Adramyttium

Adramyttium[nb 1] (Greek: Άδραμύττιον Adramyttion, Άδραμύττειον Adramytteion, or Άτραμύττιον Atramyttion) was an ancient city and bishopric in Aeolis, in modern-day Turkey. It was originally located at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium, on the River Caicus in the Plain of Thebe, 4 kilometres west of the modern town of Burhaniye, but later moved 13 kilometres northeast to its current location and became known as Edremit.

Adramyttium
Άδραμύττιον (in Greek)
Adramyttium is located in Turkey
Adramyttium
Shown within Turkey
LocationÖren, Balya, Balıkesir Province, Turkey
RegionAeolis
Coordinates39°29′52″N 26°56′15″E / 39.49778°N 26.93750°ECoordinates: 39°29′52″N 26°56′15″E / 39.49778°N 26.93750°E
TypeSettlement

History

Classical period

The site of Adramyttium was originally settled by Leleges, the indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean littoral, and people from the neighbouring region of Mysia.[1] The area was later settled by Lydians, Cimmerians, and Aeolian Greeks, who gave their name to the region of Aeolis.[1] The area became part of the peraia (mainland territory) of the city-state of Mytilene in the 8th century BC,[2] and the city of Adramyttium was founded in the 6th century BC.[1] According to Aristotle, Adramyttium was founded by, and named after, Adramytos, the son of King Alyattes of Lydia.[3] Prior to his ascension to the throne, Croesus, Alyattes' successor, was governor of a district centred on Adramyttium.[4] Following the fall of the Kingdom of Lydia in 546 BC Adramyttium came under the rule of the Persian Empire and was administered as part of the satrapy (province) of Hellespontine Phrygia from the early 5th century BC onward.[3] In 422 BC, Pharnaces, the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, offered asylum to exiles from the island of Delos, who settled in the city. Thereafter Adramyttium was considered a Greek city.[5] Arsaces, a general subordinate to Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia and Caria, massacred a number of the Delian exiles.[6] The Delians returned to Delos in 421/420 BC when the Athenians permitted them to do so.[3]

Balıkesir Museum-6
Archaeological finds from Adramyttium at the Kuva-yi Milliye Museum, Balikesir

Following the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC, Adramyttium came again under the control of Mytilene.[2] The Ten Thousand, a Greek mercenary force, travelled through Adramyttium during their march along the coast.[7] Mytilene retained control of Adramyttium until 386 BC, after which the city formed again part of the Persian Empire by the terms of the Peace of Antalcidas.[3] During the Great Satraps' Revolt, Ariobarzanes, satrap of Hellespontine Phygia, joined the revolt against Artaxerxes II in 367 BC.[8] Autophradates, satrap of Lydia, and Mausolus, satrap of Caria, besieged Ariobarzanes at Adramyttium in 366 BC.[9] However, the siege of Adramyttium was abandoned following the arrival of Agesilaus II, King of Sparta, in 365 BC.[8]

Hellenistic period

Following his victory at the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC, Adramyttium came under the control of Alexander the Great.[10] After Alexander's death in 323 BC, his empire was divided among the Diadochi at the Partition of Babylon, and Leonnatus was appointed satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia.[11] At the Partition of Triparadisus in 321 BC, Arrhidaeus succeeded Leonnatus as satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia.[12] In 319 BC, Adramyttium and Hellespontine Phrygia were seized by Antigonus I Monophthalmus, satrap of Greater Phrygia.[13] Adramyttium and Hellespontine Phrygia remained under the control of Antigonus until the Fourth War of the Diadochi; the city was taken by force by Prepelaus, a general of Lysimachus, Basileus of Thrace, in 302 BC.[14] Adramyttium and Lysimachus' other Anatolian territories were annexed to the Seleucid Empire after Lysimachus' defeat at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC.[15] An artificial port was constructed at Adramyttium in the early third century BC, which subsequently allowed the city to overshadow the neighbouring port of Cisthene.[16]

