Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Admiral of the Fleet
British Royal Navy OF-10-collected
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
Flag of the United Kingdom
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]
Country United Kingdom
Service branch Royal Navy
RankFive-star
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1690
Next lower rankAdmiral
Equivalent ranks
Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
Commandant
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenant Pilot officer
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal or
bombardier
Corporal
Seaman Private or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

History

The origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.[2] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; the post evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet.[3] In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.[4]

In November 1805, a separate rank of Admiral of the Red immediately junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored in His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men then serving as Admirals to that rank.[5]

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time.

Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.

During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Naval Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[6]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1690 Gibson, Edward Russell Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
1652 1727 [7]
1696 George Rooke2 Sir George Rooke 1650 1709 circa [8]
13 January 1705 Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1650-1707 Sir Cloudesley Shovell 1650 1707 [9]
8 January 1708 John Leake by Godfrey Kneller Sir John Leake 1656 1720 [10]
21 December 1708 Stafford Fairborne Sir Stafford Fairborne 1666 1742 circa [11]
12 November 1709 MatthewAylmer Sir Matthew Aylmer 1650 1720 [12]
14 March 1718 George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington by Jeremiah Davison Sir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
1663 1733 [13]
20 February 1734 Admiral Sir John Norris, cirka 1735 Sir John Norris 1670 1749 [14]
1 July 1749 Chaloner Ogle Sir Chaloner Ogle 1681 1750 [15]
22 November 1751 Fond blanc James Steuart 1690 1757 [16]
March 1757 Fond blanc The Hon. George Clinton 1686 1761 [17]
30 July 1761 1stLordAnson The Lord Anson 1697 1762 [18]
17 December 1762 Williamrowley Sir William Rowley 1690 1768 circa [19]
15 January 1768 Edward Hawke 1 Sir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
1705 1781 [20]
24 October 1781 John Forbes portrait The Hon. John Forbes 1714 1796 [21]
12 March 1796 Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley The Earl Howe 1726 1799 [22]
16 September 1799 Sir peter parker NMM Sir Peter Parker 1721 1811 [23]
24 December 1811 William IV by Sir Martin Archer Shee HRH The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later HM King William IV)
1765 1837 [24]
19 July 1821 John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent by Francis Cotes The Earl of St Vincent 1735 1823 acting from May 1814 [25]
28 June 1830 Captain William Peere Williams William Williams-Freeman 1742 1832 [26]
22 July 1830 James Gambier The Lord Gambier 1756 1833 [27]
22 July 1830 SirCharlesMoricePole Sir Charles Pole 1757 1830 [28]
24 April 1833 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edmund Nugent Sir Charles Nugent 1759 1844 [29]
8 January 1844 HawkinsWhitshed Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed 1762 1849 [30]
9 November 1846 Admiral Sir George Martin Sir George Martin 1764 1847 [31]
13 October 1849 Portrait of Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773-1854, Thomas Mackay, oil on canvas Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773 1854 [32]
1 July 1851 Sir George Cockburn Sir George Cockburn 1772 1853 [33]
8 December 1857 Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, Bart - Amiral sir Charles Ogle, Bart Sir Charles Ogle 1775 1858 [34]
25 June 1858 Admiral of the Fleet Sir John West Sir John West 1774 1862 [35]
20 May 1862 Fond blanc Sir William Gage 1777 1864 [36]
10 November 1862 Fond blanc Sir Graham Hamond 1779 1862 [37]
27 April 1863 FrancisAusten Sir Francis Austen 1774 1865 [38]
27 April 1863 Sir William Parker Sir William Parker 1781 1866 [39]
11 January 1864 Fond blanc Sir Lucius Curtis 1786 1869 [40]
12 September 1865 Thomas-john-cochrane Sir Thomas Cochrane 1789 1872 [41]
