Administrative regions of Greece

The administrative regions of Greece (Greek: περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.

Administrative regions of Greece
Διοικητικές περιφέρειες της Ελλάδας  (Greek)
Un-greece
CategoryUnitary state
LocationHellenic Republic
Number13 Regions
1 Autonomous Region
Populations197,810 (North Aegean) – 3,812,330 (Attica)
Areas2,307 km2 (891 sq mi) (Ionian Islands) – 18,810 km2 (7,260 sq mi) (Central Macedonia)
GovernmentCentral government
Regional governments
Theocratic government (Athos)
SubdivisionsRegional units

History

The current regions were established in July 1986 (the Presidential Decree officially establishing them was signed in 1987), by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, complementing the prefectures (Law 1622/1986).[1] Before 1986, there was a traditional division into broad historical–geographical regions (γεωγραφικά διαμερίσματα), which, however, was often arbitrary; not all of the pre-1986 traditional historical-geographic regions had official administrative bodies. Although the post-1986 regions were mostly based on the earlier divisions, they are usually smaller and, in a few cases, do not overlap with the traditional definitions: for instance, the region of Western Greece, which had no previous analogue, comprises territory belonging to the Peloponnese peninsula and the traditional region of Central Greece.

As part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos ("Project Kapodistrias"), they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into fully separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan (Law 3852/2010), which entered into effect on 1 January 2011. In the 2011 changes, the government-appointed general secretary (γενικός γραμματέας) was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor (περιφερειάρχης) and a regional council (περιφερειακό συμβούλιο) with 5-year terms. Many powers of the prefectures, which were also abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the central government were in turn replaced by seven Decentralized administrations, which group from one to three regions under a government-appointed general secretary.

List of administrative regions

Peripheries of Greece numbered

  1. Attica / Αττική
  2. Central Greece / Στερεά Ελλάδα
  3. Central Macedonia / Κεντρική Μακεδονία
  4. Crete / Κρήτη
  5. Eastern Macedonia and Thrace / Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη
  6. Epirus / Ήπειρος
  7. Ionian Islands / Ιόνια νησιά
  8. North Aegean / Βόρειο Αιγαίο
  9. Peloponnese / Πελοπόννησος
  10. South Aegean / Νότιο Αιγαίο
  11. Thessaly / Θεσσαλία
  12. Western Greece / Δυτική Ελλάδα
  13. Western Macedonia / Δυτική Μακεδονία
Map showing modern regions of Greece

Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one autonomous region, Mount Athos (Agion Oros, or "Holy Mountain"), a monastic community under Greek sovereignty. It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula.

Administrative Region Seat Area
(km2)
Population
(residents)
Population Density
(residents/km2)
Gross domestic product
(million €)
Per capita gross domestic product
()
1 Attica Athens 3,808 3,812,330 1001.11 110,546 28,997
2 Central Greece Lamia 15,549 546,870 35.17 10,537 19,007
3 Central Macedonia Thessaloniki 18,811 1,874,590 99.66 32,285 16,559
4 Crete Heraklion 8,336 621,340 74.54 11,243 18,421
5 Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Komotini 14,157 606,170 42.82 9,265 15,272
6 Epirus Ioannina 9,203 336,650 36.58 5,079 14,221
7 Ionian Islands Corfu 2,307 206,470 89.50 4,130 17,726
8 North Aegean Mytilene 3,836 197,810 51.57 3,330 16,638
9 Peloponnese Tripoli 15,490 581,980 37.57 9,809 16,580
10 South Aegean Ermoupoli 5,286 308,610 58.38 7,646 24,828
11 Thessaly Larissa 14,037 730,730 52.06 11,608 15,772
12 Western Greece Patras 11,350 680,190 59.93 10,659 14,332
13 Western Macedonia Kozani 9,451 282,120 29.85 5,506 18,786

See also

References

  1. ^ Ν.1622/86 «Τοπική Αυτοδιοίκηση - Περιφερειακή Ανάπτυξη - Δημοκρατικός Προγραμματισμός», (ΦΕΚ 92/τ.Α΄/14-7-1986)
Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea ( or ; Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος Aigaío Pélagos [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] (listen); Turkish: Ege Denizi [eˈɟe deniˈzi]) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, or between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea by the straits of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. The Aegean Islands, numbering over are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. Along with the Ionian Sea, which it connects to the southwest, the Aegean Sea contain over 3,000 to 6,000 islands. The sea reaches a maximum depth of 3,544 meters, to the east of Crete.

