the response or feedback. This is the receiver's reaction to the communication of message[20] and the way they understood it. Feedback relates to the way sales react as well as the interest or questions that arise in relation to the message put out.[20]

Touch Points

Customer journey with touchpoints English
Customer journey with touchpoints English

When considering touch points in an advertising campaign a brand looks Multisensory touch points. These touch points help the brand to develop a point of contact between themselves and the consumer. Modern day advancements in various forms of technology have made it easier for consumers to engage with brands in numerous ways. The most successful touch points are those that create value in the consumer and brands relationship.[21] Common examples of touch points include social media links, QR codes, person handing out flyers about a particular brand, billboards, web sites and various other methods that connect the brand and consumer.

Multi sensory touch points are subconscious yet helps use to recognise brands through characteristic identified through human sensors.[22] These characteristics could be shape, colour, textures, sounds, smell or tastes associated with a given brand.[22] It is important for an advertising campaign to consider sensory cues into their campaign as market places continue to become increasingly competitive and crowded. Anyone of the given sensory characteristics may remind a person of the brand they best associate with. A prime example of this is Red Bull who use the colour, shapes and size of their cans to best relate their product to success and winning.[22] A taller can looks like the 1st place podium when placed next to competitors, the design looks like the finish flag in racing representing winning.[22] The opportunity for an advertising campaign to succeed is significantly increased with the use of multi sensory touch points used as a point of difference between brands.[22]

Guerrilla marketing

Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy which increases brand exposure through the use of unconventional campaigns which initiate social discussion and "buzz". This can often be achieved with lower budgets than conventional advertising methods, allowing small and medium-sized businesses the chance to compete against larger competitors. Through unconventional methods, inventiveness and creativity, guerrilla marketing leaves the receiver with a long lasting impression of the brand as most guerrilla marketing campaigns target the receivers at a personal level, taking them by surprise and may incorporate an element of shock. Guerrilla marketing is typically executed exclusively in public places, including streets, parks, shopping centres etc., to ensure maximum audience resulting in further discussion on social media.[23]

Guerrilla marketing is the term used for several types of marketing categories including street marketing, ambient marketing, presence marketing, alternative marketing, experimental marketing, grassroots marketing, wild posting, guerrilla projection advertising, undercover marketing and astroturfing.

Jay Conrad Levinson coined the term Guerrilla Marketing with his 1984 book of the same name.[24] Through the enhancement of technology and common use of internet and mobile phones, marketing communication has become more affordable and guerrilla marketing is on the rise, allowing the spread of newsworthy guerrilla campaigns.[25]

When establishing a guerrilla marketing strategy, there are seven elements to a clear and logical approach.[26] Firstly, write a statement that identifies the purpose of the strategy. Secondly define how the purpose will be achieved concentrating on the key advantages. Next Levinson (1989) suggests writing a descriptive summary on the target market or consumers. The fourth element is to establish a statement that itemizes the marketing tools and methods planning to be used in the strategy (for example, radio advertising during 6.30am – 9am on weekday mornings or window displays that are regularly updated). The fifth step is to create a statement which positions the brand/product/company in the market. Define the brands characteristics and give it an identity is the sixth element. Lastly, clearly identify a budget which will be put solely towards marketing going forward.[26]

For a successful overall guerrilla marketing campaign, combine the above steps with seven winning actions.[27] These seven principles are commitment – stick to the marketing plan without changing it; investment – appreciate that marketing is an investment, consistency – ensure the marketing message and strategy remains consistent across all forms of, confidence – show confidence in the commitment to the guerrilla marketing strategy, patience – time and dedication to the strategy, assortment – incorporate different methods of advertising and marketing for optimum results, and subsequent – build customer loyalty and retention though follow up marketing post-sale.[26]

Levinson suggests guerrilla marketing tactics were initiated to enable small businesses with limited financial resources to gain an upper hand on the corporate giants who had unlimited budgets and resources at their disposal. Large companies cottoned on to the success of guerrilla marketing and have had hundreds of effective attention grabbing campaigns using the strategies originally designed for smaller businesses with minimal marketing budgets.[28]

