Adrien Arcand

Adrien Arcand (October 3, 1899 – August 1, 1967) was a Montreal journalist who led a series of fascist political movements between 1929 and his death in 1967. During his political career, he proclaimed himself the Canadian Führer.

He was detained by the federal government for the duration of the Second World War under the Defence of Canada Regulations.[1]

Adrienarcand 1933
Adrien Arcand in 1933.


Arcand was the son of Marie-Anne (Mathieu) and Narcisse-Joseph-Philias Arcand, who was a carpenter and trade union leader.[2]

He published and edited several newspapers during this period, most notably Le Goglu, Le Miroir, Le Chameau, Le Patriote, Le Fasciste Canadien and Le Combat National. It is alleged[3] that he received covert funds from the Conservative Party, to operate his newspapers and campaign for Bennet in the 1930 Dominion general election.[4] Relations became increasingly strained afterwards as R. B. Bennett had little use for Arcand following the election. Despite desperate pleas from Arcand and his comrades to get more money to make up for their expenses, the subsidy they were receiving from the Tories was both sporadic and insufficient.[5] In 1935 the desperate Bennett ministry again turned to Arcand, who was appointed at the urging of Senator Rainville to the post of Tory publicity director in Quebec. However, many of Arcand's friends were more sympathetic to the Reconstruction Party, so Le Patriote supported H. H. Stevens while its editor was campaigning for Bennett.[6]

In 1934, he established the Parti National Social Chrétien (Christian National Social Party), which advocated anti-communism and the deportation of Canadian Jews to the Hudson Bay area. The latter idea was inspired by his friend, noted British Rhodesian fascist Henry Hamilton Beamish, who suggested sending the Jews to Madagascar. Bennett secretly hired Arcand as his chief electoral organizer in Quebec for the 1935 federal election.

In 1938, Arcand was chosen as the leader of the fascist National Unity Party of Canada, born of the fusion of his Parti National Social Chrétien with the Prairie provinces' Canadian Nationalist Party and Ontario's Nationalist Party, which had grown out of the Toronto Swastika Clubs of the early 1930s.

La clef du nouveau Canada
Postcard used by Arcand's movement

Arcand was always a staunch federalist and an anglophile. He received secret funds from Lord Sydenham of Combe, former governor of Bombay and a prominent fascist sympathizer in the British Conservative Party. He also maintained correspondence with Arnold Spencer Leese, chief of the Imperial Fascist League. Arcand's party statutes called for the following oath to be taken at the beginning of every party meeting:

"Moved by the unshakable faith in God, a profound love for Canada, ardent sentiments of patriotism and nationalism, a complete loyalty and devotion toward our Gracious Sovereign who forms the recognized principle of active authority, a complete respect for the British North America Act, for the maintenance of order, for national prosperity, for national unity, for national honour, for the progress and the happiness of a greater Canada, I pledge solemnly and explicitly to serve my party. I pledge myself to propagate the principles of its program. I pledge myself to follow its regulation. I pledge myself to obey my leaders. Hail the party! Hail our Leader!"[7]

Arcand always was steadfastly opposed to Quebec nationalism. He wanted to build a powerful centralized Canadian Fascist state within the British Empire.

"… Arcand insists that his organisation has no sympathy with the extreme French nationalist movement represented by the group which split from Premier Duplessis after he was returned to power because he would not go all the way they wished. "We were the first in Quebec to fight Separatism," Arcand declared, "and we are carrying on that fight very satisfactorily, swallowing many ex-members of that failing movement." Frankly, the National Social Christian Party was aiming for Dominion power, Arcand admitted, describing Dominion power as the real key to the vital problems of this country."[7]

On May 30, 1940, he was arrested in Montreal for "plotting to overthrow the state" and interned for the duration of the war as a security threat. His party, then called the National Unity Party, was banned. In the internment camp, he sat on a throne built by other prisoners and spoke of how he would rule Canada when Hitler conquered it.[8]

Arcand ran for the House of Commons of Canada on two occasions. Despite being shunned by mainstream Quebecers in the post-war years, he managed to come second with 29 percent of the vote when he ran as a National Unity candidate in the riding of Richelieu—Verchères in the 1949 federal election.[9] He came second again with 39 percent of the vote when he ran as a "Nationalist" in Berthier—Maskinongé—delanaudière in the 1953 election.[10]

In 1957, he campaigned for Progressive Conservative candidate and future Quebec cabinet minister Remi Paul.