30 November 1866 George Francis Seymour Sir George Seymour 1787 1870 [42]
30 January 1868 Rear Admiral James Alexander Gordon Sir James Gordon 1782 1869 on the Retired List [43]
15 January 1869 Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Bowles Sir William Bowles 1780 1869 [44]
2 July 1869 Conde de Penha Firme Sir George Sartorius 1790 1885 [45]
21 January 1870 Sir Fairfax Moresby Sir Fairfax Moresby 1786 1877 [46]
20 October 1872 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Houston Stewart Sir Houston Stewart 1791 1875 [47]
11 December 1875 Provo Wallis Sir Provo Wallis 1791 1892 [48]
22 January 1877 Rear-Admiral Henry John Codrington (1808-1877), by Cato Lowes Dickinson Sir Henry Codrington 1808 1877 [49]
5 August 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel Sir Henry Keppel 1809 1904 [50]
27 December 1877 Fond blanc The Earl of Lauderdale 1803 1878 [51]
27 December 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rodney Mundy Sir Rodney Mundy 1805 1884 [52]
15 June 1879 Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hope Sir James Hope 1808 1881 [53]
15 June 1879 Fond blanc Sir Thomas Symonds 1813 1894 [53]
10 June 1881 Admiral Alexander Milne (1808-1896), by Walter William Ouless Sir Alexander Milne, Bt. 1806 1896 on the Retired List [54]
1 December 1881 Fond blanc Sir Charles Elliot 1818 1895 [55]
29 April 1885 Ryderpic Sir Alfred Ryder 1820 1888 [56]
18 July 1887 Edward VII in coronation robes HRH The Prince of Wales
(later HM King Edward VII)
1841 1910 honorary to non-Navy royalty [57]
1 May 1888 Geoffrey Phipps Hornby Sir Geoffrey Hornby 1825 1895 [58]
8 December 1888 Lordjohnhay Lord John Hay 1827 1916 First Sea Lord 1886 [59]
2 August 1889 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, by Russell & Sons, c1890 HIM German Emperor William II 1859 1941 honorary, to foreign royalty [60]
13 February 1892 VCJohnEdmundCommerell Sir John Commerell 1829 1901 [61]
3 June 1893 Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
1844 1900 [62]
20 February 1895 Richard Meade, 4th Earl of Clanwilliam The Earl of Clanwilliam 1832 1907 [63]
23 August 1897 Algernon McLennan Lyons Sir Algernon Lyons 1833 1908 [64]
29 November 1898 Admiral Frederick Richards, by Arthur Stockdale Cope Sir Frederick Richards 1833 1912 First Sea Lord 1893-1899 [65]
13 January 1899 Nowell Salmon VC Sir Nowell Salmon 1835 1912 [66]
3 October 1902 James Elphinstone Erskine Sir James Erskine 1838 1911 [67]
30 August 1903 Charles Frederick Hotham Sir Charles Hotham 1843 1925 [68]
16 June 1904 LordWalterKerr Lord Walter Kerr 1839 1927 First Sea Lord 1899-1904 [69]
20 February 1905 Sir Edward H. Seymour 2 Sir Edward Seymour 1840 1929 [70]
5 December 1905 Adm. John Fisher Sir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
1841 1920 First Sea Lord 1905-1910 and 1914-1915 [71]
1 March 1907 Awilson Sir Arthur Wilson 1842 1921 First Sea Lord 1910-1911 [72]
11 June 1908 Tsar Nikolai II (2) HIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 1868 1918 honorary, to foreign royalty [73]
2 December 1908 Gerard Noel Sir Gerard Noel 1845 1918 [74]
27 January 1910 Prinz Heinrich - as GrADM with baton - LC-B2- 2992-2(2).tiff HRH Prince Henry of Prussia 1862 1929 honorary, to foreign royalty [75]
30 April 1910 Adm. Sir A. Fanshawe (LOC) Sir Arthur Fanshawe 1847 1936 [76]
6 May 1910 King George V 1911 color-crop HM King George V 1865 1936 [77]
20 March 1913 Portrait of William May Sir William May 1849 1930 [78]
5 March 1915 Hedworth Meux 1915 The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux 1856 1929 [79]
2 April 1917 George Callaghan - Project Gutenberg eText 18334 Sir George Callaghan 1852 1920 [80]
3 April 1919 John Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet The Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
1859 1935 First Sea Lord 1916-1918 [81]
3 April 1919 Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty Sir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
1871 1936 First Sea Lord 1919-1927 [82]
31 July 1919 Henry Bradwardine Jackson Sir Henry Jackson 1855 1929 First Sea Lord 1915-1916 [83]
1 November 1919 Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, Baron Wester Wemyss by Sir William Orpen Sir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
1864 1933 First Sea Lord 1918-1919 [84]
24 November 1920 Vice Admiral Cecil Burney (7307714298) Sir Cecil Burney, Bt. 1858 1929 [85]
5 July 1921 Frederick Doveton Sturdee Sir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 1859 1925 [86]
