Adjusted ERA+

Adjusted ERA+, often simply abbreviated to ERA+ or ERA plus, is a pitching statistic in baseball. It adjusts a pitcher's earned run average (ERA) according to the pitcher's ballpark (in case the ballpark favors batters or pitchers) and the ERA of the pitcher's league.

Formula originally calculated it as:

Where ERA is the pitcher's ERA, lgERA is the average ERA of the league, and PF is the park factor of the pitcher in question.

Today, they calculate it as:[1]

The average ERA+ is set to be 100; a score above 100 indicates that the pitcher performed better than average, while below 100 indicates worse than average. For instance, imagine the average ERA in the league is 4.00: if pitcher A has an ERA of 4.00 but is pitching in a ballpark that favors hitters, his ERA+ will be over 100. Likewise, if pitcher B has an ERA of 4.00 but pitches in a ballpark favoring pitchers, then his ERA+ will be below 100.

As a result, ERA+ can be used to compare pitchers across different run environments. In the above example, while ERA will lead one to believe that both pitchers pitched at the same level due to their ERAs being equivalent, ERA+ indicates that pitcher A performed better than pitcher B. ERA+ can be used to account for this misleading impression.


Pedro Martínez holds the modern record for highest ERA+ in a single season; he posted a 1.74 ERA in the 2000 season while pitching in the American League, which had an average ERA of 4.92, which gave Martínez an ERA+ of 291.[2] While Bob Gibson has the lowest ERA in modern times (1.12 in the National League in 1968), the average ERA was 2.99 that year (the so-called Year of the Pitcher) and so Gibson's ERA+ is 258, sixth highest since 1900. 1968 was the last year that Major League Baseball employed the use of a pitcher's mound higher than 10 inches.[3]

The career record for ERA+ (with a minimum of 1,000 innings pitched) is held by Mariano Rivera, a closer whose career ERA+ is 205. Upon retirement in 2013, with an ERA+ of 194 in his final season, Rivera's career record of 205 surpassed the record among retired players of 154, held by Martínez, bumping Jim Devlin, a pitcher in the 1870s, to third with 151.[4] Among qualifying pitchers, Pedro Martínez has the most separate seasons with an ERA+ over 200, with five, and the most consecutive 200 ERA+ seasons (4), though the closer Rivera, with too few innings each year to qualify officially, has surpassed 200 ERA+ in 13 seasons of his 19 seasons, including 4 consecutive seasons twice and 5 consecutive seasons once and also surpassing 300 in 2004 and again in 2008. Roger Clemens topped a 200 ERA+ three times, and Greg Maddux had two such seasons.

Players in bold are active as of the end of the 2018 season and have not announced their retirement.

Single-season leaders include only pitchers eligible for the ERA title (a pitcher must throw a minimum of one inning per game scheduled for his team during the season to qualify for the ERA title).[5] Only pitchers with 1,000 or more innings pitched are shown in the career leader list.