Adramyttium came under the control of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon during the rule of Eumenes I, a nominal vassal of the Seleucid Empire, in the mid-third century BC.[17] The alliance between Attalus I, Eumenes's successor, and Rhodes during the Cretan War led Philip V, King of Macedonia, to invade the Kingdom of Pergamon and pillage the countryside surrounding Adramyttium in 201 BC.[18] As an ally of Rome, Pergamon fought in the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid Empire. In 190 BC, Antiochus III plundered the countryside surrounding Adramyttium, but the appearance of a Roman–Pergamene fleet prevented him from taking the city.[19] In the second century BC, cistophori, the coinage of the Kingdom of Pergamon, were minted at Adramyttium.[20] Attalus III, the last King of Pergamon, bestowed his kingdom to the Romans in his will,[21] and thus, in 133 BC, Adramyttium came under Roman control.[22] The city became part of the province of Asia.[23]

Roman period

Manius Aquillius, governor of the province of Asia from 129 to 126 BC, rebuilt the road that connected Adramyttium and Smyrna.[24] In the 1st century BC, a famous school of oratory was located in Adramyttium.[18] Adramyttium was the centre of a conventus iuridicus,[25] and its jurisdiction included the Troad and the western half of Mysia.[26] Adramyttium was also the centre of a conventus civium Romanorum in the second or early first century BC.[27]

During the First Mithridatic War, Diodorus, a strategos and supporter of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus, had the members of the city council killed and granted control of the city to Mithridates. Following the completion of the conquest of the province of Asia in 88 BC, Mithridates ordered the execution of all Roman settlers. At Adramyttium, the Romans were driven into the sea, where they were slaughtered.[28] At the conclusion of the war, the province of Asia returned to Roman control and Xenocles of Adramyttium, a prominent orator, was sent to Rome to defend the actions of the city during the war. Adramyttium, however, was deprived of its autonomy, and was henceforth obligated to pay regular taxes to Rome.[29]

According to the Acts of the Apostles, whilst en route to Rome, St. Paul departed Caesarea Maritima on a ship from the city of Adramyttium which took him to Myra in Lycia.[30][23]

Adramyttium later also became the seat of a portorium.[9] Adramyttium was damaged by an earthquake during the reign of Emperor Trajan (r. 98–117), who subsequently rebuilt the city.[31] Upon the death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395, and subsequent division of the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves, Adramyttium became part of the Eastern Roman Empire.[21]

Medieval period

The administrative reforms of the 7th century led Adramyttium to be administered as part of the Thracesian Theme.[32] In early 715, soldiers of the theme of Opsikion mutinied and travelled to Adramyttium where they proclaimed Theodosius, a praktor (tax-collector),[33] as emperor.[34] Theodosius did not wish to become emperor and fled to the mountains, but was found and forced to become emperor at sword-point.[35] Adramyttium came under the administration of the theme of Samos in the ninth century and became the seat of a tourmarches of that theme.[32] A tourma of the hinterland of Adramyttium remained part of the Thracesian Theme, but was also based at Adramyttium.[32]

Adramyttium was sacked by Tzachas, a Turkish ruler, in c. 1090 and subsequently rebuilt and repopulated by Eumathios Philokales in 1109.[36] During this period, Adramyttium was used as a base to defend against Italian and Turkish attacks.[36] Upon discovering that Malik Shah, Sultan of Rum, planned to invade in early 1112, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos sent an army to Adramyttium ahead of him as he travelled to the Chersonese peninsula.[37] During the reign of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180), Adramyttion formed part of the new theme of Neokastra.[38] French crusaders passed through Adramyttium on their march south to Ephesus during the Second Crusade.[39] After the ascension of Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos in 1183, Andronikos Lapardas revolted against the emperor and travelled to Bithynia to join the rebels, but was seized at Adramyttium and imprisoned.[40] The megas doux Michael Stryphnos levied a fine on the Genoese merchant Cafforio,[41] who subsequently raided the cities of the Aegean Sea and sacked Adramyttium in 1197.[22]