19 August 1921 LudwigBattenberg HRH The Marquess of Milford Haven 1854 1921 First Sea Lord 1912-1914. On the Retired List [87]
31 July 1924 Charles Madden Sir Charles Madden, Bt. 1862 1935 First Sea Lord 1927-1930 [88]
8 May 1925 Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe (1922) The Honourable Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 1864 1937 [89]
24 November 1925 John Michael de Robeck Sir John de Robeck, Bt. 1862 1928 [90]
21 January 1928 Vice-admiral Sir Henry Francis Oliver, Kcb, Mvo Art.IWMART1763 Sir Henry Oliver 1865 1965 [91]
31 July 1929 Rear-admiral Osmond de Beauvoir Brock Cb Cmg Art.IWMART1722 Sir Osmond Brock 1869 1947 [92]
8 May 1930 Sir Roger Keyes Sir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
1872 1945 [93]
21 January 1933 Frederick Field (Royal Navy officer) Sir Frederick Field 1871 1945 First Sea Lord 1930-1933 [94]
31 July 1934 ReginaldTyrwhittportraitbyDodd Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 1870 1951 [95]
8 May 1935 Echatfield Sir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
1873 1967 First Sea Lord 1933-1938 [96]
21 January 1936 Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919 HM King Edward VIII 1894 1972 [97]
12 July 1936 Sir John Kelly 1871 1936 [98]
11 December 1936 Georg VI England HM King George VI 1895 1952 [99]
21 January 1938 William Boyle The Earl of Cork and Orrery 1873 1967 [100]
7 July 1939 Rbackhouse Sir Roger Backhouse 1878 1939 First Sea Lord 1938-1939 [101]
31 July 1939 SirDudleyPound Sir Dudley Pound 1877 1943 First Sea Lord 1939-1943 [102]
8 May 1940 Charlesforbes1 Sir Charles Forbes 1880 1960 [103]
21 January 1943 Andrew Cunningham Sir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
1883 1963 First Sea Lord 1943-1946 [104]
22 October 1943 Tovey-TR 002931 Sir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
1885 1971 [105]
8 May 1945 INF3-77 pt8 Admiral Sir James Somerville Sir James Somerville 1882 1949 [106]
21 January 1948 INF3-76 pt3 Admiral Sir John Cunningham Artist Tim Sir John Cunningham 1885 1965 First Sea Lord 1946-1948 [107]
22 October 1948 BruceFraser The Lord Fraser of North Cape 1888 1981 First Sea Lord 1948-1951 [108]
20 March 1949 Sir Algernon Willis 1889 1976 [109]
22 April 1952 Arthurjpower Sir Arthur Power 1889 1960 [110]
1 June 1952 Philip Louis Vian Sir Philip Vian 1894 1968 [111]
15 January 1953 Prince Phillip of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 1921 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–present [112]
1 May 1953 Admiral McGrigor on HMS Norfolk 1945 IWM A 29405 Sir Rhoderick McGrigor 1893 1959 First Sea Lord 1951-1955 [113]
22 April 1955 Rear Admiral George Creasy TR2627 Sir George Creasy 1895 1972 [114]
22 October 1956 Mountbatten The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1900 1979 First Sea Lord 1955-1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 [115]
10 May 1960 Sir Charles Lambe 1900 1960 First Sea Lord 1959-1960 [116]
23 May 1962 Sir Caspar John 1903 1984 First Sea Lord 1960-1963 [117]
12 August 1968 Sir Varyl Begg 1908 1995 First Sea Lord 1966-1968 [118]
30 June 1970 Sir Michael Le Fanu 1913 1970 First Sea Lord 1968-1970 [119]
12 March 1971 Sir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
1915 2004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73 [120]
1 March 1974 Sir Michael Pollock 1916 2006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [121]
9 February 1977 Sir Edward Ashmore 1919 2016 First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977 [122]
6 July 1979 Sir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
1920 1999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982 [123]
1 December 1982 Sir Henry Leach 1923 2011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [124]
2 August 1985 Sir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
1928 1992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988 [125]
12 April 1988 Olav V of Norway HM King Olav V of Norway 1903 1991 honorary, to foreign royalty [126]
25 May 1989 Sir William Staveley 1928 1997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [127]
2 March 1992 Sir Julian Oswald 1933 2011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [128]
10 July 1995 Fond blanc Sir Benjamin Bathurst 1936 First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [129]
16 June 2012 Carlos de Gales (2011) HRH The Prince of Wales 1948 Honorary rank [130]
13 June 2014 Admiralmboyce The Lord Boyce 1943 Chief of the Defence Staff 2001-2003. Honorary rank [131]

