Advaxis Inc. is an American company devoted to the discovery, development and commercialization of immunotherapies based on a technology platform which uses engineered Listeria monocytogenes (aka Lm).[1]:1 The company is headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey and was incorporated in Delaware in 2006.[1]:1

The Lm-based platform on which the company's products are based involves the use of attenuated Lm which secrete antigen/adjuvant fusion proteins and stimulate a patient's immune system (specifically their T cells) to mount an immune response to the secreted antigen; if the antigen is specifically found on cancerous cells, then the result aims to be an effective immune response targeting and eliminating the cancer.[1]:1 Treatments developed using this paradigm are referred to as Lm-LLO immunotherapies.[1]:1

Today, the Company has over fifteen distinct constructs in various stages of development, directly developed by the Company and through strategic collaborations with recognized centers of excellence such as: the National Cancer Institute, Cancer Research – UK, the Wistar Institute, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Department of Homeland Security among others.

The Company also has a veterinary medicine program that is evaluating an Lm-LLO based immunotherapy in a Phase 1 study in canine osteosarcoma. Source:

Advaxis Inc.
PredecessorGreat Expectations, Inc.
FoundedUnited States (March 1, 2002)
United States
Key people
  • Ken Berlin (CEO)
  • Dr. Robert Petit (CSO)
  • Molly Henderson (CFO) Dr. Andres Gutierrez (CMO
ProductsImmunotherapies for cancer

Corporate history and governance


Advaxis was a Delaware corporation when it was acquired by a shell corporation (in the official SEC sense)[2] in November 2004.[1]:1 The acquiring company was Great Expectations, which was incorporated in Colorado in June 1987.[1]:1 The only operating company owned by Great Expectations was Advaxis and in 2004, a month after the acquisition, it changed its name to Advaxis, and 18 months after that it reincorporated as a Delaware corporation.[1]:1 The official 'date of inception' for the company is 1 March 2002.[1]:1


In 2014, Advaxis entered a co-development and commercialization agreement with India's Biocon for the ADXS-HPV therapeutic in the Indian market, addressing HPV-associated cancers, including cervical cancer.[1]:2,[3]

Advaxis Technology

Advaxis immunotherapies are based on a novel platform technology using live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) that are bio-engineered to secrete an antigen/adjuvant fusion protein. The vectors infect the key elements of the immune system and the secreted antigen/adjuvant fusion protein redirects the powerful immune response all human beings inherit to Lm against the cancer, itself. The adjuvant also reduces the cancer’s defense against this immune attack by 80%.[4]

  • The Company's novel platform technology is based on over twenty years of pre-clinical research by Yvonne Paterson, Professor of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, and Fellow of the American Academy for the Advancement of Science.

Clinical Development Program

ADXS-HPV is in Phase 2 trials for HPV-associated diseases (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical cancer and HPV-associated head and neck cancer).

In 2009 Advaxis published the results of the first Phase 1 trial with the first Lm-LLO based immunotherapy, ADXS-HPV in Vaccine (19 June 2009 / Volume 27, Issue 30). This study assessed side effects associated with increasing doses of ADXS-HPV in patients with metastatic, refractory, recurrent cervical cancer. Vaccine (19 June 2009 / Volume 27, Issue 30)

  • This study demonstrated for the first time that a live-attenuated Lm-LLO based immunotherapy could be administered to human subjects.
  • ADXS-HPV was well-tolerated and a maximum tolerated dose was established.
  • 4/13 evaluable patients experienced increased survival and tumor shrinkage that merited further investigation.

Veterinary Medicine Program

  • Advaxis signed a CRADA (Cooperative Research And Development Agreement) with the Department of Homeland Security. The DHS will initially conduct a pilot “proof-of-concept” study in cattle investigating the safety of proprietary/patented Advaxis immunotherapies.[5][6]
  • Advaxis has begun a Phase 1 study with the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine to evaluate an Lm-LLO based immunotherapy in a Phase 1 study in canine osteosarcoma.[7][8]

Intellectual Property

Advaxis’ intellectual property includes over 70 pending and issued patents. On May 18, 2010, Advaxis and the University of Pennsylvania signed an agreement granting Advaxis exclusive rights to 27 remaining patents held by the University of Pennsylvania.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "ADVAXIS, INC.", Investor Relations, Form 10-K, Advaxis, 2013, COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 000-28489, archived from the original on 2016-01-15, retrieved 16 March 2014
  2. ^ "Rule 12b-2 -- Definitions". Securities Lawyer's Deskbook. University of Cincinnati College of Law. Shell Company. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Biocon, Advaxis Ink Deal for HPV-Associated Cancer Compound". News:Discovery & Development. Gen. Eng. Biotechnol. News (paper). 34 (4). 15 February 2014. p. 14.
  4. ^ "Advaxis Expects No Delay in Filing IND for ADXS-PSA" (Press release). Advaxis. 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  5. ^ (2010-06-30). "Advaxis and Department of Homeland Security in Cooperative Research and Development Agreement".
  6. ^ "Advaxis and Department of Homeland Security Agree to Cooperative Research and Development Agreement" (PDF) (Press release). Advaxis. 2 June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Advaxis and U of P School of Veterinary Medicine Sign Contract". StreetInsider. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
  8. ^ "Advaxis Signs Veterinary Study Contract with the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine" (PDF) (Press release). Advaxis. 17 August 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 March 2014.
Century Pharmaceuticals

Century Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is an American pharmaceutical company, founded in 1966, in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.As of 2018, it is manufacturer of Dakin's solution, a topical, broad spectrum antimicrobial, effective against MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria.Century modified Dakin's original formula, making it stable for 12+ months.

Daniel A. Portnoy

Daniel A. Portnoy (born 1956 in Syracuse, NY) is a microbiologist, the Edward E. Penhoet Distinguished Chair in Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, and a Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and in the Division of Microbiology in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is one of the world's foremost experts on Listeria monocytogenes, the bacterium that causes the severe foodborne illness Listeriosis. He has made seminal contributions to multiple aspects of bacterial pathogenesis, cell biology, innate immunity, and cell mediated immunity using L. monocytogenes as a model system and has helped to push forward the use of attenuated L. monocytogenes as an immunotherapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer.

Lovaxin C

Lovaxin C is a live attenuated Listeria cancer vaccine that is under investigation (2008) and has entered clinical trials. It is under development at Advaxis. Note: Lovaxin C has been renamed ADXS11-001


Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company purchased by Pfizer in 2009. The company was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1860 as John Wyeth and Brother. It was later known as American Home Products before being renamed to Wyeth in 2002. Its headquarters moved to Collegeville, Pennsylvania, and Madison, New Jersey, before its headquarters were consolidated with Pfizer's in New York City after the 2009 merger. The infant and maternal nutrition business was acquired by Nestlé in 2012.

Wyeth manufactured over-the-counter (OTC) drugs Robitussin and the analgesic Advil (ibuprofen) as well as prescription drugs Premarin and Effexor.

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