Following the Fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and the formation of the Latin Empire, Emperor Baldwin granted the land between Abydos on the Hellespont to Adramyttium to his brother Henry of Flanders, who went on to capture Adramyttium in the winter of 1204/1205.[42] The Byzantine magnate Theodore Mangaphas attempted to seize the city but was defeated by Henry of Flanders at the Battle of Adramyttium on 19 March 1205.[43] Adramyttium was recovered by the Empire of Nicaea, a successor state of the Byzantine Empire, later that year. Nicaea maintained control of the city until 1211.[44] Henry of Flanders regained Adramyttium in October 1211 after his victory over the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Laskaris at the Battle of the Rhyndacus.[45] Theodore I subsequently ceded Adramyttium to the Latin Empire in the Treaty of Nymphaeum.[46] In 1224, Latin ruler in Anatolia collapsed and Adramyttium was recaptured by the Empire of Nicaea.[47]

The Treaty of Nymphaeum of 1261 granted the Republic of Genoa trading privileges, such as marketplaces, at Adramyttium, among other Aegean cities.[48] In 1268, the Venetians were granted a concession in Adramyttium.[36] In early 1284, a synod was held at Adramyttium by Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, accompanied by his aunt Theodora and his cousins Anna Palaiologina Kantakouzene and Theodora Raoulaina, with the intention of reconciling with the "Arsenites", supporters of Arsenios Autoreianos, the deposed Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Arsenites who were poorly treated by Andronikos' father Michael VIII Palaiologos, who had deposed Arsenios, were declared martyrs; in exchange, the Arsenites temporarily recognized the appointment of Gregory II as Patriarch of Constantinople, as legitimate.[49] During the synod, the two factions agreed to settle their dispute by setting fire to separate documents containing their arguments; the undamaged document was said to contain the truth, but both documents were destroyed in the fire.[50]

Following victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Bapheus in July 1302, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, Osman I, raided the countryside surrounding Adramyttium.[51] The threat of Turkish attacks led the Genoese of Phocaea to seize the Venetian concession in Adramyttium in 1304.[36] The city fell to the Karasid Turks before 1334.[36] The Karasid beylik, including Adramyttium, was annexed by the Ottoman beylik in the mid-fourteenth century.[52]

Ecclesiastical history

In 325 AD, the diocese of Adramyttium was made a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ephesus.[22] Helladius, Bishop of Adramyttium, attended the Council of Ephesus in 431, and Aurelius attended the Synod of Constantinople in 448.[53] Flavianus was present at the Second Council of Ephesus in 449 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451.[53] Julian is addressed in a work by Hypatius, Archbishop of Ephesus, in c. 531–540 or c. 550.[53] Theodore attended the Third Council of Constantinople in 680, and Basilius was present at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.[53] Michael attended the Council of Constantinople of 869.[53]

Sergius was Bishop of Adramyttium at the beginning of the 11th century, and Bishop George was active later during the 11th century.[54] Constantine was bishop sometime in the 11th–12th centuries.[54] John was bishop in the second half of the 12th century, and Gregory was bishop in 1167.[54] George was present at the Synod of Ephesus in 1230, and Athanasius was bishop later in the 13th century.[54] The diocese of Adramyttium became defunct in the 15th century, but was united with the former Archdiocese of Pergamon to form the Archdiocese of Pergamon and Adramyttium on 19 February 1922.[22] Following the Greco-Turkish population exchange in 1923, the see is titular only.

During the second period of Latin occupation, between 1211 and 1224, a Latin bishop of Adramyttium was appointed and the diocese of Adramyttium was made a suffragan of the Latin archdiocese of Cyzicus.[55] Since the mid-15th century, it is a titular bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church.

Location

Debate exists as to when Adramyttium moved to its current site at the modern city of Edremit. According to Wilhelm Tomaschek, Adramyttium moved to the site of modern Edremit under Trajan, however, it has been argued that there was no cause for this during Trajan's rule as piracy, the sole cause for such a move, was negligible.[56] Kiepert argued that this move took place in 1109, however, scholars note that it is not stated in contemporary sources that the city was rebuilt inland.[56] It has also been argued that the relocation of Adramyttium took place after its destruction by Genoese pirates in 1197.[22]

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ Also known as Adramyttion, Adramytteion, Atramyttion, Adramyteum