Career Leaders
Rank Player Adjusted ERA+
1 Mariano Rivera 205
2 Clayton Kershaw 159
3 Pedro Martínez 154
4 Jim Devlin 150
5 Lefty Grove 148
T-6 Walter Johnson 147
Hoyt Wilhelm
T-8 Dan Quisenberry 146
Smoky Joe Wood
10 Ed Walsh 145
11 Roger Clemens 143
T-12 Addie Joss 142
Brandon Webb
14 Trevor Hoffman 141
15 Kid Nichols 140
16 Mordecai Brown 139
T-17 John Franco 138
Chris Sale
Cy Young
T-20 Johan Santana 136
Bruce Sutter
T-22 Pete Alexander 135
Christy Mathewson
Randy Johnson
Rube Waddell
Single Season Leaders
Rank Player Adjusted ERA+ Year Team
1 Tim Keefe 293 1880 Troy Trojans
2 Pedro Martínez 291 2000 Boston Red Sox
3 Dutch Leonard 282 1914 Boston Red Sox
4 Greg Maddux 271 1994 Atlanta Braves
5 Greg Maddux 260 1995 Atlanta Braves
6 Walter Johnson 259 1913 Washington Senators
7 Bob Gibson 258 1968 St. Louis Cardinals
8 Mordecai Brown 253 1906 Chicago Cubs
9 Pedro Martínez 243 1999 Boston Red Sox
10 Walter Johnson 240 1912 Washington Senators
11 Christy Mathewson 230 1905 New York Giants
12 Dwight Gooden 229 1985 New York Mets
13 Roger Clemens 226 2005 Houston Astros
14 Pete Alexander 225 1915 Philadelphia Phillies
T-15 Christy Mathewson 222 1909 New York Giants
Roger Clemens 1997 Toronto Blue Jays
T-17 Cy Young 219 1901 Boston Americans
Pedro Martínez 1997 Montreal Expos
19 Denny Driscoll 218 1882 Pittsburgh Alleghenys
20 Lefty Grove 217 1931 Philadelphia Athletics


  1. ^ Forman, Sean. "We Goofed: ERA+ numbers » Baseball-Reference Blog » Blog Archive". Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  2. ^ Single season awards require a minimum of one inning pitched for each game played (thus usually 162 IP in today's game). Thus closers and other relievers will not generally acquire enough innings pitched to qualify.
  3. ^ Baseball Trivia (General) - Pitchers mound Archived 2009-04-18 at the Wayback Machine,
  4. ^ Baseball Reference career ERA+ leaders, accessed October 21, 2013 (after the 2013 regular season, with Rivera having pitched his last game, had his number retired by the Yankees, but Baseball Reference not yet having marked him as retired on their site). Also the source for the corresponding table.
  5. ^ "Official Rules: 10.00 The Official Scorer". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
1901 Detroit Tigers season

The 1901 Detroit Tigers season was the Tigers' first in Major League Baseball. The team was a charter member of the American League, which was originally formed as the minor-league Western League, of which it had also been a charter member. The Tigers finished in third place with a record or 74–61, eight-and-a-half games behind the Chicago White Stockings. Most of Detroit's home games were played at Bennett Park, with Sunday games played at Burns Park due to Detroit's blue laws.

Roscoe Miller (23–13) led the team in wins and was the Tigers' first 20-game winner. His performance headlined a strong pitching staff that had the third lowest ERA (3.30) in the American League. Joe Yeager had an ERA of 2.61, for the second best Adjusted ERA+ in the AL, behind Cy Young. The offense was not as strong however, scoring 741 runs – fifth among the eight teams in the league. The team's best hitters were shortstop Kid Elberfeld (.308 average) and center fielder Jimmy Barrett (.293 average; 110 runs).

Al Benton

John Alton Benton (March 18, 1911 – April 14, 1968) was an American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Philadelphia Athletics, Detroit Tigers, Cleveland Indians, and Boston Red Sox.

Archie McKain

Archie Richard "Happy" McKain (May 12, 1911 – May 21, 1985) was a left-handed Major League Baseball pitcher with the Boston Red Sox, Detroit Tigers and the St. Louis Browns between 1937 and 1943.

Born in Delphos, Kansas, McKain went 8-8 as a Red Sox rookie in 1937. He was traded to the Tigers with Pinky Higgins on December 15, 1938, for Elden Auker, Chet Morgan and Jake Wade. McKain went 5-0 with a 2.82 ERA (adjusted ERA+ of 168) for the 1940 Tigers, with 17 games finished. When the Browns traded him to Brooklyn in July 1943, he retired and returned to his native Kansas to farm. McKain died in 1985 at Salina, Kansas.

