Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Admiral of the Fleet
British Royal Navy OF-10-collected
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
Flag of the United Kingdom
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]
Country United Kingdom
Service branch Royal Navy
RankFive-star
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1690
Next lower rankAdmiral
Equivalent ranks
Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
Commandant
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenant Pilot officer
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal or
bombardier
Corporal
Seaman Private or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

History

The origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.[2] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; the post evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet.[3] In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.[4]

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time.

Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.

During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Naval Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[5]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1690 Gibson, Edward Russell Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
1652 1727 [6]
1696 George Rooke2 Sir George Rooke 1650 1709 circa [7]
13 January 1705 Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1650-1707 Sir Cloudesley Shovell 1650 1707 [8]
8 January 1708 John Leake by Godfrey Kneller Sir John Leake 1656 1720 [9]
21 December 1708 Stafford Fairborne Sir Stafford Fairborne 1666 1742 circa [10]
12 November 1709 MatthewAylmer Sir Matthew Aylmer 1650 1720 [11]
14 March 1718 George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington by Jeremiah Davison Sir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
1663 1733 [12]
20 February 1734 Admiral Sir John Norris, cirka 1735 Sir John Norris 1670 1749 [13]
1 July 1749 Chaloner Ogle Sir Chaloner Ogle 1681 1750 [14]
22 November 1751 Fond blanc James Steuart 1690 1757 [15]
March 1757 Fond blanc The Hon. George Clinton 1686 1761 [16]
30 July 1761 1stLordAnson The Lord Anson 1697 1762 [17]
17 December 1762 Williamrowley Sir William Rowley 1690 1768 circa [18]
15 January 1768 Edward Hawke 1 Sir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
1705 1781 [19]
24 October 1781 John Forbes portrait The Hon. John Forbes 1714 1796 [20]
12 March 1796 Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley The Earl Howe 1726 1799 [21]
16 September 1799 Sir peter parker NMM Sir Peter Parker 1721 1811 [22]
24 December 1811 William IV by Sir Martin Archer Shee HRH The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later HM King William IV)
1765 1837 [23]
19 July 1821 John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent by Francis Cotes The Earl of St Vincent 1735 1823 acting from May 1814 [24]
28 June 1830 Captain William Peere Williams William Williams-Freeman 1742 1832 [25]
22 July 1830 James Gambier The Lord Gambier 1756 1833 [26]
22 July 1830 SirCharlesMoricePole Sir Charles Pole 1757 1830 [27]
24 April 1833 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edmund Nugent Sir Charles Nugent 1759 1844 [28]
8 January 1844 HawkinsWhitshed Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed 1762 1849 [29]
9 November 1846 Admiral Sir George Martin Sir George Martin 1764 1847 [30]
13 October 1849 Portrait of Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773-1854, Thomas Mackay, oil on canvas Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773 1854 [31]
1 July 1851 Sir George Cockburn Sir George Cockburn 1772 1853 [32]
8 December 1857 Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, Bart - Amiral sir Charles Ogle, Bart Sir Charles Ogle 1775 1858 [33]
25 June 1858 Admiral of the Fleet Sir John West Sir John West 1774 1862 [34]
20 May 1862 Fond blanc Sir William Gage 1777 1864 [35]
10 November 1862 Fond blanc Sir Graham Hamond 1779 1862 [36]
27 April 1863 FrancisAusten Sir Francis Austen 1774 1865 [37]
27 April 1863 Sir William Parker Sir William Parker 1781 1866 [38]
11 January 1864 Fond blanc Sir Lucius Curtis 1786 1869 [39]
12 September 1865 Thomas-john-cochrane Sir Thomas Cochrane 1789 1872 [40]
30 November 1866 George Francis Seymour Sir George Seymour 1787 1870 [41]
30 January 1868 Rear Admiral James Alexander Gordon Sir James Gordon 1782 1869 on the Retired List [42]