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Karavul et al. (2010), pp. 876-877
  2. ^ a b Constantakopoulou (2010), pp. 240-241
  3. ^ a b c d Hansen & Nielsen (2004), p. 1038
  4. ^ Parke (1984), p. 218
  5. ^ Magie (2015), p. 83
  6. ^ Foster & Lateiner (2012), p. 274
  7. ^ Leaf (1923), p. 307
  8. ^ a b Lendering (2005)
  9. ^ a b Almagor (2012)
  10. ^ Coruhlu (2012), p. 63
  11. ^ Roberts (2007)
  12. ^ Roisman (2012), p. 174
  13. ^ Tritle (2013), p. 130
  14. ^ Magie (2015), p. 89
  15. ^ Will (1984), p. 113
  16. ^ Leaf (1923), p. 267
  17. ^ Picón & Hemingway (2016), p. 34
  18. ^ a b Magie (2017), p. 905
  19. ^ Magie (2017), p. 757
  20. ^ Magie (2017), p. 776
  21. ^ a b Coruhlu (2012), p. 64
  22. ^ a b c d e Kiminas (2009), p. 81
  23. ^ a b Mills & Bullard (1990), p. 12
  24. ^ Magie (2015), p. 157
  25. ^ Magie (2017), p. 1060
  26. ^ Magie (2017), p. 1062
  27. ^ Magie (2015), pp. 162-163
  28. ^ Magie (2015), pp. 216-217
  29. ^ Magie (2015), pp. 236-237
  30. ^ Acts 27:2
  31. ^ Karavul et al. (2010), p. 878
  32. ^ a b c Nesbitt & Oikonomides (1996), p. 23
  33. ^ Kazhdan (1991a)
  34. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 195
  35. ^ Norwich (1988), p. 349
  36. ^ a b c d e Foss (1991)
  37. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 450
  38. ^ Haldon & Davis (2002), p. 97
  39. ^ Hendy (2008), pp. 107-108
  40. ^ Kazhdan & Wharton (1985), pp. 54-55
  41. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 535
  42. ^ Van Tricht (2011), p. 106
  43. ^ Brand (1991a)
  44. ^ Van Tricht (2011), p. 104
  45. ^ Brand (1991b)
  46. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 559
  47. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 569
  48. ^ Kazhdan (1991b)
  49. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 622
  50. ^ Kazhdan (1991c)
  51. ^ Venning & Harris (2006), p. 636
  52. ^ Zachariadou (1991)
  53. ^ a b c d e Pétridès (1912), coll. 596
  54. ^ a b c d Culerrier (1987), p. 153
  55. ^ Van Tricht (2011), p. 325
  56. ^ a b Leaf (1923), p. 323

Bibliography

External links

Media related to Adramyttium at Wikimedia Commons

Antandrus

Antandrus or Antandros (Ancient Greek: Ἄντανδρος) was an ancient Greek city on the north side of the Gulf of Adramyttium in the Troad region of Anatolia. Its surrounding territory was known in Greek as Ἀντανδρία (Antandria), and included the towns of Aspaneus on the coast and Astyra to the east. It has been located on Devren hill between the modern village of Avcılar and the town of Altınoluk in the Edremit district of Balıkesir Province, Turkey.

Argiza

Argiza (Ancient Greek: Ἄργιζα) was a Greek town located in ancient Mysia and later in the Byzantine province of Hellespontus. On the Tabula Peutingeriana it is spelled Argesis and placed between Pergamum and Cyzicus. Pliny the Elder notes the town as Erizii and in his day it belonged to the conventus of Adramyttium. In later times it was Christianized and became a bishopric. No longer a residential see, it was restored under the name Algiza by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see.

Its site is located near Pazarköy in Asiatic Turkey.