Benny Frey

Benjamin Rudolph Frey (April 6, 1906 – November 1, 1937) was a right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1929 to 1936, playing primarily with the Cincinnati Reds. Frey appeared in 256 major league baseball games (127 as a starter) and had a lifetime record of 57–82 in 1160 innings pitched. He was a sidearm pitcher with a sweeping motion that was effective against right-handed hitters. His lifetime earned run average of 4.50 was good for an adjusted ERA+ of 90. Frey suffered an arm injury which ultimately led to his retirement and subsequent suicide.

Dan Quisenberry

Daniel Raymond "Quiz" Quisenberry (; February 7, 1953 – September 30, 1998) was an American right-handed relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who played primarily for the Kansas City Royals. Notable for his submarine-style pitching delivery and his humorous quotes, he led the American League in saves a record five times (1980, 1982–85), and retired in 1990 with 244 saves, then the 6th-highest total in major league history.

Dan Quisenberry has the lowest ratio of base on balls per innings pitched for any pitcher to pitch in the major leagues since the 1920s, and the lowest ratio for any pitcher to pitch since the 1800s except for Deacon Phillippe and Babe Adams.

Dave Rozema

David Scott Rozema [rose'-muh] (born August 5, 1956) is a former pitcher in Major League Baseball who played from 1977 through 1986 for the Detroit Tigers and Texas Rangers. Listed at 6' 4", 185 lb., Rozema batted and threw right-handed. He was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Earned run average

In baseball statistics, earned run average (ERA) is the average of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched (i.e. the traditional length of a game). It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors (including pitchers' defensive errors) are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations.

Ellis Kinder

Ellis Raymond "Old Folks" Kinder (July 26, 1914 – October 16, 1968) was an American Major League Baseball pitcher with the St. Louis Browns, Boston Red Sox, St. Louis Cardinals and the Chicago White Sox between 1946 and 1957. Kinder batted and threw right-handed. He was born in Atkins, Arkansas.

Despite making his MLB debut as a 31-year-old rookie, Kinder had a reputable career. He is one of few pitchers in baseball history who won or saved a combined total of at least 200 games, and who were primarily starters for at least a third of their career.

Kinder was among the best starting pitchers in the American League in 1949, going 23–6 and leading the league in shutouts (6) and a .793 winning percentage, with a 130 adjusted ERA. In fact, Kinder's ERA+ for his four years as a starter were 87, 117, 130 and 115. Then, in 1951, the Red Sox, desperate for a relief pitcher, moved him to the pen where he shined as the best reliever in the AL until 1955.

In his 12-year career, Kinder compiled a 102–71 record with 749 strikeouts, a 3.43 ERA, 56 complete games, 10 shutouts, 102 saves, and 1479 innings pitched in 484 games.

On May 17, 1947 a seagull flew over Fenway Park and dropped a three-pound smelt on Kinder while he was pitching for the St. Louis Browns. Nevertheless, Kinder beat Boston 4–2.

Ellis Kinder died in Jackson, Tennessee, at the age of 54, after undergoing open-heart surgery.


Twice Top 10 MVP (1949, 1951)

Twice led league in winning percentage (1949, 1951)

Led league in shutouts (1949)

Twice led league in games pitched (63, 1951; 69, 1953)

Twice led league in saves (1951, 1953)

Pitched a 10 inning scoreless relief win-game (1951) (On July 12, 1951, Kinder took over to start the eighth inning and held the Chicago White Sox scoreless for 10 innings. The Red Sox finally scored a run in the 17th inning to win, 5-4.)

The Sporting News Pitcher of the Year (1949)

George McQuillan

George Watt McQuillan (May 1, 1885 – March 30, 1940), born in Brooklyn, New York, was a pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies (1907–10 and 1915–16), Cincinnati Reds (1911), Pittsburgh Pirates (1913–15) and Cleveland Indians (1918).