15 January 1869 Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Bowles Sir William Bowles 1780 1869 [43]
2 July 1869 Conde de Penha Firme Sir George Sartorius 1790 1885 [44]
21 January 1870 Sir Fairfax Moresby Sir Fairfax Moresby 1786 1877 [45]
20 October 1872 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Houston Stewart Sir Houston Stewart 1791 1875 [46]
11 December 1875 Provo Wallis Sir Provo Wallis 1791 1892 [47]
22 January 1877 Rear-Admiral Henry John Codrington (1808-1877), by Cato Lowes Dickinson Sir Henry Codrington 1808 1877 [48]
5 August 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel Sir Henry Keppel 1809 1904 [49]
27 December 1877 Fond blanc The Earl of Lauderdale 1803 1878 [50]
27 December 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rodney Mundy Sir Rodney Mundy 1805 1884 [51]
15 June 1879 Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hope Sir James Hope 1808 1881 [52]
15 June 1879 Fond blanc Sir Thomas Symonds 1813 1894 [52]
10 June 1881 Admiral Alexander Milne (1808-1896), by Walter William Ouless Sir Alexander Milne, Bt. 1806 1896 on the Retired List [53]
1 December 1881 Fond blanc Sir Charles Elliot 1818 1895 [54]
29 April 1885 Ryderpic Sir Alfred Ryder 1820 1888 [55]
18 July 1887 Edward VII in coronation robes HRH The Prince of Wales
(later HM King Edward VII)
1841 1910 honorary to non-Navy royalty [56]
1 May 1888 Geoffrey Phipps Hornby Sir Geoffrey Hornby 1825 1895 [57]
8 December 1888 Lordjohnhay Lord John Hay 1827 1916 First Sea Lord 1886 [58]
2 August 1889 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, by Russell & Sons, c1890 HIM German Emperor William II 1859 1941 honorary, to foreign royalty [59]
13 February 1892 VCJohnEdmundCommerell Sir John Commerell 1829 1901 [60]
3 June 1893 Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
1844 1900 [61]
20 February 1895 Richard Meade, 4th Earl of Clanwilliam The Earl of Clanwilliam 1832 1907 [62]
23 August 1897 Algernon McLennan Lyons Sir Algernon Lyons 1833 1908 [63]
29 November 1898 Admiral Frederick Richards, by Arthur Stockdale Cope Sir Frederick Richards 1833 1912 First Sea Lord 1893-1899 [64]
13 January 1899 Nowell Salmon VC Sir Nowell Salmon 1835 1912 [65]
3 October 1902 James Elphinstone Erskine Sir James Erskine 1838 1911 [66]
30 August 1903 Charles Frederick Hotham Sir Charles Hotham 1843 1925 [67]
16 June 1904 LordWalterKerr Lord Walter Kerr 1839 1927 First Sea Lord 1899-1904 [68]
20 February 1905 Sir Edward H. Seymour 2 Sir Edward Seymour 1840 1929 [69]
5 December 1905 Adm. John Fisher Sir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
1841 1920 First Sea Lord 1905-1910 and 1914-1915 [70]
1 March 1907 Awilson Sir Arthur Wilson 1842 1921 First Sea Lord 1910-1911 [71]
11 June 1908 Tsar Nikolai II (2) HIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 1868 1918 honorary, to foreign royalty [72]
2 December 1908 Gerard Noel Sir Gerard Noel 1845 1918 [73]
27 January 1910 Prinz Heinrich - as GrADM with baton - LC-B2- 2992-2(2).tiff HRH Prince Henry of Prussia 1862 1929 honorary, to foreign royalty [74]
30 April 1910 Adm. Sir A. Fanshawe (LOC) Sir Arthur Fanshawe 1847 1936 [75]
6 May 1910 King George V 1911 color-crop HM King George V 1865 1936 [76]
20 March 1913 Portrait of William May Sir William May 1849 1930 [77]
5 March 1915 Hedworth Meux 1915 The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux 1856 1929 [78]
2 April 1917 George Callaghan - Project Gutenberg eText 18334 Sir George Callaghan 1852 1920 [79]
3 April 1919 John Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet The Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
1859 1935 First Sea Lord 1916-1918 [80]
3 April 1919 Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty Sir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
1871 1936 First Sea Lord 1919-1927 [81]
31 July 1919 Henry Bradwardine Jackson Sir Henry Jackson 1855 1929 First Sea Lord 1915-1916 [82]
1 November 1919 Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, Baron Wester Wemyss by Sir William Orpen Sir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
1864 1933 First Sea Lord 1918-1919 [83]
24 November 1920 Vice Admiral Cecil Burney (7307714298) Sir Cecil Burney, Bt. 1858 1929 [84]
5 July 1921 Frederick Doveton Sturdee Sir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 1859 1925 [85]
19 August 1921 LudwigBattenberg HRH The Marquess of Milford Haven 1854 1921 First Sea Lord 1912-1914. On the Retired List [86]