Arcand never wavered in his belief in Adolf Hitler, and, in the 1960s, was a mentor to Ernst Zündel, who became a prominent Holocaust denier and neo-Nazi propagandist in the latter part of the 20th century.

On November 14, 1965, he gave a speech before a crowd of 650 partisans from all over Canada at the Centre Paul-Sauvé in Montreal which was draped in the blue banners and insignia of the National Unity Party. As reported in La Presse and Le Devoir, he took the occasion to thank the newly elected Liberal Member of Parliament for Mount Royal, Pierre Trudeau, and former Conservative leader George Drew, for speaking in his defence when he was interned. However, Trudeau and Drew denied that they had ever defended Arcand or his views, and insisted that they had in fact been defending the principle of free speech even for fascists.

Among those present at the rally were Jean Jodoin, a Progressive Conservative candidate in the 1965 federal election and Gilles Caouette, future Social Credit Party of Canada Member of Parliament.[11]

In popular culture


  1. ^ Betcherman, Lita-Rose The Swastika and the Maple Leaf (1978) p. 146
  2. ^
  3. ^ Lester, Normand (2001) Le Livre noir du Canada anglais; Montreal: Les Éditions des Intouchables, p.255. The letter is conserved at the National Archives of Canada in Ottawa. A photocopy can be found at the archives of the Canadian Jewish Council in Montreal, under P0005 ARCAND, Adrien (collection).
  4. ^ Lester, Normand (2001). Le Livre noir du Canada anglais; Montreal: Les Éditions des Intouchables, p.255-260.
  5. ^ Betcherman, Lita~Rose (1975). The Swastika and the Maple Leaf: Fascist Movements in Canada in the Thirties; Fitzhenry & Whiteside, p.10-11.
  6. ^ Betcherman, Lita~Rose (1975). The Swastika and the Maple Leaf: Fascist Movements in Canada in the Thirties; Fitzhenry & Whiteside, p.43-43.
  7. ^ a b Frederick EDWARDS. « Fascism in Canada », Maclean's Magazine, 15 April 1938, p. 66.
  8. ^ This story is told in Dangerous Patriots: Canada's Unknown Prisoners of War, by William Repka and Kathleen Repka, New Star Books, Vancouver, 1982 (ISBN 0-919573-06-1 or ISBN 0-919573-07-X), in the section by Charlie Murray, who was imprisoned with him for being a union organizer.
  9. ^
  10. ^ House of Commons website
  11. ^ "Fascist Steps Out Of Past For Banquet", Globe and Mail, November 15, 1965
  12. ^ Daily Mail 16 September 2014


  • William Repka, Kathleen Repka: Dangerous Patriots: Canada's Unknown Prisoners of War. New Star Books, Vancouver, 1982 ISBN 0-919573-06-1 oder ISBN 0-919573-07-X
  • Martin Robin: Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940, University of Toronto Press, Toronto (u.a.) 1992 ISBN 0-8020-5962-7 (Geb.) ISBN 0-8020-6892-8 (Paperback)
  • Hans Strömsdörfer: Arcand, Adrien In: Wolfgang Benz: Handbuch des Antisemitismus: Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Band 2/1 Personen A-K). 1. Auflage. De Gruyter, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-24072-0, S. 31-32.

Further reading

  • Adrien Arcand, führer Canadien, Montréal, Lux Éditeur, 2010.
1899 in Canada

Events from the year 1899 in Canada.