In 1907 he set one of the longest-lived records in major league history when he pitched 25 innings before giving up the first earned run of his career. Although others have pitched more consecutive innings without an earned run, until July 2008 no one had gone longer without prior major league experience. The record stood for 101 years before being broken by Oakland Athletics reliever Brad Ziegler, who extended the record to 39​1⁄3 innings.

McQuillan's extraordinary success as a rookie was no fluke: he posted a 1.69 ERA in his first four seasons, comprising more than 800 innings pitched; during those years his Adjusted ERA+ (the ratio of the league's ERA, adjusted to the pitcher's ballpark, to that of the pitcher) was a staggering 164. In 1910, he would have led the majors with an Adjusted ERA+ of 195 had he pitched only an additional 1​2⁄3 innings to meet the minimum requirement of 154 innings pitched.

McQuillan helped the Phillies win the 1915 National League Pennant. He is still the Philadelphia Phillies Career Leader in ERA (1.79), WHIP (1.02) and Hits Allowed/9IP (6.93). He currently ranks 23rd on the MLB Career ERA List (2.38), 37th on the WHIP List (1.131) and 86th on the Hits Allowed/9IP List (7.89).

In 10 seasons he had an 85–89 Win–Loss record, 273 Games (173 Started), 105 Complete Games, 17 Shutouts, 76 Games Finished, 14 Saves, 1,576 ⅓ Innings Pitched, 1,382 Hits Allowed, 577 Runs Allowed, 417 Earned Runs Allowed, 23 Home Runs Allowed, 401 Walks Allowed, 590 Strikeouts, 30 Hit Batsmen, 16 Wild Pitches, 6,297 Batters Faced, a 2.38 ERA and 1.131 WHIP.

McQuillan's major league career was cut short due to his chronic alcoholism and infection by syphilis. However, he continued to play and coach in the minor leagues and semi-pro ball. He died in Columbus, Ohio at the age of 54.

Hod Eller

Horace Owen Eller (July 5, 1894 – July 18, 1961) was a pitcher in Major League Baseball.

Eller started his minor league career in 1913. In 1915, he won 19 games for the Moline Plowboys of the Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League. His performance gained the attention of the Cincinnati Reds, and he was drafted by the team after the 1916 season. He pitched five years for the Reds, going 60–40 with a 2.62 earned run average (108 Adjusted ERA+).

Eller peaked in the Reds' pennant-winning 1919 season. He led the team in innings, and went 19–9 with a 2.39 ERA. On May 11 of that season, Eller no-hit the St. Louis Cardinals 6-0 at Redland Field. He then pitched two complete game victories in the World Series, but it was later revealed that members of the Chicago White Sox had intentionally thrown the series for money. In Game Five of that Series, Eller shut out the White Sox 5–0 with nine strikeouts, including six consecutively—a record that would be tied by Moe Drabowsky in the 1966 World Series opener.

After his major league career ended, Eller played in the minors for a few years, last playing for the Indianapolis Indians in 1924.

The Baseball Record Book records that on August 21, 1917, Eller struck out three batters on nine pitches in the ninth inning of a 7–5 win over the New York Giants; however, the New York Times from the day after the game noted that Eller allowed a single to start that inning, and so did not officially achieve an immaculate inning.

Ike Delock

Ivan Martin "Ike" Delock (born November 11, 1929 in Highland Park, Michigan) is a former Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher who played 11 seasons for the Boston Red Sox and Baltimore Orioles.

In ten-plus seasons with the Red Sox, Delock had a record of 83–72. He pitched in at least 20 games for the Red Sox every year from 1952 to 1961 (1954 excepted), and had an Adjusted ERA+ of 110 or better in 1955 (114), 1956 (110), 1958 (118), 1959 (138), and 1961 (110).

He led the American League with 11 relief wins in 1956 while tying for fourth with nine saves (then not an official statistic). In 1958, he was among the league leaders in win percentage and had a 13-game win streak that was broken at the end of July. His best season was 1959 when he went 11-6 with a 2.95 ERA—1.10 points lower than the league average. His Adjusted ERA+ in 1959 was 138, and his winning percentage of .647 was fifth best in the American League.