31 July 1924 Charles Madden Sir Charles Madden, Bt. 1862 1935 First Sea Lord 1927-1930 [87]
8 May 1925 Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe (1922) The Honourable Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 1864 1937 [88]
24 November 1925 John Michael de Robeck Sir John de Robeck, Bt. 1862 1928 [89]
21 January 1928 Vice-admiral Sir Henry Francis Oliver, Kcb, Mvo Art.IWMART1763 Sir Henry Oliver 1865 1965 [90]
31 July 1929 Rear-admiral Osmond de Beauvoir Brock Cb Cmg Art.IWMART1722 Sir Osmond Brock 1869 1947 [91]
8 May 1930 Sir Roger Keyes Sir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
1872 1945 [92]
21 January 1933 Frederick Field (Royal Navy officer) Sir Frederick Field 1871 1945 First Sea Lord 1930-1933 [93]
31 July 1934 ReginaldTyrwhittportraitbyDodd Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 1870 1951 [94]
8 May 1935 Echatfield Sir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
1873 1967 First Sea Lord 1933-1938 [95]
21 January 1936 Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919 HM King Edward VIII 1894 1972 [96]
12 July 1936 Sir John Kelly 1871 1936 [97]
11 December 1936 Georg VI England HM King George VI 1895 1952 [98]
21 January 1938 William Boyle The Earl of Cork and Orrery 1873 1967 [99]
7 July 1939 Rbackhouse Sir Roger Backhouse 1878 1939 First Sea Lord 1938-1939 [100]
31 July 1939 SirDudleyPound Sir Dudley Pound 1877 1943 First Sea Lord 1939-1943 [101]
8 May 1940 Charlesforbes1 Sir Charles Forbes 1880 1960 [102]
21 January 1943 Andrew Cunningham Sir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
1883 1963 First Sea Lord 1943-1946 [103]
22 October 1943 Tovey-TR 002931 Sir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
1885 1971 [104]
8 May 1945 INF3-77 pt8 Admiral Sir James Somerville Sir James Somerville 1882 1949 [105]
21 January 1948 INF3-76 pt3 Admiral Sir John Cunningham Artist Tim Sir John Cunningham 1885 1965 First Sea Lord 1946-1948 [106]
22 October 1948 BruceFraser The Lord Fraser of North Cape 1888 1981 First Sea Lord 1948-1951 [107]
20 March 1949 Sir Algernon Willis 1889 1976 [108]
22 April 1952 Arthurjpower Sir Arthur Power 1889 1960 [109]
1 June 1952 Philip Louis Vian Sir Philip Vian 1894 1968 [110]
15 January 1953 Prince Phillip of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 1921 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–present [111]
1 May 1953 Admiral McGrigor on HMS Norfolk 1945 IWM A 29405 Sir Rhoderick McGrigor 1893 1959 First Sea Lord 1951-1955 [112]
22 April 1955 Rear Admiral George Creasy TR2627 Sir George Creasy 1895 1972 [113]
22 October 1956 Mountbatten The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1900 1979 First Sea Lord 1955-1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 [114]
10 May 1960 Sir Charles Lambe 1900 1960 First Sea Lord 1959-1960 [115]
23 May 1962 Sir Caspar John 1903 1984 First Sea Lord 1960-1963 [116]
12 August 1968 Sir Varyl Begg 1908 1995 First Sea Lord 1966-1968 [117]
30 June 1970 Sir Michael Le Fanu 1913 1970 First Sea Lord 1968-1970 [118]
12 March 1971 Sir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
1915 2004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73 [119]
1 March 1974 Sir Michael Pollock 1916 2006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [120]
9 February 1977 Sir Edward Ashmore 1919 2016 First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977 [121]
6 July 1979 Sir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
1920 1999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982 [122]
1 December 1982 Sir Henry Leach 1923 2011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [123]
2 August 1985 Sir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
1928 1992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988 [124]
12 April 1988 Olav V of Norway HM King Olav V of Norway 1903 1991 honorary, to foreign royalty [125]
25 May 1989 Sir William Staveley 1928 1997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [126]
2 March 1992 Sir Julian Oswald 1933 2011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [127]
10 July 1995 Fond blanc Sir Benjamin Bathurst 1936 First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [128]
16 June 2012 Carlos de Gales (2011) HRH The Prince of Wales 1948 Honorary rank [129]
13 June 2014 Admiralmboyce The Lord Boyce 1943 Chief of the Defence Staff 2001-2003. Honorary rank [130]

