Adolph Simon Ochs
March 12, 1858
|Died||April 8, 1935 (aged 77)|
|Resting place||Temple Israel Cemetery, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, U.S.|
Ochs was born to a Jewish family in Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 12, 1858. His parents, Julius Ochs and Bertha Levy, were both German immigrants. His father had left Bavaria for the United States in 1846. Julius was a highly educated man and fluent in six languages that he taught at schools throughout the South, though he supported the Union during the Civil War. Ochs' mother Bertha had come to the United States in 1848 as a refugee from the revolution in Rhenish Bavaria, and had lived in the South before her 1853 marriage with Julius, sympathized with the South, though their differing sympathies didn't separate their household.
After the war, the family moved to Knoxville, Tennessee. In Knoxville, Adolph studied in the public schools and during his spare time delivered newspapers. At 11, he went to work at the Knoxville Chronicle as office boy to William Rule, the editor, who became a mentor. In 1871 he was a grocer's clerk at Providence, Rhode Island, attending a night school meanwhile. He then returned to Knoxville, where he was a druggist's apprentice for some time. In 1872, he returned to the Chronicle as a "printer's devil," who looked after various details in the composing room of the paper.
His siblings also worked at the newspaper to supplement the income of their father, a lay religious leader for Knoxville's small Jewish community. The Chronicle was the only Republican, pro-Reconstruction, newspaper in the city, but Ochs counted Father Ryan, the Poet-Priest of the Confederacy, among his customers.
At the age of 19, he borrowed $250 from his family to purchase a controlling interest in the Chattanooga Times Free Press, becoming its publisher. The following year he founded a commercial paper called The Tradesman. He was one of the founders of the Southern Associated Press and served as president. In 1896, at the age of 38, he was advised by The New York Times reporter Henry Alloway that the paper could be bought at a greatly reduced price due to its financial losses and wide range of competitors in New York City. After borrowing money to purchase The New York Times for $75,000 , he formed the New York Times Co., placed the paper on a strong financial foundation, and became the majority stockholder. In 1904, he hired Carr Van Anda as his managing editor. Their focus on objective journalism, in a time when newspapers were openly and highly partisan, and a well-timed price decrease (from 3¢ per issue to 1¢) led to its rescue from near oblivion. The paper's readership increased from 9,000 at the time of his purchase to 780,000 by the 1920s. He also added the Times' well-known masthead motto: "All the News That's Fit to Print."
In 1904, Ochs moved the New York Times to a newly built building on Longacre Square in Manhattan, which the City of New York then renamed as Times Square. On New Year's Eve 1904, he had pyrotechnists illuminate his new building at One Times Square with a fireworks show from street level.
On August 18, 1921, the 25th anniversary of reorganization, the staff of The New York Times numbered 1,885. It was classified as an independent Democratic publication, and consistently opposed William Jennings Bryan in his presidential campaigns. By its fairness in the presentation of news, editorial moderation and ample foreign service, it secured a high place in American journalism, becoming widely read and influential throughout the United States.
Beginning with 1896, there was issued weekly a supplement, eventually called The New York Times Book Review and Magazine. Gradually other auxiliary publications were added: The Annalist, a financial review appearing on Mondays; The Times Mid-Week Pictorial on Thursdays; Current History Magazine, a monthly, started during World War I. The New York Times Index started in 1913 and was published quarterly; it compared only with the similar Index to London's The Times.
In 1901, Ochs became proprietor and editor of the Philadelphia Times, later merged in the Philadelphia Public Ledger, of which he was sole owner from 1902 to 1912, when he sold it to Cyrus H. K. Curtis.
According to Wolfgang Disch, it was during this time in 1916 that Ochs relayed one of his most famous quotes "I affirm that more than 50% of money spent on advertising is squandered and is a sheer waste of printers' ink." This quote might be the origin of the common marketing saying "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half", which has been attributed to John Wanamaker.
In 1928 Ochs built the Mizpah Congregation Temple in Chattanooga in memory of his parents, Julius and Bertha Ochs. The Georgian colonial building was designated as a Tennessee Historical Preservation Site in 1979.