1949 Canadian federal election

The Canadian federal election of 1949 was held on June 27 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 21st Parliament of Canada. It was the first election in Canada in almost thirty years in which the Liberal Party of Canada was not led by William Lyon Mackenzie King. King had retired in 1948, and was replaced as Liberal leader and Prime Minister by Louis St. Laurent. It was also the first federal election with Newfoundland voting, having joined Canada in March of that year, and the first election since 1904 in which the parts of the Northwest Territories were granted representation. The Liberal Party was re-elected with its fourth consecutive government, winning just under 50% of the vote. This victory was the largest majority in Canadian history to that point and remains, by any measure, the largest-ever majority won by the Liberal Party. As of 2017, it remains the third largest majority government in Canadian history.

The Progressive Conservative Party, led by former Premier of Ontario George Drew, gained little ground in this election.

Smaller parties, such as the social democratic Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, and Social Credit, a party that advocated monetary reform, lost support to the Liberals, and to a lesser extent, the Conservatives.

1953 Canadian federal election

The Canadian federal election of 1953 was held on August 10 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 22nd Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent led his Liberal Party of Canada to its fifth consecutive majority government, although the party lost seats to the other parties.

The Progressive Conservative Party, led by former Premier of Ontario, George Drew, formed the official opposition.


Arcand is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Adrien Arcand (1899–1967), Canadian far-right politician

Denys Arcand (b. 1941), Canadian film director, producer and screenwriter

Gabriel Arcand (b. 1949), Canadian actor, brother of Denys Arcand

Jean-Louis Arcand, Canadian economist

Jean-Olivier Arcand (1793–1875), Canadian political figure

Nelly Arcan (1973–2009), Canadian novelist

Paul Arcand (b. 1960), Canadian journalist, radio host and film producer

Pierre Arcand (b. 1951), Canadian businessman and politician, brother of Paul Arcand

Théodore Jean Arcand (b. 1934), Canadian diplomat


Berthier—Maskinongé—Delanaudière was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1953 to 1968.

This riding was created in 1952 from Berthier—Maskinongé. It consisted of the county of Berthier and the town of Berthierville, the county of Maskinongé and the town of Louiseville and Gouin township in the county of Joliette.

It was abolished in 1966 when it was redistributed into Berthier and Joliette.

Blue Shirts (Canada)

The "Blue Shirts", were a paramilitary organization sponsored by the National Unity Party in Canada. The organization was largely modelled after the Black shirts of Italy, and the SS of the Nazi Party in Germany. It was outlawed with the enactment of the War Measures Act in 1940.

Canadian Union of Fascists

The Canadian Fascist Party was a fascist political party based in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in the 1930s. The formative core of the party was a splinter group from the Canadian Nationalist Party that found the principles of corporativism to be more important than the largely racial motivations of the Nationalist Party. This disposition is highlighted in one official statement that "anti-semitism was a symptom of Germany not of Fascism". The party was founded as the British Empire Union of Fascists and was affiliated with the British Union of Fascists. It later became known as the Canadian Union of Fascists and Canadian Union. It published its own newspaper, The Thunderbolt.

The party was led by "Chuck" Crate, who became leader at the age of 17. He had contacted the British Union of Fascists, who put him in touch with the party. John Ross Taylor of Toronto became the party's secretary and organizer.The party had a hard time attracting supporters because most Canadians who supported fascism leaned towards the racist brand espoused by Adrien Arcand and others. At the party's first meeting, there was an attendance of roughly 200 people.This disparity between the party and Arcand's would continue throughout its existence. Before the government took action against Canadian fascist parties, the Canadian Union of Fascists and Arcand's group held simultaneous fascist congresses in Toronto. While Arcand's group, dubbed the "National Union" drew a crowd of around 4,000, the Canadian Union managed to draw only some 30 local residents to its cause.The party was dissolved when the Second World War began. The party told its members to obey the law but to work for a negotiated peace. Crate escaped a treason charge and ended up in the Royal Canadian Navy.

The party, though not officially racist or anti-semitic, had strong connections to Adrien Arcand's National Unity Party.

Defence of Canada Regulations

The Defence of Canada Regulations were a set of emergency measures implemented under the War Measures Act on 3 September 1939, a week before Canada's entry into World War II.

The extreme security measures permitted by the regulations included the waiving of habeas corpus and the right to trial, internment, bans on certain political and cultural groups, restrictions of free speech including the banning of certain publications, and the confiscation of property.