See also

References

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  2. ^ 1, St. George Tucker. Vol. (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN 9781886363168.
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  15. ^ Heathcote p. 236
  16. ^ Heathcote, p. 45
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  18. ^ "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  19. ^ Heathcote, p. 109
  20. ^ Heathcote, p. 87
  21. ^ "No. 13875". The London Gazette. 15 March 1796. p. 258.
  22. ^ Heathcote, p. 271
  23. ^ "No. 16554". The London Gazette. 21 December 1811. p. 2454.
  24. ^ "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  25. ^ "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  26. ^ "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  27. ^ "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  28. ^ "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  29. ^ "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  30. ^ "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  31. ^ "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  32. ^ "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  33. ^ "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  34. ^ "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  35. ^ "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  36. ^ "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  37. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  38. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  39. ^ "No. 22806". The London Gazette. 12 January 1864. p. 157.
  40. ^ "No. 23014". The London Gazette. 15 September 1865. p. 4466.
  41. ^ "No. 23187". The London Gazette. 20 November 1866. p. 6158.
  42. ^ "No. 23349". The London Gazette. 4 February 1868. p. 537.
  43. ^ "No. 23462". The London Gazette. 26 January 1869. p. 407.
  44. ^ "No. 23516". The London Gazette. 13 July 1869. p. 3958.
  45. ^ "No. 23582". The London Gazette. 1 February 1870. p. 598.
  46. ^ "No. 23915". The London Gazette. 1 November 1872. p. 5106.
  47. ^ "No. 24278". The London Gazette. 24 December 1875. p. 6577.
  48. ^ "No. 24411". The London Gazette. 30 January 1877. p. 436.
  49. ^ "No. 24497". The London Gazette. 24 August 1877. p. 4957.
  50. ^ "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  51. ^ "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  52. ^ a b "No. 24734". The London Gazette. 17 June 1879. p. 3967.
  53. ^ "No. 24997". The London Gazette. 19 July 1881. p. 3548.
  54. ^ "No. 25044". The London Gazette. 2 December 1881. p. 6470.
  55. ^ "No. 25466". The London Gazette. 1 May 1885. p. 1984.
  56. ^ Heathcote, p. 68
  57. ^ "No. 25816". The London Gazette. 15 May 1888. p. 2766.
  58. ^ "No. 25883". The London Gazette. 14 December 1888. p. 7140.
  59. ^ Heathcote, p. 261
  60. ^ "No. 26262". The London Gazette. 26 February 1892. p. 1108.
  61. ^ Heathcote, p. 10
  62. ^ "No. 26601". The London Gazette. 22 February 1895. p. 1066.
  63. ^ "No. 26885". The London Gazette. 24 August 1897. p. 4726.
  64. ^ "No. 27029". The London Gazette. 2 December 1898. p. 7818.
  65. ^ "No. 27043". The London Gazette. 17 January 1899. p. 298.
  66. ^ "No. 27483". The London Gazette. 17 October 1902. p. 6569.
  67. ^ "No. 27593". The London Gazette. 1 September 1903. p. 5476.
  68. ^ "No. 27692". The London Gazette. 5 July 1904. p. 4259.
  69. ^ "No. 27766". The London Gazette. 21 February 1905. p. 1279.
  70. ^ "No. 27861". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8812.
  71. ^ "No. 28001". The London Gazette. 5 March 1907. p. 1574.