In 1962, a knee injury shortened his career, which ended the following season after Delock made seven appearances, five as a starting pitcher, for the 1963 Orioles.

Luke Hamlin

Luke Daniel Hamlin (July 3, 1904 – February 18, 1978) was an American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Detroit Tigers (1933–34), Brooklyn Dodgers (1937–41), Pittsburgh Pirates (1942), and Philadelphia Athletics (1944).

Born in Ferris Center, Michigan, Hamlin won the nickname "Hot Potato" because of his tendency to juggle the ball while getting ready to pitch. He pitched two years with the Tigers, going 3–3 in 23 games for the Bengals.

After two years out of the major leagues, Hamlin returned in 1937 with the Dodgers, where he played five seasons from 1937 to 1941. His best year was 1939 when he went 20–13 and had 10 complete games in 269-2/3 innings pitched. Hamlin's 20 wins was 4th best in the National League, his WHIP was 1.146 (3rd in the NL), and he also finished #10 in the National League Most Valuable Player voting in 1939. He had another strong year in 1940 with a 3.06 earned run average for an Adjusted ERA+ of 131 (4th best in the NL). He was also #1 in the National League in 1940 with a strikeout to walk ratio of 2.68.

Hamlin's performance declined after 1940, as his ERA jumped from 3.06 to 4.24 in 1941. Dodgers manager Leo Durocher lost faith in "Hot Potato", who had blown a number of leads over the 1941 season. When Dodgers boss Larry MacPhail sent a messenger between games of a double header telling Durocher to start Hamlin in the second game, Durocher erupted in anger. But Durocher complied with the boss's order and started Hamlin, who gave up 4 runs before getting an out and lasted only 2 innings. After seeing an old political campaign poster for the Abe Lincoln–Hannibal Hamlin ticket, Durocher once quipped: "It proves Lincoln was a great man; he could even win with Hamlin."Hamlin died in 1978 at age 73 in Clare, Michigan.

Manny Salvo

Manuel Salvo (June 30, 1912 – February 7, 1997) was a Major League Baseball pitcher. The 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m), 210 lb (95 kg) right-hander played for the New York Giants (1939), Boston Bees (1940), Boston Braves (1941–43), and Philadelphia Phillies (1943). His nickname was "Gyp", short for "Gypsy".A native of Sacramento, California, Salvo had his best season statistically in 1940 with the Bees. He won 10, lost 9, making it the only season of his career in which he finished with more wins than losses. He also shared the National League lead with 5 shutouts, and ranked eighth in the league with a 3.08 earned run average.

While Salvo had a poor win-loss record, his career Adjusted ERA+ was only slightly below average at 98. He only pitched for one winning team, the 1939 Giants, and at 77–74 they were barely over the .500 mark.

Salvo died at the age of 83 in Vallejo, California.