Aristarchus of Thessalonica

Aristarchus or Aristarch (Greek: Ἀρίσταρχος Aristarkhos), "a Greek Macedonian of Thessalonica" (Acts 27:2), was an early Christian mentioned in a few passages of the New Testament. He accompanied Saint Paul on his journey to Rome. Along with Gaius, another Macedonian, Aristarchus was seized by the mob at Ephesus and taken into the theater (Acts 19:29). Later, Aristarchus returned with Paul from Greece to Asia (Acts 20:4). At Caesarea, he embarked with Paul on a ship of Edremit (Adramyttium) bound for Myra in Lycia (Acts 27:2); whether he traveled with him from there to Rome is not recorded. Aristarchus is described as Paul's "fellow prisoner" and "fellow laborer" in Colossians 4:10 and Philemon 1:24, respectively.

In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic tradition, Aristarchus is identified as one of the Seventy Apostles and bishop of Apamea. He is commemorated as a saint and martyr on January 4, April 14, and September 27. He is mentioned in the Roman Martyrology on August 4.Aristarchus son of Aristarchus, a politarch of Thessalonica (39/38 BC?)

may be the same person with Aristarchus.

Astyra (Aeolis)

Astyra (Ancient Greek: Ἀστυρα), also known as Astyrum or Astyron (Ἄστυρον), and perhaps also Andeira (Ἀνδειρα), was a small town of ancient Aeolis and of Mysia, in the Plain of Thebe, between Antandrus and Adramyttium. It had a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence. Artemis had hence the name of Astyrene or Astirene. There was a lake Sapra near Astyra, which communicated with the sea. Pausanias, from his own observations, describes a spring of black water at Astyra; the water was hot. But he places Astyra in the territory of Atarneus. There was, then, either a place in Atarneus called Astyra, with warm springs, or Pausanias has made some mistake; for there is no doubt about the position of the Astyra of Strabo and Pomponius Mela. Astyra was a deserted place, according to Pliny's authorities; he calls it Astyre. There are said to be coins of Astyra.

Its site is tentatively located near Büyük Çal Tepe, Asiatic Turkey.

Astyria

Astyria (Ancient Greek: Ἀστυρια), also Astyra (Ἀστυρα), was a coastal town of ancient Aeolis on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium.It is tentatively placed near Kilisetepe, Asiatic Turkey.

Atarneus

Atarneus (; Ancient Greek: Ἀταρνεύς), also known as Atarna (Ἄταρνα), was an ancient Greek city in the region of Aeolis, Asia Minor. It lies on the mainland opposite the island of Lesbos. It was on the road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caicus. Its territory was called the Atarneitis.

Atarneus seems to be the genuine original name, though Atarna, or Atarnea, and Aterne may have prevailed afterwards. Stephanus of Byzantium, who only gives the name Atarna, consistently makes the ethnic name Atarneus. Herodotus tells a story of the city and its territory, both of which were named Atarneus, being given to the Chians by Cyrus the Great, for their having surrendered to him Pactyes the Lydian. Stephanus and other ancient authorities consider Atarneus to be the Tarne written of in the Iliad by Homer; but perhaps incorrectly. The territory was a good corn country. Histiaeus the Milesian was defeated by the Persians at Malene in the Atarneitis, and taken prisoner. The place was occupied at a later time by some exiles from Chios, who from this strong position sallied out and plundered Ionia.Atarneus flowered in the 4th century BCE, when it was the seat of government of Hermias of Atarneus, a friend of Aristotle, ruling over the area from Atarneus to Assos. The city was deserted by inhabitants in the 1st century BCE, possibly following an outbreak of an unknown epidemic. Pausanias says that the same calamity betel the Atarneitae which drove the Myusii from their city; but as the position, of the two cities was not similar, it is not quite clear what he means. They left the place, however, if his statement is true; and Pliny the Elder, in his time, mentions Atarneus as no longer a city. Pausanias speaks of hot springs at Astyra, opposite to Lesbos, in the Atarneus.The city is known by many for its association with the life of Aristotle. After the death of his father, Aristotle was cared for and educated by Proxenus of Atarneus, possibly an uncle of his. At the Academy Aristotle made friends with Hermias, who was later to become the ruler of Atarneus. Indeed, after the death of Plato, Aristotle went to stay with Hermias, subsequently marrying Hermias's niece Pythia.

Its site is located at Kale Tepe, northeast of the town of Dikili, Asiatic Turkey.