See also

References

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  2. ^ 1, St. George Tucker. Vol. (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN 9781886363168.
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  16. ^ Heathcote p. 236
  17. ^ Heathcote, p. 45
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  19. ^ "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  20. ^ Heathcote, p. 109
  21. ^ Heathcote, p. 87
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  23. ^ Heathcote, p. 271
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  25. ^ "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  26. ^ "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  27. ^ "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  28. ^ "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  29. ^ "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  30. ^ "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  31. ^ "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  32. ^ "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  33. ^ "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  34. ^ "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  35. ^ "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  36. ^ "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  37. ^ "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  38. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  39. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  40. ^ "No. 22806". The London Gazette. 12 January 1864. p. 157.
  41. ^ "No. 23014". The London Gazette. 15 September 1865. p. 4466.
  42. ^ "No. 23187". The London Gazette. 20 November 1866. p. 6158.
  43. ^ "No. 23349". The London Gazette. 4 February 1868. p. 537.
  44. ^ "No. 23462". The London Gazette. 26 January 1869. p. 407.
  45. ^ "No. 23516". The London Gazette. 13 July 1869. p. 3958.
  46. ^ "No. 23582". The London Gazette. 1 February 1870. p. 598.
  47. ^ "No. 23915". The London Gazette. 1 November 1872. p. 5106.
  48. ^ "No. 24278". The London Gazette. 24 December 1875. p. 6577.
  49. ^ "No. 24411". The London Gazette. 30 January 1877. p. 436.
  50. ^ "No. 24497". The London Gazette. 24 August 1877. p. 4957.
  51. ^ "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  52. ^ "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  53. ^ a b "No. 24734". The London Gazette. 17 June 1879. p. 3967.
  54. ^ "No. 24997". The London Gazette. 19 July 1881. p. 3548.
  55. ^ "No. 25044". The London Gazette. 2 December 1881. p. 6470.
  56. ^ "No. 25466". The London Gazette. 1 May 1885. p. 1984.
  57. ^ Heathcote, p. 68
  58. ^ "No. 25816". The London Gazette. 15 May 1888. p. 2766.
  59. ^ "No. 25883". The London Gazette. 14 December 1888. p. 7140.
  60. ^ Heathcote, p. 261
  61. ^ "No. 26262". The London Gazette. 26 February 1892. p. 1108.
  62. ^ Heathcote, p. 10
  63. ^ "No. 26601". The London Gazette. 22 February 1895. p. 1066.
  64. ^ "No. 26885". The London Gazette. 24 August 1897. p. 4726.
  65. ^ "No. 27029". The London Gazette. 2 December 1898. p. 7818.
  66. ^ "No. 27043". The London Gazette. 17 January 1899. p. 298.
  67. ^ "No. 27483". The London Gazette. 17 October 1902. p. 6569.
  68. ^ "No. 27593". The London Gazette. 1 September 1903. p. 5476.
  69. ^ "No. 27692". The London Gazette. 5 July 1904. p. 4259.
  70. ^ "No. 27766". The London Gazette. 21 February 1905. p. 1279.
  71. ^ "No. 27861". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8812.
  72. ^ "No. 28001". The London Gazette. 5 March 1907. p. 1574.