Mark Dewey

Mark Alan Dewey (born January 3, 1965 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is a former Major League Baseball player. He is currently a pitching coach for the Brevard County Manatees, located in Viera, Florida. The Manatees are the Class A-Advanced (High-A) Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers. His prior coaching experience was with the Washington Wild Things, an independent professional baseball team in the Frontier League, and at Emory & Henry College in southwestern Virginia. Born in Grand Rapids, Dewey played for the Grand Valley State University Lakers. In 1987, he struck out 87 batters in 97.2 innings. He was a 6'0" right-handed relief pitcher who played six season in the major leagues with the San Francisco Giants (1990, 1995–96), New York Mets (1992), and Pittsburgh Pirates (1993–94). On June 2, 1987, Dewey was drafted by the Giants in the 23rd round of the 1987 amateur draft. He appeared in 205 major league games and had a lifetime record of 12–7 (.632 winning percentage) with 168 strikeouts, 70 games finished and 8 saves. His lifetime earned run average was 3.65 for an Adjusted ERA+ of 110. His best season was 1993 when he had 7 saves for the Pirates in 21 games and maintained an impressive 2.36 ERA for an Adjusted ERA+ of 171. In his final season, Dewey appeared in 78 games for the Giants—3rd most in the National League. Dewey earned $225,000 in his final season in the big leagues. In 1995, Dewey was inducted into the Grand Valley State University Athletic Hall of Fame.Dewey was involved in a notable controversy on July 28, 1996, when he refused to participate with his teammates in a pregame ceremony intended to support research of a cure for AIDS. As part of "Until There's A Cure Day", members of the Giants wore AIDS awareness ribbons on their uniforms and stood in a group shaped like that symbol during speeches by Giants owner Peter Magowan and San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown. Dewey refused to take the field for the ceremony, and he wore his ribbon sideways (which would have resembled the Jesus fish symbol). He cited religious reasons for his refusal, complaining that the ceremony was "against [his] Christian principles" and voicing the belief that homosexuality is a sin.

Peripheral ERA

Peripheral ERA (PERA) is a pitching statistic created by the Baseball Prospectus team. It is the expected earned run average taking into account park-adjusted hits, walks, strikeouts, and home runs allowed. Unlike Voros McCracken's DIPS, hits allowed are included. PERA doesn't attempt to eliminate the effect of luck on batted balls away from ERA, instead attempting to account for good (or bad) luck in the combinations of hits, walks, home runs, and strikeouts. A lower PERA than EqERA (adjusted ERA) may indicate poor luck which may even itself out in the future, leading to a lower EqERA despite no change in quality of pitching.

Red Oldham

John Cyrus "Red" Oldham (July 15, 1893 – January 28, 1961) was a left-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played five years with the Detroit Tigers (1914–1915, 1920–1922) and two years with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1925–1926). He pitched the final inning of the 1925 World Series for the Pirates, striking out Goose Goslin to end the game and the series.

Rube Kisinger

Charles Samuel "Rube" Kisinger (December 13, 1876 – July 17, 1941) was a right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. Born in Adrian, Michigan, Kisinger played baseball at his hometown Adrian College before signing with the Detroit Tigers. He debuted with the Tigers at the end of the 1902 season on September 10, 1902.

As a 25-year-old rookie, Kisinger pitched in five games (all complete games) and had a record of 2–3 with an ERA of 3.12 (Adjusted ERA+ of 120). In 1903, he appeared in 16 games (including 14 complete games) and had a record of 7–9 with an ERA of 2.96 in 118-2/3 innings pitched.

Kisinger played in his last major league game on September 24, 1903. In October 1903, Kisinger was traded by the Tigers with other players to the Buffalo Bisons of the Eastern League for Cy Ferry and Matty McIntyre. According to one history of the Bisons, Kisinger led the Bisons to their first pennant in 1904, described by the author as "a part-time surveyor and coin collector who managed to win 24 games in the betweens." [1] Kisinger also made his only appearance on a baseball card (a T206 baseball card) while playing for Buffalo.

The International League Hall of Fame inducted Kisinger as a member in 2009.

He died at age 64 in a train accident in Huron, Ohio while acting as a railroad engineer.

Tommy Bridges

Thomas Jefferson Davis Bridges (December 28, 1906 – April 19, 1968) was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played his entire career with the Detroit Tigers from 1930 to 1946. During the 1930s, he used an outstanding curveball to become one of the mainstays of the team's pitching staff, winning 20 games in three consecutive seasons and helping the team to its first World Series championship with two victories in the 1935 Series. He retired with 1,674 career strikeouts, then the eighth highest total in American League history, and held the Tigers franchise record for career strikeouts from 1941 to 1951.

Toronto Blue Jays award winners and league leaders

This is a list of award winners and league leaders for the Toronto Blue Jays professional baseball team.

Base running


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