Battle of Adramyttion

Battle of Adramyttium or Adramyttion can refer to:

Battle of Adramyttion (1205), between the Latin Empire and the Empire of Nicaea

Battle of Adramyttion (1334), between a Christian naval league and the Beylik of Karasi

Battle of Adramyttion (1205)

The Battle of Adramyttion occurred on 19 March 1205 between the Latin Crusaders and the Byzantine Greek Empire of Nicaea, one of the kingdoms established after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It resulted in a comprehensive victory for the Latins. There are two accounts of the battle, one by Geoffrey de Villehardouin, and the other by Nicetas Choniates, which differ significantly.

Carene (Mysia)

Carene or Karene (Ancient Greek: Καρήνη), also known as Carine or Karine (Καρίνη), was a town of ancient Mysia. The army of Xerxes I, on the route from Sardis to the Hellespont, marched from the Caicus through the Atarneus to Carene; and from Carene through the plain of Thebe, passing by Adramyttium and Antandrus. Carene is mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium, and also mentioned in a fragment of Ephorus as having sent some settlers to Ephesus, after the Ephesians had sustained a defeat from the people of Priene.Its site is tentatively located near Assar Kaya/Tasağıl, Asiatic Turkey.

Coryphas

Coryphas or Koryphas (Ancient Greek: Κορυφάς), also known as Coryphantis or Koryphantis (Κορυφαντίς), was one of the settlements of the Mytilenaeans, on the coast of ancient Aeolis, opposite to Lesbos, and north of Atarneus. It is evidently the same place which appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana under the name Corifanio, between Adramyttium and Elateia — which may be another name of Heraclea. Strabo mentions Coryphantis and Heraclea, and "after them, Attea." The oysters of Coryphas are mentioned by Pliny the Elder.Its site is located near Keremköy, Asiatic Turkey.

Diodorus of Adramyttium

Diodorus (Greek: Διόδωρος) of Adramyttium, a rhetorician and Academic philosopher. He is known only from the account given by Strabo. He lived at the time of Mithridates (1st century BC), under whom he commanded an army. In order to please the king, he caused all the senators of his native place to be massacred. He afterwards accompanied Mithridates to Pontus, and, after the fall of the king, Diodorus received the punishment for his cruelty. Charges were brought against him at Adramyttium, and as he felt that he could not clear himself, he starved himself to death in despair.

Edremit, Balıkesir

Edremit is a district in Balıkesir Province, Turkey, as well as the central city of that district, on the west coast of Turkey, not far from the Greek island of Lesbos.

It is situated at the tip of the gulf with the same name (Gulf of Edremit), with its town centre a few kilometres inland, and is an important centre of trade, along with the other towns that are situated on the same gulf (namely Ayvalık, Gömeç, Burhaniye and Havran). It is also one of the largest district centres of Balıkesir Province. The district of Edremit, especially around Kazdağı, is largely covered with forests.

Edremit Gulf

The Edremit gulf is an Aegean gulf in Turkey's Balıkesir Province. It is named after Edremit, an ilçe (district) of Balıkesir Province which is situated close to the tip of the gulf at 39°34′N 26°56′E. Biga Peninsula is to the north. The southern coast belongs to the ilçe of Ayvalık, while the western entrance is enclosed with the northern part of the Greek island of Lesbos.

In ancient history there were many settlements lying close to the north coast of the gulf; Hamaxitus, Polymedium, Assos, Lamponeia, Antandrus and Adramyttion, were some of these.Currently there are a number of ilçe centers or bigger towns around the gulf such as Behramkale, Küçükkuyu, Altınoluk, Akçay, Havran, Burhaniye , Armutova, Ayvalık and Cunda Island (from the north west). There are summer houses and holiday camps along the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long northern coast and the 40 kilometres (25 mi) long southern coast of the gulf.

The gulf is famous for European sprat production.

Elaea (Aeolis)

Elaea (Greek: Ἐλαία Elaia) was an ancient city of Aeolis, Asia, the port of Pergamum. According to the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, it was located near the modern town of Zeytindağ, İzmir Province, Turkey. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite maps at 38°56'35.54"N 27°2'16.34"E.