  72. ^ Heathcote, p. 192
  73. ^ "No. 28201". The London Gazette. 1 December 1908. p. 9182.
  74. ^ Heathcote, p. 113
  75. ^ "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  76. ^ Heathcote, p. 98
  77. ^ "No. 28703". The London Gazette. 21 March 1913. p. 2159.
  78. ^ "No. 29094". The London Gazette. 9 March 1915. p. 2365.
  79. ^ "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  80. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  81. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  82. ^ "No. 31489". The London Gazette. 5 August 1919. p. 9961.
  83. ^ "No. 31715". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1920. p. 57.
  84. ^ "No. 32150". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1920. p. 11942.
  85. ^ "No. 32394". The London Gazette. 19 July 1921. p. 5733.
  86. ^ Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38
  87. ^ "No. 32962". The London Gazette. 5 August 1924. p. 5889.
  88. ^ "No. 33049". The London Gazette. 22 May 1925. p. 3445.
  89. ^ "No. 33110". The London Gazette. 1 December 1925. p. 7950.
  90. ^ "No. 33354". The London Gazette. 7 February 1928. p. 856.
  91. ^ "No. 33523". The London Gazette. 6 August 1929. p. 5145.
  92. ^ "No. 33604". The London Gazette. 9 May 1930. p. 2867.
  93. ^ "No. 33905". The London Gazette. 24 January 1933. p. 524.
  94. ^ "No. 34076". The London Gazette. 7 August 1934. p. 5054.
  95. ^ "No. 34159". The London Gazette. 10 May 1935. p. 3048.
  96. ^ Heathcote, p. 69
  97. ^ "No. 34308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1936. p. 4742.
  98. ^ Heathcote, p. 99
  99. ^ "No. 34476". The London Gazette. 25 January 1938. p. 512.
  100. ^ Heathcote, p. 21
  101. ^ "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. p. 5393.
  102. ^ "No. 34849". The London Gazette. 14 May 1940. p. 2892.
  103. ^ Heathcote, p. 60
  104. ^ "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  105. ^ Heathcote, p. 233
  106. ^ "No. 38210". The London Gazette. 17 February 1948. p. 1128.
  107. ^ Heathcote, p. 90
  108. ^ "No. 38595". The London Gazette. 26 April 1949. p. 2052.
  109. ^ "No. 39571". The London Gazette. 13 June 1952. p. 3238.
  110. ^ "No. 39606". The London Gazette. 25 July 1952. p. 3999.
  111. ^ Heathcote, p. 210
  112. ^ Heathcote, p. 162
  113. ^ "No. 40487". The London Gazette. 24 May 1955. p. 3011.
  114. ^ "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.
  115. ^ "No. 42058". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 June 1960. p. 4037.
  116. ^ "No. 42704". The London Gazette. 15 June 1962. p. 4777.
  117. ^ Heathcote, p. 29
  118. ^ "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7183.
  119. ^ "No. 45331". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 March 1971. p. 2937.
  120. ^ "No. 46225". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 March 1974. p. 2887.
  121. ^ "No. 47160". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 March 1977. p. 2825.
  122. ^ "No. 47904". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 July 1979. p. 8998.
  123. ^ "No. 49174". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 November 1982. p. 15293.
  124. ^ Heathcote, p.78
  125. ^ "No. 51297". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 12 April 1988. p. 4327.
  126. ^ Heathcote, p. 235
  127. ^ Heathcote, p. 204
  128. ^ Heathcote, p. 23
  129. ^ "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  130. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.

Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.

External links

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