Ochs was engaged in crusading against anti-Semitism. He was active in the early years of the Anti-Defamation League, serving as an executive board member, and used his influence as publisher of the New York Times to convince other newspapers nationwide to cease the unjustified caricaturing and lampooning of Jews in the American press.
His only daughter, Iphigene Bertha Ochs, married Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who became publisher of the Times after Adolph died. Her son-in-law Orvil Dryfoos was publisher from 1961–63, followed by her son Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger. Her daughter, Ruth Holmberg, became publisher of The Chattanooga Times. Ruth Holmberg's son is Arthur Golden, author of Memoirs of a Geisha. Ochs' great-grandson Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. was publisher of The New York Times from 1992 until 2017.
One of his nephews, Julius Ochs Adler, worked at The New York Times for more than 40 years, becoming general manager in 1935, after Ochs died. Another nephew, John Bertram Oakes, the son of his brother George Washington Ochs Oakes, in 1961 became editorial page editor of the Times' editorial page, which he edited until 1976. Ochs was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1982. Another nephew, Adolph Shelby Ochs, was treasurer and a director of The Chattanooga Times. He was Married to Mrs. Theodosia Fitzgerald Gray of Danville, Virginia, granddaughter of Danriver Inc. founder T.B. Fitzgerald, niece of Wachovia Bank founder James Alexander Gray and cousin of Bowman Gray Sr., former president and chairman of R. J. Reynolds.
Business acquired from George F. Spinney
| The New York Times Company Publisher
Arthur Hays Sulzberger
|Awards and achievements|
| Cover of Time Magazine
1 September 1924
All the News That's Fit to Sing was Phil Ochs's first official album. Recorded in 1964 for Elektra Records, it was full of many elements that would come back throughout his career. It was the album that defined his "singing journalist" phase, strewn with songs whose roots were allegedly pulled from Newsweek magazine. It is one in a long line of folk albums used to tell stories about everyday struggles and hardships.
Among these stories was that of William Worthy, an American journalist who traveled to Cuba in spite of an embargo on the country who was forbidden to return to the United States. Civil rights figures Medgar Evers and Emmett Till were lionized in "Too Many Martyrs" (alternatively known as "The Ballad of Medgar Evers".) Two "talking blues" using the melody to the old folk song "John Hardy" jabbed sarcastic at Vietnam and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Even a poem by Edgar Allan Poe, "The Bells", was set to music. "The Thresher" was an ode to the sinking of the nuclear-powered American submarine, the USS Thresher: "And she'll always run silent/And she'll always run deep." The song "Celia" is about the long separation of William J. Pomeroy and his wife, Celia Mariano Pomeroy, because of their opposition to the colonial occupation of the Philippines by the United States. Also included was one of Ochs' most well-known songs, "Power and the Glory".
The title references the motto of The New York Times, "All the news that's fit to print." The Times was founded by Adolph Ochs (no relation to Phil), so this may be a joke or allusion to the coincidence.Anda (surname)
Anda is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Alfonso de Anda, Mexican TV show host
Carlos de Anda, Mexican sprinter who competed in the 1932 Summer Olympics
Carr Van Anda, managing editor of The New York Times under Adolph Ochs
Gabriel de Anda, former Mexican soccer player
Géza Anda, Hungarian pianist
Randi Anda, Norwegian politician for the Christian Democratic Party
Rodolfo de Anda, Mexican actor most well known for his roles in the film La gran aventura del Zorro
Torleiv Anda (1921–2013), Norwegian diplomat and politicianArthur Hays Sulzberger
Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891 – December 11, 1968) was the publisher of The New York Times from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the staff more than doubled, reaching 5,200; advertising linage grew from 19 million to 62 million column inches per year; and gross income increased almost sevenfold, reaching 117 million dollars.Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (born September 22, 1951) is an American journalist. Sulzberger became the publisher of The New York Times in 1992, and chairman of The New York Times Company in 1997, succeeding his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger. On December 14, 2017, he announced he would be ceding the post of publisher to his son, Arthur Gregg "A.G." Sulzberger, effective January 1, 2018.Byline
The byline on a newspaper or magazine article gives the name of the writer of the article. Bylines are commonly placed between the headline and the text of the article, although some magazines (notably Reader's Digest) place bylines at the bottom of the page to leave more room for graphical elements around the headline.