The Aegean Islands can be divided into several island groups, including Dodecanese, the Cyclades, the Sporades, the Saronic islands, and the North Aegean Islands, as well as Crete and its surrounding islands. The Dodecanese, located to the southeast, includes the islands of Rhodes, Kos, and Patmos; the islands of Delos and Naxos are within the Cyclades to the south of the sea. Lesbos is part of the North Aegean Islands. Euboea, the second largest island in Greece, is located in the Aegean, despite being administered as part of Central Greece. Nine out of twelve of the Administrative regions of Greece border the sea, along with the Turkish provinces of Edirne, Canakkale, Balıkesir, Izmir, Aydın and Muğla to the east of the sea. Various Turkish islands in the sea are Imbros, Tenedos, Cunda Island, and the Foça Islands.

The Aegean Sea has been historically important, especially in regards to the civilization of Ancient Greece, who inhabited the area around the coast of the Aegean and the Aegean islands. The Aegean islands facilitated contact between the people of the area. and between Europe and Asia. Along with the Greeks, Thracians lived among the northern coast. The Romans conquered the area under the Roman Empire, and later the Byzantine Empire held it against advances by the First Bulgarian Empire. The Fourth Crusade weakened Byzantine control of the area, and it was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Empire, with the exception of Crete, which was a Venetian colony until 1669. The Greek War of Independence allowed a Greek state on the coast of the Aegean from 1829 onwards. The Ottoman Empire held a presence over the sea for over 500 years until their dissolution, when it was replaced by modern Turkey.

The sea was traditionally known as the Archipelago (in Ancient Greek, Ἀρχιπέλαγος, meaning "chief sea"), but in English the meaning of Archipelago has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally, to any island group. The rocks making up the floor of the Aegean are mainly limestone, though often greatly altered by volcanic activity that has convulsed the region in relatively recent geologic times. Of particular interest are the richly coloured sediments in the region of the islands of Santorini and Milos, in the south Aegean. Notable cities on the Aegean coastline include Thessaloniki, Kavala and Heraklion in Greece, and İzmir and Bodrum in Turkey.

A set of issues concerning sovereignty within the Aegean Sea have been and remains disputed between Greek and Turkey. Known as the Aegean dispute, it has had a large effect on Greek-Turkish relations since the 1970s. These include the delimitation of territorial waters, national airspace, exclusive economic zones and flight information regions.

Attica (region)

Attica Region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Αττικής, Periféria Attikís; IPA: [atiˈci]) is an administrative region of Greece, that encompasses the entire metropolitan area of Athens, the country's capital and largest city. The region is coextensive with the former Attica Prefecture of Central Greece, but covers a greater area than the historical region of Attica.

Central Greece (region)

Central Greece (Greek: Περιφέρεια Στερεάς Ελλάδας, Periféreia Stereás Elládas, properly translated as "Region of Central Greece") is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. The region occupies the eastern half of the traditional region of Central Greece, including the island of Euboea. To the south it borders the regions of Attica and the Peloponnese, to the west the region of West Greece and to the north the regions of Thessaly and Epirus. Its capital city is Lamia.

Central Macedonia

Central Macedonia (Greek: Κεντρική Μακεδονία, romanized: Kentrikí Makedonía, pronounced [cʲe̞n.dɾiˈcʲi ma̠.cʲe̞.ðo̞.ni.a̠]) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia. With a population of almost 1.9 million, it is the second most populous in Greece after Attica.

Eastern Macedonia and Thrace

Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greek: Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη, Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thráki) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the northeastern parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace, and the islands of Thasos and Samothrace.

Epirus (region)

Epirus (; Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípeiros [ˈipiɾos]), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece. It borders the regions of West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands to the west and Albania to the north. The region has an area of about 9,200 km2 (3,600 sq mi). It is part of the wider historical region of Epirus, which overlaps modern Albania and Greece but lies mostly within Greek territory.

Ionian Islands (region)

The Ionian Islands Region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Ιονίων Νήσων, romanized: Periféria Ioníon Níson) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. The administrative region does not include all of the Ionian Islands; the island of Kythera, which historically was part of the island group, was separated and integrated to the (far away) Attica Region.

Kallikratis Plan

The Kallikratis Programme (Greek: Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης, romanized: Prógramma Callicrátis) is the common name of Greek law 3852/2010, a major administrative reform in Greece. It brought upon the second major reform of the country's administrative divisions after the 1997 Kapodistrias reform.