Non-traditional, unconventional and shocking campaigns are highly successful in obtaining media coverage and therefore brand awareness, albeit good or bad media attention. However, like most marketing strategies a bad campaign can backfire and damage profits and sales.[29] Undercover marketing and astroturfing are two type of guerrilla marketing that are deemed as risky and can be detrimental to the company.[29]

“Advertising can be dated back to 4000 BC where Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Traditional advertising and marketing slowly developed over the centuries but never bloomed until early 1900s” ("What Is Guerrilla Marketing?", 2010). Guerrilla marketing are relatively simple, use tactics to advertise on a very small budget. It is to make a campaign that is “shocking, funny, unique, outrageous, clever and creative that people can’t stop talking about it” (Uk essays, 2016). Guerrilla marketing is different when compared to traditional marketing tactics (Staff, 2016). “Guerrilla marketing means going after conventional goals of profits, sales and growth but doing it by using unconventional means, such as expanding offerings during gloomy economic days to inspire customers to increase the size of each purchase” (Staff, 2016). Guerrilla marketing also suggests that rather than investing money, it is better to “invest time, energy, imagination and knowledge” (Staff, 2016) instead. Guerrilla marketing puts profit as their main priority not sales as their main focal point, this is done to urge the growth of geometrically by enlarging the size of each transactions. This all done through one of the most powerful marketing weapons around, the telephone. Research shows that it will always increases profits and sales. The term “guerrilla first appeared during the war of independence in Spain and Portugal at the beginning of the 19th century it can be translated as battle” (Uk essays, 2016). Even thou guerrilla marketing was aimed for small business; this did not stop bigger business from adopting the same ideology. “Larger business has been using unconventional marketing to complement their advertising campaigns, even then some marketers argue that when bigger business utilize guerrilla marketing tactics, it isn’t true guerrilla” ("What Is Guerrilla Marketing?", 2010). The reason being that larger companies have bigger budgets and usually their brands well established. In some cases, it is far riskier for a larger business to do guerrilla marketing tactics. Which can cause problem when their stunts become a flop when compared to smaller business, as they do not run as much risk, as most people will just write it off as another failed stunt. Many methods in guerrilla marketing consist of “graffiti (or reverse graffiti, where a dirty wall is selectively cleaned), interactive displays, intercept encounters in public spaces, flash mobs, or various PR stunts are often used.”[30]