Dictionary.com defines a byline as "a printed line of text accompanying a news story, article, or the like, giving the author's name".Carr Van Anda
Carr Vattal Van Anda (December 2, 1864 – January 29, 1945) was the managing editor of The New York Times under Adolph Ochs, from 1904 to 1932.Van Anda was born in Georgetown, Ohio to Frederick Van Anda and Mariah Davis. He moved to New York in order to become a journalist and editor. Beginning at the New York Sun he moved to The New York Times in 1904. Van Anda was an academic, studying astronomy and physics at Ohio University, and started in journalism at The Cleveland Herald and Gazette and later The Baltimore Sun before being picked up by Adolph Simon Ochs, who valued intelligent and accurate news reporting.
Van Anda gave to political and scientific news coverage the same zeal normally reserved for sports and celebrity. Fluent in hieroglyphics, he secured near-exclusive coverage of the opening of Tutankhamun's tomb by Howard Carter in 1923. He famously corrected a mathematical error in a speech given by Albert Einstein that was to be printed in the Times.He was instrumental in getting a scoop for The Times on the story of the Titanic's sinking in 1912. His most notable stories include the sinking of the RMS Titanic, and the 1911 State Capitol fire in Albany, New York which he covered with a phone call and some journalistic invention. While other newspapers were printing the White Star Line's ambiguous story about the Titanic having trouble after hitting an iceberg, Van Anda (who had received a bulletin reporting a CQD (now SOS) call from the Titanic) figured that a lack of communication from the ship meant that the worst had happened and printed a headline stating that the Titanic had sunk. As his career progressed, it was said of him that "he is the most illustrious unknown man in America." According to a New Yorker profile piece, V.A. (as he was called) practiced "a fierce anonymity while bestowing fleeting fame on some and withholding it from others."On April 11, 1898, Van Anda married Louise Shipman Drane, who was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, on November 26, 1873 to George Canning Drane and Mary Shipman. They had a son, Paul Drane Van Anda (born March 30, 1899). Van Anda died of a heart attack in 1945 immediately upon learning of his daughter's death.
The E.W. Scripps School of Journalism at Ohio University gave the "Carr Van Anda Award" to recognize outstanding work by journalists during their careers.Chattanooga Times Free Press
The Chattanooga Times Free Press is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and is distributed in the metropolitan Chattanooga region of southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia. It is one of Tennessee's major newspapers and is owned by WEHCO Media, Inc., a diversified communications company with ownership in 14 daily newspapers, 11 weekly newspapers and 13 cable television companies in six states. The current president of the Chattanooga Times Free Press is Jeff DeLoach.Current History
Current History is the oldest United States-based publication devoted exclusively to contemporary world affairs. The magazine was founded in 1914 by George Washington Ochs Oakes, brother of The New York Times' publisher Adolph Ochs, in order to provide detailed coverage of World War I. Current History was published by The New York Times Company from its founding until 1936. Since 1942 it has been owned by members of the Redmond family; its current publisher is Daniel Mark Redmond.Current History, based in Philadelphia, maintains no institutional, political, or governmental affiliation. It is published monthly, from September through May. Seven issues each year are devoted to world regions (China and East Asia, Russia and Eurasia, the Middle East, Latin America, Europe, South Asia, and Africa); one issue covers current global trends; and one issue addresses a special theme such as climate change or global governance. The magazine has followed this practice of devoting each issue to a single region or theme since 1953. Each issue includes a chronology of major international events, and most contain a book review section and an article devoted to commentary.