  73. ^ Heathcote, p. 192
  74. ^ "No. 28201". The London Gazette. 1 December 1908. p. 9182.
  75. ^ Heathcote, p. 113
  76. ^ "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  77. ^ Heathcote, p. 98
  78. ^ "No. 28703". The London Gazette. 21 March 1913. p. 2159.
  79. ^ "No. 29094". The London Gazette. 9 March 1915. p. 2365.
  80. ^ "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  81. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  82. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  83. ^ "No. 31489". The London Gazette. 5 August 1919. p. 9961.
  84. ^ "No. 31715". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1920. p. 57.
  85. ^ "No. 32150". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1920. p. 11942.
  86. ^ "No. 32394". The London Gazette. 19 July 1921. p. 5733.
  87. ^ Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38
  88. ^ "No. 32962". The London Gazette. 5 August 1924. p. 5889.
  89. ^ "No. 33049". The London Gazette. 22 May 1925. p. 3445.
  90. ^ "No. 33110". The London Gazette. 1 December 1925. p. 7950.
  91. ^ "No. 33354". The London Gazette. 7 February 1928. p. 856.
  92. ^ "No. 33523". The London Gazette. 6 August 1929. p. 5145.
  93. ^ "No. 33604". The London Gazette. 9 May 1930. p. 2867.
  94. ^ "No. 33905". The London Gazette. 24 January 1933. p. 524.
  95. ^ "No. 34076". The London Gazette. 7 August 1934. p. 5054.
  96. ^ "No. 34159". The London Gazette. 10 May 1935. p. 3048.
  97. ^ Heathcote, p. 69
  98. ^ "No. 34308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1936. p. 4742.
  99. ^ Heathcote, p. 99
  100. ^ "No. 34476". The London Gazette. 25 January 1938. p. 512.
  101. ^ Heathcote, p. 21
  102. ^ "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. p. 5393.
  103. ^ "No. 34849". The London Gazette. 14 May 1940. p. 2892.
  104. ^ Heathcote, p. 60
  105. ^ "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  106. ^ Heathcote, p. 233
  107. ^ "No. 38210". The London Gazette. 17 February 1948. p. 1128.
  108. ^ Heathcote, p. 90
  109. ^ "No. 38595". The London Gazette. 26 April 1949. p. 2052.
  110. ^ "No. 39571". The London Gazette. 13 June 1952. p. 3238.
  111. ^ "No. 39606". The London Gazette. 25 July 1952. p. 3999.
  112. ^ Heathcote, p. 210
  113. ^ Heathcote, p. 162
  114. ^ "No. 40487". The London Gazette. 24 May 1955. p. 3011.
  115. ^ "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.
  116. ^ "No. 42058". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 June 1960. p. 4037.
  117. ^ "No. 42704". The London Gazette. 15 June 1962. p. 4777.
  118. ^ Heathcote, p. 29
  119. ^ "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7183.
  120. ^ "No. 45331". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 March 1971. p. 2937.
  121. ^ "No. 46225". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 March 1974. p. 2887.
  122. ^ "No. 47160". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 March 1977. p. 2825.
  123. ^ "No. 47904". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 July 1979. p. 8998.
  124. ^ "No. 49174". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 November 1982. p. 15293.
  125. ^ Heathcote, p.78
  126. ^ "No. 51297". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 12 April 1988. p. 4327.
  127. ^ Heathcote, p. 235
  128. ^ Heathcote, p. 204
  129. ^ Heathcote, p. 23
  130. ^ "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  131. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.

Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.