Section 21 of the Regulations allowed the Minister of Justice to detain without charge anyone who might act "in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the state."The Regulations were used to intern opponents of World War II, particularly fascists (like Adrien Arcand) and Communists (including Jacob Penner, Bruce Magnuson and Tom McEwen) as well as opponents of conscription such as Quebec nationalist and Montreal mayor Camillien Houde. It was under the regulations that Japanese Canadians were interned and their property confiscated for the duration of the war. German Canadians were required to register with the state and some German and Italian Canadians were detained. The Regulations were also used to ban the Communist Party of Canada in 1940 as well as several of its allied organizations such as the Young Communist League, the League for Peace and Democracy, the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association, the Finnish Organization of Canada, the Russian Workers and Farmers Clubs, the Polish Peoples Association and the Croatian Cultural Association, the Hungarian Workers Clubs and the Canadian Ukrainian Youth Federation. Various fascist groups were also banned such as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and the Canadian Union of Fascists. Non-communist labour leaders like Charles Millard were also interned.

A number of prominent Communist Party members were detained until 1942 when the Soviet Union joined the Allies. Fascist leaders such as Adrien Arcand and John Ross Taylor were detained for the duration of the war.

Fascism in Canada

Fascism in Canada (French: Fascisme au Canada) consisted of a variety of movements and political parties in Canada during the 20th century. Largely a fringe ideology, fascism has never commanded a large following amongst the Canadian people, and was most popular during the Great Depression. Most Canadian fascist leaders were interned at the outbreak of World War II under the Defence of Canada Regulations and in the post-war period, fascism never recovered its former small influence.

The Canadian Union of Fascists, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, was modeled on Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists. Its leader was Chuck Crate.

Parti National Social Chrétien was founded in Quebec in February 1934 by Adrien Arcand. In October 1934, the party merged with the Canadian Nationalist Party, which was based in the prairie provinces. In June 1938, it merged with Nazi groups from Ontario and Quebec (many of which were known as Swastika clubs), to form the National Unity Party.Fascist concepts and policies, such as eugenics, formulated in the US, found a friendly reception in Canada in some provinces, such as Alberta, where, under a Social Credit government, alleged mental defectives and other 'non-producers' were involuntarily sterilized to prevent the birth of more similar people. Social democrat Tommy Douglas, Premier of Saskatchewan, wrote his 1933 master thesis paper endorsing some of the ideas of eugenics, but later abandoned and rejected such notions.

Haley Joel Osment

Haley Joel Osment (born April 10, 1988) is an American actor. After a series of roles in television and film during the 1990s, including a major part in Forrest Gump playing the title character's son (also named Forrest Gump), Osment rose to fame for his performance as a young unwilling medium in M. Night Shyamalan's thriller film The Sixth Sense, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He subsequently appeared in leading roles in several high-profile Hollywood films, including Steven Spielberg's A.I. Artificial Intelligence and Mimi Leder's Pay It Forward.

He made his Broadway debut in 2008 in a short-lived revival of David Mamet's play American Buffalo, starring John Leguizamo and Cedric the Entertainer. Osment is also known for his voice-roles of Sora and Vanitas in the Kingdom Hearts video games, as well as his more recent roles in comedies such as Sex Ed and The Spoils of Babylon.

Henry Hamilton Beamish

Henry Hamilton Beamish (2 June 1873 – 27 March 1948) was a leading British antisemite and the founder of The Britons.