Small business use social media as a form of marketing. This Is due to that social media in the 21st century is phenomenon. “Collecting billions of people around the world through a series of status updates, tweets, and other rich media” ("Guerrilla Marketing Strategies for Small Businesses", 2013). Social media is a powerful tool in the world of business. Guerrilla marketing strategies and tactics are a great and cost effective way to generate” awareness for your business, products and services. To maximize full potential in your marketing efforts, it's to blend them with a powerful and robust online marking strategy with a marketing automation software” ("Guerrilla Marketing Strategies for Small Businesses", 2013). Which can boost small businesses. Guerrilla tactics consist of instruments that have effects on the efforts. Some instruments are usually there to maximize the surprise effect and some of these instruments mainly cutting advertising costs.” Guerrilla marketing is a way of increasing the number of individuals exposed to the advertising with the cost of campaign. The instrument of diffusion helps to each a wide audience, which causes none or little cost because consumers (viral marketing) or the media (guerrilla PR) pass on the advertising message” ("Guerrilla Marketing: The Nature of the Concept and Propositions for Further Research", 2016). Guerrilla campaigns usually implement a free ride approach, this means that to cut their costs and increase the number of recipients simultaneously to maximize the low cost effect. For example, they will try to benefit from placing advertisements on big events e.g. sporting events. Guerrilla marketing was regarded to target existing customers rather than new ones, aiming to increase their engagement with a product and/ or brand. “When selecting audiences for a guerrilla message, a group that is already engaged with the product at some level is the best target; they will be quicker to recognize and respond to creative tactics, and more likely to share the experience with their friends, as social media has become a major feature of the market landscape, guerrilla marketing has shown to be particularly effective online. Consumers who regularly use social media are more likely to share their interactions with guerrilla marketing, and creative advertising can quickly go viral.”[30]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Belch, George; Belch, Michael (2004). Advertising and Promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective. MacGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 978-0078028977.
  2. ^ "Integrated Marketing Communications - Medill - Northwestern University". Retrieved 24/ 3/16
  3. ^ "Integrated Marketing Definitions - Definition of Integrated Marketing |". Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  4. ^ Shultz, Orion (1 July 2008). "Buying, selling, trading and connecting with local businesses". Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  5. ^ Schultz, Don E.; Schultz, Heidi F. (1998-01-01). "Transitioning marketing communication into the twenty-first century". Journal of Marketing Communications. 4 (1): 9–26. doi:10.1080/135272698345852. ISSN 1352-7266.
  6. ^ "Political Campaigns". Political Communication Lab. Stanford University.
  7. ^ "Why Social Media Marketing Is Important For Any Business". Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  8. ^ a b Fill, Chris; Hughes, Graham; De Francesco, Scott (2012). Advertising: Strategy, Creativity and Media. Pearson. ISBN 978-0273760894.
  9. ^ Schultz, D. E (1993). Integrated Marketing Communication: Maybe Definition Is in the Point of View. Marketing News. ISBN 978-0324593600.
  10. ^ CBS(2014). Blue Jeans: The fabric of freedom. Retrieved December 8, 2016 from Https://
  11. ^ Staff, Entrepreneur. "Target Market". Entrepreneur. Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  12. ^ "Target Marketing Facts, information, pictures | articles about Target Marketing". Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  13. ^ "The Importance of Defining a Target Market". Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  14. ^ "The Broad Targeting Advantages in Marketing". Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  15. ^ "The Disadvantages of Target Marketing". Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  16. ^ "What Is Positioning in a Marketing Plan?". Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  17. ^ "Market Positioning • The Strategic CFO". The Strategic CFO. 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  18. ^ "The Importance of Product Positioning to the Marketing Plan". Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  19. ^ "Top 10 Benefits of Product Positioning". The Next Generation Library. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Belch, G.; Belch, M. A. (2012). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communication perspective (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. pp. 147–158.
  21. ^ Persson, J. (n.d.). Brand TouchPoint Matrix. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from
  22. ^ a b c d e Heath, R., Brandt, D., & Nairn, A. (2006). Brand relationships: Strengtheng. by emotion, weakened by attention. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(4), 410-419.
  23. ^ Hutter, K., & Hoffmann, S. (2011). Guerrilla marketing: The nature of the concept and propositions for further research. Asian Journal of Marketing, 5(2), 39-54.
  24. ^ Paksoy, T & Chang, C. (2010). Applied Mathematical Modelling. Revised multi-choice goal programming for multi-period, multi-stage inventory controlled supply chain model with popup stores in Guerrilla marketing, 34(34), 3586-3587
  25. ^ Kotler, P; Caslione, J. "Chaotics - The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of Turbulance" (PDF).
  26. ^ a b c Levinson, J. (1989). Guerrilla Marketing Attack – New Stratigies, Tactics and Weapson for Winning Big Profits for your Small Business). Boston, United States of America: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  27. ^ Guerrilla Marketing Attack – New Stratigies, Tactics and Weapons for Winning Big Profits for your Small Business). Boston, United States of America: Houghton Mifflin Company. p39
  28. ^ McNaughton, M. (2008). Guerrilla communication, visual consumption, and consumer public relations. Public Relations Review, 34(1), 303-305.
  29. ^ a b Levinson, J. & Gibson, S. (2010). Guerrilla Social Media Marketing: 100+ Weapons to Grow Your Online Influence, Attract Customers, and Drive Profits. California, United States of America: Entrepreneur Press.
  30. ^ a b "Guerrilla Marketing". 2012.
Bravo (supermarket)

Bravo is a supermarket chain with stores in the northeastern and southeastern United States. The store carries Krasdale Foods brands. The company's headquarters are in New York. It focuses on a Hispanic clientele. The company launched the El Sabor de tu Pais ("The Flavor of your Country") advertising campaign. In the early 1990s, many independently owned Bravo stores opened in New York City. Bravo is a midsize supermarket.Bravo stopped advertising with the New York Daily News after the paper ran a series derogatory of supermarket chains in the city. Bravo later resumed advertising with the paper after the Daily News mended fences with the industry.