Contributors to Current History in the publication's early years included George Bernard Shaw, Winston Churchill, Charles A. Beard, Allan Nevins, and Henry Steele Commager. More recently, the journal has featured authors such as James Schlesinger, Francis Fukuyama, Jeffrey Sachs, Bruce Riedel, Leslie H. Gelb, Bruce Russett, Elizabeth Economy, Charles Kupchan, Ivo Daalder, Joseph Cirincione, Phebe Marr, Juan Cole, Bruce Gilley, and Marina Ottaway.
Shortly after Current History began publishing in 1914, its editor, Ochs Oakes, decided that a magazine recording “history in the making” should maintain as regular contributors a group of historians and social scientists. He enlisted the help of a Harvard historian, Albert Bushnell Hart, in organizing the journal’s initial group of contributing editors.
Current History's board of contributing editors today includes Catherine Boone (The London School of Economics and Political Science); Bruce Cumings (University of Chicago); Deborah Davis (Yale University); David B. H. Denoon (New York University); Larry Diamond (Stanford University); Michele Dunne (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace); Barry Eichengreen (University of California, Berkeley); C. Christine Fair (Georgetown University); Sumit Ganguly (Indiana University); Marshall Goldman (Wellesley College); G. John Ikenberry (Princeton University); Michael T. Klare (Hampshire College); Joshua Kurlantzick (Council on Foreign Relations); Michael McFaul (Stanford University, currently on leave); Rajan Menon (Lehigh University); Augustus Richard Norton (Boston University); Joseph Nye (Harvard University); Michael Shifter (Inter-American Dialogue); Arturo Valenzuela (Georgetown University, currently on leave); and Jeffrey Wasserstrom (University of California, Irvine). The publication's editor is Alan Sorensen.
The magazine was linked to an international scandal in the run-up to World War II. The New York Times had sold Current History in 1936 to the editor Merle Tracy; in 1939 it was sold again, to an ownership group that included Joseph Hilton Smyth, who also acquired such magazines as The Living Age and The North American Review. Smyth's association with Current History ended the same year, but he and two associates, in connection with their publishing activities, were later convicted of acting as agents for the Japanese government without registering with the State Department. Current History addressed this episode in its October 1942 issue, maintaining that Smyth during the months that he held an ownership interest in the publication did not control editorial policies."According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 0.127, ranking it 149th out of 161 journals in the category "Political Science" and 82nd out of 85 journals in the category "International Relations".Dictionary of American Biography
The Dictionary of American Biography was published in New York City by Charles Scribner's Sons under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). The dictionary was first proposed to the Council in 1920 by historian Frederick Jackson Turner. The first edition was published in 20 volumes from 1928 to 1936, appearing at a rate of two or three volumes per year. These 20 volumes contained 15,000 biographies. In 1946, the 20 volumes were released as a ten-volume set, with each of the ten volumes divided into two parts (Part 1 and Part 2) corresponding to two volumes of the first edition combined into one, the page numbering of the first edition being retained.
The ACLS appealed to Adolph Ochs, publisher of The New York Times, for funding. He loaned the Council $50,000 per year for 10 years. Ochs exercised no editorial control.
The dictionary included no biographies of the living, and some period of residence in the United States was required for inclusion. These twenty volumes had numerous quirks. For example, the entry for Mary Baker Eddy filled eight pages, the entry for Mark Twain only six and a half. Connecticut and Massachusetts were overrepresented, while Arizona had just one entry. Noticeable omissions included, among others, Sojourner Truth, Martha Washington, Scott Joplin, Charles Guiteau, and Joe Hill. In the early volumes terms such as "red men" and "savages" were occasionally used.With the passage of time the usefulness of the series as a reference work waned. Ten supplementary volumes were issued, between 1944 and 1995, each covering people who had died after the previous supplement. The first eight supplements were produced under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies. By terms of an agreement signed in 1990, Macmillan was allowed to produce the final two supplements, covering people who had died through 1980, without the Council's participation. (Macmillan acquired the dictionary's publisher Charles Scribner's Sons in 1984.) When Macmillan in 1993 applied to the ACLS for permission to publish a further supplement, the Council refused.