Named after ancient Greek architect Callicrates, the programme was presented by the socialist Papandreou cabinet and was adopted by the Hellenic Parliament in May 2010. The programme's implementation started with the November 2010 local elections and was completed by January 2011.

List of Greek regions by Human Development Index

This is a list of the administrative regions of Greece by Human Development Index as of 2018 with data for the year 2017.

North Aegean

The North Aegean (Greek: Περιφέρεια Βορείου Αιγαίου) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It comprises the islands of the north-eastern Aegean Sea, called the North Aegean islands, except for Thasos and Samothrace, which belong to the Greek region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, and Imbros and Tenedos, which belong to Turkey.

Outline of Greece

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Greece:

Greece – sovereign country located on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe. Greece borders Albania, Bulgaria, and North Macedonia to the north, and Turkey to the east. The Aegean Sea lies to the east and south of mainland Greece, while the Ionian Sea lies to the west. Both parts of the Eastern Mediterranean basin feature a vast number of islands.

Greece lies at the juncture of Europe, Asia and Africa. It is heir to the heritages of ancient Greece, the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and nearly four centuries of Ottoman rule. Greece is the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games (for this reason, unless it is the host nation, it always leads the Parade of Nations in accordance with tradition begun at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics), Western literature and historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama including both tragedy and comedy.

Greece is a developed country, a member of the European Union since 1981, a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union since 2001, NATO since 1952, the OECD since 1961, the WEU since 1995 and ESA since 2005. Athens is the capital; Thessaloniki, Patras, Heraklion, Volos, Ioannina, Larissa and Kavala are some of the country's other major cities.

Peloponnese (region)

The Peloponnese region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Πελοποννήσου) is a region in southern Greece. It borders the West Greece region to the north and Attica to the north-east. The region has an area of about 15,490 square kilometres (5,980 square miles). It covers most of the Peloponnese peninsula, except for the northwestern subregions of Achaea and Elis which belong to West Greece and a small portion of the Argolid peninsula that is part of Attica.

Periphery

Periphery or Peripheral may refer to:

Periphery (band), American progressive metal band

Periphery (album), released in 2010 by Periphery

Periphery, a group of political entities in BattleTech, a wargaming franchise

Periphery countries, the least developed countries in world systems theory

Periphery (France), statistical area designating a commuter belt around an urban unit

Peripheries of Greece or administrative regions of Greece (Greek: περιφέρειες, peripheries), the country's first-level administrative divisions

Peripheral units of Greece or regional units of Greece (Greek: περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enóti̱tes), second-level administrative divisions

Periphery, all of the body outside of the central nervous system

Peripherally selective drug, a drug with a primary mechanism of action outside of the central nervous system

Peripheral nervous system, the part of the nervous system outside of the central nervous system

Peripheral, an external device attached to a computer

The Peripheral, a 2014 novel by William Gibson

Peripheral, an alternate mathematical term for boundary parallel in manifold theory,

Peripheral cycle, a mathematical term in graph theory

Peripheral vision, a part of vision that occurs on the edges of the field of vision

Regions of Greece (disambiguation)

Regions of Greece may refer to:

The regions of ancient Greece

The traditional geographic regions of Greece in the modern era

The current administrative regions of Greece

South Aegean

The South Aegean (Greek: Περιφέρεια Νοτίου Αιγαίου) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the Cyclades and Dodecanese island groups in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea.

Thessaly

Thessaly (Greek: Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia (Greek: Αἰολία, Aíolía), and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey.

Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13 regions and is further (since the Kallikratis reform of 2010) sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities. The capital of the region is Larissa. Thessaly lies in northern Greece and borders the regions of Macedonia on the north, Epirus on the west, Central Greece on the south and the Aegean Sea on the east. The Thessaly region also includes the Sporades islands.

Western Greece

Western Greece Region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Δυτικής Ελλάδας) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece. It comprises the western part of continental Greece and the northwestern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.

Western Macedonia

Western Macedonia (Greek: Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytikí Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia. Located in north-western Greece, it is divided into the regional units of Florina, Grevena, Kastoria, and Kozani. With a population of approximately 280,000 people, as of 2017, the region had one of the highest unemployment rates in the European Union.

Administrative regions of Greece
Modern
Historical
First-level administrative divisions in European countries
Sovereign states

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