Bubblicious is a brand of bubble gum originally produced by the American Chicle Division of Warner-Lambert. The brand is now part of Cadbury Adams, a division of Mondelez International. It was launched in 1977, in response to the tremendous sales of Bubble Yum, the first soft bubble gum. The brand struggled upon introduction, but sales took off with the advent, in 1978, of the "Ultimate Bubble" advertising campaign. Bubblicious was later expanded internationally.


Campaign or The Campaign may refer to:

Advertising campaign, a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme

Civil society campaign, a project intended to mobilize public support in order to instigate social change

Military campaign, large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles

Political campaign, an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group

In agriculture, the period during which sugar beets are harvested and processed

Chips and dip

Chips and dip are a dish consisting of chips or crisps served with dips. Chips used include potato chips, tortilla chips, corn chips, bean chips, vegetable chips, pita chips, plantain chips and others. Crackers are also sometimes used, as are crudités, which are whole or sliced raw vegetables. Various types of dips are used to accompany various types of chips.

Chips and dip gained significant popularity in the United States during the 1950s, in part due to a Lipton advertising campaign for their French onion dip recipe, sometimes referred to as "California dip". Specialized trays and serving dishes designed to hold both chips and dip were created during this time. Chips and dip are frequently served during the Super Bowl American football game in the United States. National Chip and Dip Day occurs annually in the U.S. on March 23.

Cillit Bang

Cillit Bang ( ) (sold in some countries as Easy-Off Bam or Easy-Off Bang) is the brand name of a range of cleaning products sold by the consumer products manufacturer Reckitt Benckiser. The products marketed under the brand name include a degreaser, cleaning crystals, and a grime, rust, mould and limescale remover.

Creme 21

Creme 21 is a German brand skincare products originally created by Henkel. During the 1970s its advertising campaign was, according to the manufacturer, the first to show bare skin. During the, 1960s the way in which cosmetics and skincare products were marketed and sold to consumers changed. Cosmetics and skincare products were originally just sold by specialist retailers, such as chemists and department stores. At the same time as the growth in grocery shopping in supermarkets and convenience stores, Henkel announced in 1967 the instigation of project Lebensmitteleinzelhandel-Kosmetik (“grocery and retail-trade cosmetics”). Its aim was to develop different products specifically for self-service retailers, leading to the creation of Creme 21.

The colour orange and the plastic container represented modernity. The number 21, the then-current age the one became a legal adult, expressed that the skincare cream was for young and old, and the whole family.

The product was discontinued in the mid-1980s due to faltering demand. Twenty years, later the entrepreneur Antje Stickel bought the intellectual properties for the product from Henkel and founded Creme 21, GmbH.

The product's name and styling was borrowed in the 1990s by German pop band Creme 21.

Cresta (soft drink)

Cresta was a frothy fruit-flavoured drink produced in the United Kingdom from the early 1970s through to around 2007. It originally came in four different flavours: strawberry, lemon & lime, pineapple and orange; blackcurrant was added later.


Croespenmaen is a locality near Crumlin, Caerphilly, Wales. The nearby Croespenmaen Industrial Estate is the site of Unilever's Pot Noodle factory, which became the topic of a 2006 advertising campaign, showing fictitious Pot Noodle mines in Wales. The factory typically produces 155 million pots annually. Croespenmaen is also the site of the Brace's Bakery factory.

Daz (detergent)

Daz is the name of a popular laundry detergent on the market in the United Kingdom and Ireland and was introduced in February 1953. It is manufactured by Procter & Gamble and is lower priced than P&G's main brand, Ariel.

Aggressively marketed, it is associated in popular culture with the "Daz Doorstep Challenge" series of commercials, which saw various 'hosts' including Danny Baker, Shane Richie and Michael Barrymore surprising house occupiers by asking them to put Daz to the test against a rival detergent. The advert was spoofed by Dom Joly in the British sketch series Trigger Happy TV and in a John Smith's advertising campaign featuring Peter Kay. From 1999 to 2002 Julian Clary was the face of Daz laundry detergent, one of the first of his advert campaigns being a "Wash Your Dirty Linen in Public" roadshow with Daz Tablets.