In mid 1995 Macmillan announced that it would put the old D.A.B. on CD-ROM, with updates to the existing entries as well as new biographies of people left out of the old dictionary. Professor Stanley N. Katz, then president of the Council, protested that the publisher had no legal right to do so without the Council's approval. Macmillan insisted that the terms of the 1927 licensing agreement with Scribner's gave it the right to publish the dictionary "in all forms." In May 1996 the American Council of Learned Societies sued Macmillan in Federal District Court in Manhattan to try to block it from publishing the D.A.B. on CD-ROM and adding what it considered unauthorized supplements. "Our client has taken the position that we want the original work preserved in its pristine form," said Lawrence S. Robbins, a lawyer representing the Council. "We regard it as a treasure and we don't want it to be tinkered with. The suit says, in part, we don't want it updated, missing-personed, digitized, colorized. We want it to exist the way it is." Macmillan moved to have the lawsuit thrown out.
The ACLS signed a contract with Oxford University Press to publish a new series to be called the American National Biography, with financial support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.Ford Ranges
The Ford Ranges (77°0′S 144°0′W) is a grouping of mountain ranges standing east of Sulzberger Ice Shelf and Block Bay in the northwest part of Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. Discovered by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition on December 5, 1929, and named by Byrd for Edsel Ford of the Ford Motor Company, who helped finance the expedition.John Bertram Oakes
John Bertram Oakes (April 23, 1913 – April 5, 2001) was an iconoclastic and influential U.S. journalist known for his early commitment to the environment, civil rights, and opposition to the Vietnam War. He was born in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, the second son of George Washington Ochs Oakes and Bertie Gans. He is regarded as the creator of the modern op-ed page and was editor of the New York Times editorial page from 1961 to 1976.
His uncle was New York Times publisher Adolph Ochs. Oakes attended Princeton University (A.B., 1934), where he was valedictorian of his class and graduated magna cum laude. He then became a Rhodes Scholar (A.B., A.M., Queens College, Oxford, 1936).Judith Sulzberger
Judith Peixotto Sulzberger (December 27, 1923 – February 21, 2011) was an American physician and philanthropist. Her family has been associated with The New York Times since her grandfather, Adolph Ochs purchased the paper in 1896.Lexington Avenue explosion
The Lexington Avenue explosion was the July 4, 1914, explosion of a terrorist bomb in an apartment at 1626 Lexington Avenue in New York City. The blast killed four people and injured dozens. A large quantity of dynamite, which was apparently being used to construct a bomb to blow up John D. Rockefeller's Tarrytown home, exploded prematurely at a new seven-story model tenement. The blast destroyed most of the top three floors of the building, killing three conspirators and another renter who was not part of the bomb plot.Lodge-Fish Resolution
The Lodge-Fish Resolution was a joint resolution of both Houses of Congress of the United States that endorsed the British Mandate for Palestine. It was introduced in June 1922 by Hamilton Fish III, a Republican New York Representative, and Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican Senator from Massachusetts.It came about following a significant lobbying effort by the American Zionist community, and particularly through the efforts of Zionist Rabbi Simon Glazer. It was opposed by the State Department, a prominent anti-Zionist rabbi at the congressional hearings, and the New York Times – owned by the anti-Zionist Adolph Ochs.On September 21, 1922, then-President Warren G. Harding signed the joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish National Home in Palestine, per the 1917 Balfour Declaration.New York Times Building (41 Park Row)
The New York Times Building, at 41 Park Row in the Civic Center neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was the home of The New York Times from 1889 to 1903, when it moved to Longacre Square, now known as Times Square. The building stands as the oldest of the surviving buildings of what was once "Newspaper Row", and is owned by Pace University. A bronze statue of Benjamin Franklin holding a copy of his Pennsylvania Gazette stands in front of the building across the street in Printing-House Square, currently known as 1 Pace Plaza.Ochs (surname)
Ochs is a German language surname meaning "ox", and may refer to:
Adolph Ochs, newspaper publisher and former owner of The New York Times
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger
Craig Ochs, American Football quarterback
Heinrich Ochs, German Knight's Cross holder
Jacques Ochs (1883–1971), épée, saber, and foil fencer, Olympic champion
Josef Ochs, German Nazi Kripo officer
Larry Ochs, jazz saxophonist and composer
Larry Ochs, mayor of Colorado Springs
Michael Ochs, American photographic archivist
Patrick Ochs, German footballer
Peter Ochs (1752-1821), Swiss politician and revolutionary
Peter Ochs (born 1950), Jewish theologian
Phil Ochs (1940-1976), songwriter, musician and recording artist
Philipp Ochs (born 1997), German footballer
Robyn Ochs, bisexual activist, writer & speaker
Siegfried Ochs, German composer
Sonny Ochs, music producer and radio host
Timo Ochs, German footballerThe Times (Philadelphia)
The Times was a daily newspaper published from March 13, 1875 to August 11, 1902 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.It was founded by Alexander McClure and Frank McLaughlin as an independent voice against party machine politics and corruption. Despite this, by the mid-1890s it had become aligned with the city's ruling Republican Party machine. The Times, along with Philadelphia papers such as the Public Ledger, the Press, and the Evening Telegraph catered to a middle-class readership, and by 1880, it had the third largest circulation in the city, with 32,500 copies sold daily. Though the Public Ledger maintained its circulation lead through the end of the 19th century, the Times effectively competed with its older rival, and in 1900 both papers claimed a daily circulation of about 70,000 copies.Adolph Ochs became proprietor and editor of the Times in 1901. In the following year he purchased the Philadelphia Public Ledger and merged the Times into his new acquisition.Times Square Ball
The Times Square Ball is a time ball located in New York City's Times Square. Located on the roof of One Times Square, the ball is a prominent part of a New Year's Eve celebration in Times Square commonly referred to as the ball drop, where the ball descends 141 feet (43 m) in 60 seconds down a specially designed flagpole, beginning at 11:59:00 p.m. ET, and resting at midnight to signal the start of the new year. In recent years, the festivities have been preceded by live entertainment, including performances by musicians.
The event was first organized by Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times newspaper, as a successor to a series of New Year's Eve fireworks displays he held at the building to promote its status as the new headquarters of the Times, while the ball itself was designed by Artkraft Strauss. First held on December 31, 1907, to welcome 1908, the ball drop has been held annually since, except in 1942 and 1943 in observance of wartime blackouts.
The ball's design has been updated over the years to reflect improvements in lighting technology; the ball was initially constructed from wood and iron, and lit with 100 incandescent light bulbs. The current incarnation features a computerized LED lighting system and an outer surface consisting of triangular crystal panels. These panels contain inscriptions representing a yearly theme. Since 2009, the current ball has been displayed atop One Times Square year-round, while the original, smaller version of the current ball that was used in 2008 has been on display inside the Times Square visitor's center.
The event is organized by the Times Square Alliance and Countdown Entertainment, a company led by Jeff Strauss, and is among the most notable New Year's celebrations internationally: it is attended by at least 1 million spectators yearly, and is nationally televised as part of New Year's Eve specials broadcast by a number of networks and cable channels. The prevalence of the Times Square ball drop has inspired similar "drops" at other local New Year's Eve events across the country; while some use balls, some instead drop objects that represent local culture or history.Vincenzo Miserendino
Vincenzo "Vincent" Miserendino (1875–1943) was an artist and sculptor born in Sicily, and active in New York in the early part of the 20th century. He studied art first in Palermo at the age of 13 and then in Rome at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Roma (Academy of Fine Arts at Rome). He immigrated to the United States in 1894 at the age of nineteen, and settled on the lower east side of Manhattan, working in many odd jobs while trying to establish himself as an artist.Currently his sculptures can be found throughout the United States and many are catalogued in the Smithsonian Institution's Research Information Service.