According to the present text of Stephanus of Byzantium, it was also called Cidaenis (Greek: Κιδαινίς), and was founded by Menestheus; but it seems likely that there is some error in the reading Cidaenis. Strabo places Elaea south of the river Caicus, 12 stadia from the river, and 120 stadia from Pergamum. The Caicus enters a bay, which was called Elaiticus Sinus, or the bay of Elaea. Strabo calls the bay of Elaea part of the Bay of Adramyttium, but incorrectly. He has the story, which Stephanus has taken from him, that Elaea was a settlement made by Menestheus and the Athenians with him, who joined the war against Troy; but Strabo does not explain how it could be an Aeolian city, if this story was true. Elaea minted coins, which bear the head and name of Menestheus. Some argue that these are some evidence of its Athenian origin; but others, including William Smith discount the connection. Herodotus does not name Elaea among the Aeolian cities. Strabo makes the bay of Elaea terminate on one side in a point called Hydra, and on the other in a promontory Harmatus; and he estimates the width between these points at 80 stadia. Thucydides (viii. 101) places Harmatus opposite to Methymna, from which, and the rest of the narrative, it is clear that he fixes Harmatus in a different place from Strabo. The exact site of Elaea seems to be uncertain. William Martin Leake, in his map, fixes it at a place marked Kliseli, on the road from the south to Pergamum. Scylax (p. 35), Pomponius Mela (i. 18), Pliny (v. 32), and Ptolemy (v. 2), all of whom mention Elaea, do not help us to the precise place; all we learn from them is, that the Caicus flowed between Pitane and Elaea.

The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travellers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill (tumulus) near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered.

Nasos

Nasos (Ancient Greek: Νᾶσος) was a town and polis (city-state) of ancient Aeolis. The place-name "Nesos Pordoselene" (Νεσος Πορδοσελήνε) appears in the list of tributes to ancient Athens of the year 422/1 BCE but there are different opinions on whether Nesos (or Nasos) and Pordoselene were a single city or if they are two different cities. On the other hand, the nickname "nasiotas" (Νασιώτας) appears in an inscription of Adramyttium dated to 319-317 BCE.Silver and bronze coins dating from the 4th century BCE are preserved. It has been assumed that Nasos was located on the island of Alibey Adası located between Lesbos and Asia Minor.

Perperene

Perperene (Ancient Greek: Περπερηνὴ) or Perperena (Περπερήνα) was a city of ancient Mysia on the south-east of Adramyttium, in the neighbourhood of which there were copper mines and good vineyards. It was said by some to be the place in which Thucydides had died. Stephanus of Byzantium calls the town Parparum or Parparon (Παρπάρων), but he writes that some called the place Perine. Ptolemy calls it Perpere or Permere. According to the Suda, Hellanicus of Lesbos, a 5th-century BC Greek logographer, died at Perperene at age 85. At a later date it was given the name Theodosiopolis or Theodosioupolis (Θεοδοσιούπολις).It is located near Aşagı Beyköy, on the Kozak plateau near Bergama in the Izmir province of Turkey in western Anatolia.

Pionia (Mysia)

Pionia (Ancient Greek: Πιονία) or Pioniai (Πιονίαι) was a town in the interior of ancient Mysia, on the river Satnioeis, to the northwest of Antandrus, and to the northeast of Gargara. Under the Roman dominion it belonged to the jurisdiction of Adramyttium, and in the ecclesiastical notices it appears as a bishopric of the Hellespontine province. No longer the seat of a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Its site is located near Gömeniç in Asiatic Turkey.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Adramyttium

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Adramyttium was established in the 13th century as a suffragan of Cyzicus, but was later made a suffragan of Ephesus. In 1222, an unnamed bishop was entrusted with a papal assignment.

Thebe Hypoplakia

Thebe Hypoplakia (Ancient Greek: Ὑποπλακίη Θήβη, romanized: Hypoplakíē Thḗbē), also Cilician Thebe, was a city in ancient Anatolia. Alternative names include Placia, Hypoplacia and Hypoplacian Thebe(s), referring to the city's position at the foot of Mount Placus.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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