External links

Admiral (Royal Navy)

Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals. The rank of admiral is currently the highest rank to which an officer in the Royal Navy can be promoted, admiral of the fleet being in abeyance.

Beattie

Beattie is a surname, meaning "one who held land on condition of supplying food to those billeted on him by the chief"; "public victualler".

Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)

The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service that is clearly exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration.Separate Distinguished Service Medals exist for the different branches of the military as well as a fifth version of the medal which is a senior award of the United States Department of Defense. The Army version of the Distinguished Service Medal is typically referred to simply as the "Distinguished Service Medal" while the other branches of service use the service name as a prefix.

For service not related to actual war, the term "duty of a great responsibility" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war, and requires evidence of conspicuously significant achievement. However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of high positions of great importance.

Awards may be made to persons other than members of the United States Armed Forces for wartime services only, and then only under exceptional circumstances, with the express approval of the President in each case.

Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.

Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was named Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father.

Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and socially unacceptable as a prospective queen consort. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. When it became apparent he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history.

After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France. Edward and Wallis remained married until his death in 1972.

George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, and his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, and George was created Prince of Wales. He became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910.

George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War (1914–1918), the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations. He had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his later reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII.

Glossary of nautical terms

This is a partial glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, while many date from the 17th to 19th centuries. See also Wiktionary's nautical terms, Category:Nautical terms, and Nautical metaphors in English. See the Further reading section for additional words and references.

Humphrey Lyons

Lieutenant-General Humphrey Lyons

(8 July 1802 - 25 May 1873) was an Indian Army officer.

List of command flags of the Royal Navy

This is a list of historic and current command flags of the Royal Navy.

Command rank flags to denote the commander-in-chief of the English fleet and later Royal navy were used from as early as 1189. Squadron colours were established during the Elizabethan era to subdivide the fleet into three squadrons or more. There were three classes of admirals and later a fourth that were differentiated by using coloured flags red, white and blue.

List of people from Dublin

Dublin, as the capital city of Ireland and the largest city in Ireland, has produced many noted artists, entertainers, politicians and businesspeople. Also include are people affiliated with Dublin before the creation of the Republic of Ireland.

List of titles and honours of George VI

King George VI received numerous decorations and honorary appointments, both during and before his time as monarch of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth. Each is listed below; where two dates are shown, the first indicated the date of receiving the award or title, and the second indicates the date of its loss or renunciation.

Naas

Naas (; Irish: Nás na Ríogh, or An Nás [ən̪ˠ n̪ˠaːsˠ]) is the county town of County Kildare in Ireland. In 2016, it had a population of 21,393, making it the second largest town in County Kildare after Newbridge.

Qaboos bin Said al Said

Qaboos bin Said Al Said (Arabic: قابوس بن سعيد آلسعيد‎, IPA: [ˈqaːbuːs bɪn ˈsaʕiːd ʔaːl ˈsaʕiːd]; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman. He rose to power after overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur, in a palace coup in 1970. He is the 14th-generation descendant of the founder of the Al Bu Sa'id dynasty. He is the longest serving Arab leader, having held the office since 1970.

Senior Officers' School

The Senior Officers' School was a British military establishment established in 1916 by Brigadier-General R.J. Kentish for the training of Commonwealth senior officers of all services in inter-service cooperation. It was established as part of a wider attempt by the British Army to create a coherent training plan for its officers.

The School was originally intended for senior officers of the British Army who aspired to battalion command and to ensure that all such candidates received suitable training. It was taken as an affront by some senior officers of the day, who resented the implication–true in some cases–that they were incapable of delivering the necessary training. The School attempted to widen officers' outlook by including in its syllabus subjects that were not immediately military but led to an appreciation of the wider political, geographical and technological environment in which the British Army would operate.The School was originally based at Aldershot but in the 1920s, it was transferred to Sheerness. It then moved to Erlestoke Park in Wiltshire in 1939 where it continued to operate until June 1950 when a major fire caused it to move to the wings of the house; the school closed completely in 1961.There was also a parallel establishment, the Senior Officers' School, Belgaum, at Belgaum in India.

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