Since 2002, Daz TV commercials are set in an outlandish "Cleaner Close" soap opera.

Daz is available in powder (handwash and automatic), liquid and liquitabs (Go-Pods). Daz Go-Pods are branded as Tide Pods in the USA and Vizir Pods in Europe; on the back of the pods they bear the marking "Daz/Vizir/Tide" and they have the same distinctive design for all the markets.

I'm a PC

"I'm a PC" is the title for a television advertising campaign created for Microsoft by ad agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CPB). The series first began to appear in September, 2008. The new series of commercials replace those that featured the pairing of Jerry Seinfeld and Bill Gates.

The $300 million advertising campaign was designed to challenge Apple's Get a Mac campaign by showing everyday people to be PC users.

Marcus Rivers

Marcus Rivers (portrayed by child-actor Bobb'e J. Thompson) is a fictional 12-year-old character that was used by Sony Computer Entertainment America as part of their Step Your Game Up advertising campaign for the PlayStation Portable and PSPgo consoles in North America, much like the PlayStation 3's "It Only Does Everything" advertising campaign commercials with Kevin Butler. He started as the publicist of the PlayStation Portable division of Sony, responding to "Dear PSP" queries. The character was created by Deutsch/LA, the advertising agency responsible for the campaign. The YouTube channel "marcuspsp" that hosted his videos, was closed in June 15, 2011 for an undisclosed reason.

Mojave Experiment

The Mojave Experiment is an advertising campaign by Microsoft for Windows Vista. The campaign was part of Microsoft's efforts to change what it felt was an unfair negative consumer perception of the operating system. Mojave spanned a series of advertisements that consisted of individuals being shown a demonstration of Windows Vista by Microsoft; however, the operating system was rebranded in disguise as a new version of Windows codenamed "Mojave," which was not revealed during the demonstration.Prior to the demonstration, participants generally gave a negative assessment of Windows Vista. In contrast, reviews for "Mojave" were positive, with participants stating that they intended to use or purchase the operating system for themselves; the same participants were astonished when they were told that "Mojave" was Windows Vista. The campaign implied that negative consumer perception was largely the result of preconceived notions about the operating system.

Rickmansworth School

Rickmansworth School is a coeducational secondary school and sixth form with academy status of around 1,200 pupils, situated in Croxley Green, Hertfordshire.


Scroogled was a Microsoft attack advertising campaign that ran between November 2012 and 2014. Created by Mark Penn, the campaign sought primarily to attack a competing company, Google, by pointing out disadvantages and criticism of their products and services in comparison to those run by Microsoft (particularly, Bing and The original campaign focused on Google Shopping's change to a pay per click model, with later campaigns focusing upon Google's use of user data for targeted advertising, and the capabilities of the Chrome OS platform in comparison to Windows.

Smarter Planet

Smarter Planet is a corporate initiative of the information technology company IBM. The initiative seeks to highlight how forward-thinking leaders in business, government, and civil society around the world are capturing the potential of smarter systems to achieve economic growth, near-term efficiency, sustainable development and societal progress.,Examples of smarter systems include smart grids, water management systems, solutions to traffic congestion problems, greener buildings, and many others. These systems have historically been difficult to manage because of their size and complexity. But with new ways of monitoring, connecting, and analyzing the systems, business, civic and nongovernmental leaders are developing new ways to manage these systems. IBM's strategy is to provide or enable many of these technology and process management capabilities and, outside the realm of technology, to advocate for policy decisions that, according to the views expressed by IBM's management in interviews, speeches, op-ed articles and opinion advertising, and other public venues, could "make the planet smarter."

Tunes (confectionery)

Tunes is a brand of lozenge, manufactured by The Wrigley Company in the United Kingdom. It is marketed as a cough sweet, or anti-congestant lozenge, containing eucalyptus oil and menthol. It is a relative of the now discontinued brand of Spangles, and shares the same packaging and dimensions of that brand. In the United Kingdom, Tunes no longer have the style packaging of Spangles.There was a memorable television advertising campaign for the product with the slogan "Tunes help you breathe more easily". The commercials featured the actor Peter Cleall, who would perfectly enunciate the word "Tunes" after taking the anti-congestant.