The son of Rear-Admiral Henry Hamilton Beamish, who had served as an A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, Beamish was born in London. He served in the Second Boer War as captain and settled in South Africa afterwards. However, he left the country, having decided that the Jews held too much influence there.Returning to London in 1918, Beamish set up The Britons as a specifically antisemitic propaganda organisation and also became involved with the Silver Badge Party. He ran as an independent in a 1918 by-election in Clapham on an anti-immigrant platform, supported by right-wing MP Noel Pemberton Billing, but did not win, receiving 43% of the votes cast. Along with Lieutenant-Commander E.M. Frazer, Beamish produced a poster in 1919 denouncing Commissioner of Works Sir Alfred Mond (Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett) as a traitor. This poster resulted in a libel suit filed by Mond, who was successful and was awarded £5000, although Beamish left Britain without paying.Following his departure from Britain, Beamish travelled the world preaching anti-Semitism. He was one of the earliest developers of the Madagascar Plan for Jewish deportation. He spoke in Germany, where he claimed, rather dubiously, to have taught Adolf Hitler. In the early 1920s Beamish announced that "Bolshevism was Judaism." He served as vice-president of the Imperial Fascist League for a time and was a member of the Nordic League. In 1932 he addressed a meeting of the New Party alongside Arnold Leese on the subject of "The Blindness of British Politics under the Jew Money-Power", although he otherwise had little involvement with the initiatives of Oswald Mosley.Described by a judge in South Africa in 1934 as an "anti-Jewish fanatic"., Beamish travelled to the United States in 1935, where he was actively working as a representative of the German government as a Nazi agent. In September 1936 he visited Japan, and then spoke at a meeting of the Canadian Nationalist Party in Winnipeg in 1936. before embarking on a major lecture tour of Nazi Germany as a guest of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. He met fellow fanatical anti-Semite Julius Streicher in Nuremberg in January 1937. In the same year he spoke at several meetings in North America with Canadian fascist leader Adrien Arcand, including some organized by the German American Bund.Eventually he settled in 1938 in Southern Rhodesia, where he served as an independent MP and was interned in 1940 for his pro-Nazi sentiments. He remained president of The Britons until his death in Southern Rhodesia in 1948.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Nazi Party of Canada

Nazi Party of Canada may refer to:

National Unity Party (Canada) led by Adrien Arcand

Nazi Party (Canada) led by William John Beattie

Neo-Nazism in Canada

Neo-Nazism (French: le Néonazisme) is the post World War II ideology that promotes white supremacy and specifically antisemitism. In Canada, Neo-Nazism has existed as a branch of the far-right and has been a source of considerable controversy during the last 50 years.


Richelieu—Verchères was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1935 to 1968.

This riding was created in 1933 from parts of Chambly—Verchères, Richelieu, St. Hyacinthe—Rouville and Yamaska ridings.

It was abolished in 1966 when it was redistributed into Chambly, Richelieu and Saint-Hyacinthe ridings.

Rémi Paul

Rémi Paul (June 10, 1921 – December 20, 1982) was a lawyer and politician from Quebec, Canada.

True North trilogy

The True North trilogy is a series of horror comedy films written and directed by Kevin Smith. The soon-to-be trilogy consists of the films Tusk, Yoga Hosers, and the upcoming Moose Jaws.

Vine Awards for Canadian Jewish Literature

The Vine Awards for Canadian Jewish Literature is a major Canadian literary award relaunched in 2016 and presented annually by Toronto’s Koffler Centre of the Arts. The Awards honour the best Jewish Canadian writing in four categories, each with an annual prize of $10,000: Fiction, Non-Fiction, Young Adult/Children’s Literature, and History. A fifth $10,000 prize for Poetry is awarded every three years. The Awards consider submissions from both print and digital sources (including books, e-books, graphic novels, digital storytelling, and a variety of media). Writers must be Canadian or the submission must have significant Canadian content. Writers must be Jewish or the submission must have significant or predominantly Jewish content.A professional jury of three individuals working in the arts and media oversee the award selection process. The shortlist for the inaugural Vine Awards for Canadian Jewish Literature was announced on September 15, 2016. The winners were announced on September 29, 2016.

Yoga Hosers

Yoga Hosers is a 2016 American horror comedy film written and directed by Kevin Smith. It is a spin-off of Smith's 2014 horror film Tusk, and stars Lily-Rose Depp and Smith's daughter Harley Quinn Smith, alongside Depp's father Johnny Depp. The film is the second in Smith's True North trilogy, and had its world premiere on January 24 at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival. The film was released on September 2, 2016 by Invincible Pictures. It was a commercial failure and was universally panned by critics and audiences, who considered it a low point in Smith's career.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.