Vodafone Greece

Vodafone Greece (officially known as Vodafone-Panafon Hellenic Telecommunications Company S.A) is the Greek subsidiary of Vodafone. Its headquarters are in Halandri - one of the northern suburbs of Athens.

Vodafone Greece was established in Greece in 1992 under the trade name Panafon – with the participation of Vodafone Group Plc., France Telecom, Intracom and Data Bank, and was officially renamed to Vodafone in January 2002. In December 1998, the company listed its shares in the Athens and London stock exchange, while in July 2004 it de-listed from ATHEX. Vodafone Group Plc. is the company’s major shareholder with 99.8% of Vodafone Greece shares.

Subscriber numbers issued in Greece by Vodafone begin with the 3 digit prefixes 694 and 695 followed by a unique seven digit combination. However, not all such numbers necessarily belong to Vodafone subscribers because of number portability for mobile telephony networks.

As of 2003, Vodafone has had an exclusive contract with popular pop musician Sakis Rouvas as the spokesperson for the company in the Greek advertising campaign. Rouvas has completed multiple commercials for the company as well as advertising the brand within his music videos and albums. Likewise, Vodafone is the primary sponsor to his large concerts and recordings. While other record labels and artists do advertisements for other mobile companies as an exchange for sponsoring, Vodafone is the only Greek mobile company to be advertised primarily by a sole artist, with Rouvas' effort being a major marketing ploy to youth and young adult consumers.

At the end of June 2010, the number of subscribers to the network was 5,500,000, making Vodafone the second largest mobile network in Greece.

Where do you want to go today?

“Where do you want to go today?” was the title of Microsoft’s 2nd global image advertising campaign. The broadcast, print and outdoor advertising campaign was launched in November 1994 through the advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy, the firm best known for its work on behalf of Nike, Inc. The campaign, which The New York Times described as taking “a winsome, humanistic approach to demystifying technology”, had Microsoft spending $100 million through July 1995, of which $25 million would be spent during the holiday shopping season ending in December 1994.Tony Kaye directed a series of television ads filmed in Hong Kong, Prague and New York City that showed a broad range of people using their PCs. The television ads were first broadcast in Australia on November 13, the following day in both the United States and Canada, with Britain, France and Germany seeing the spots in subsequent days. An eight-page print ad described the personal computer as “an open opportunity for everybody” that “[facilitates] the flow of information so that good ideas —wherever they come from— can be shared”, and was placed in mass-market magazines including National Geographic, Newsweek, People, Rolling Stone and Sports Illustrated.In August 1995, the Times reported that the response to Microsoft’s campaign in the advertising trade press had been “lukewarm” and quoted Brad Johnson of Advertising Age as stating that “Microsoft is on version 1.0 in advertising. Microsoft is not standing still. It will improve its advertising.” Microsoft’s Steve Ballmer, then the firm’s executive vice president, acknowledged that the response to the campaign had been “chilly”.In June 1999, Microsoft announced that it would be ending its nearly five-year-long relationship with Wieden+Kennedy, shifting $100 million in billings to McCann Erickson Worldwide Advertising in a split that was described by The New York Times as mutual. Dan Wieden, president and chief creative officer of the advertising agency, characterized the relationship with Microsoft as “intense” and said that it had “run its course”.

Wide release

In the American motion picture industry, a wide release is a motion picture that is playing nationally. This is contrast to a film that is having premiere showings at a few cinemas (usually in New York and Los Angeles), or is in limited release at selected cinemas in larger cities around the country. Specifically, a movie is considered to be a wide release when it plays in 600 cinemas or more in the United States and Canada.In the U.S., films holding an NC-17 rating have almost never received wide releases. Showgirls (1995) is the only film with an NC-17 rating to have a wide release.The 1975 film Breakout was the first major studio film to go into wide release in its opening week, with Columbia Pictures distributing 1300 prints nationwide, combined with a heavy national advertising campaign.

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