Adhan

The adhan, athan, or azaan (Arabic: أَذَان[ʔaˈðaːn]) (also called in Turkish: Ezan)[1] is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".

Adhan is called out by a muezzin from the mosque five times a day, traditionally from the minaret, summoning Muslims for mandatory (fard) worship (salat). A second call, known as iqama, (set up) then summons Muslims to line up for the beginning of the prayers. The main purpose behind the multiple loud pronouncements of adhan in every mosque is to make available to everyone an easily intelligible summary of Islamic belief. In modern times, loudspeakers have been installed on minarets for this purpose.

The adhan recites the Takbir (God is great)[2] followed by the Shahada (There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God).[3] This statement of faith, called the Kalimah, is the first of the Five Pillars of Islam.

Adhan
Arabicأَذَان
Romanizationaḏān, azaan, adhaan
Literal meaningcall to prayer

Muezzin

The muezzin (Arabic: مُؤَذِّنmu'aḏḏin)–is the person who recites the adhan[4]:470 from the mosque. Typically in modern times, this is done using a microphone: a recitation that is consequently broadcast to the speakers usually mounted on the higher part of the mosque's minarets, thus calling those nearby to prayer. The message can also be recorded, as is the case for London Central Mosque.

The muezzin is chosen for his talent and ability in reciting the adhan beautifully, melodiously and loudly for all Muslims to hear. This is one of the important duties in the mosque, as his companions and community rely on him in his call for Muslims to come to pray in congregation. The Imam leads the prayer five times a day. The first muezzin in Islam was Bilal ibn Rabah, a freed slave of Abyssinian heritage.[5]

Text

Details of what is recited and how many times
Recital Arabic Transliteration Translation
By
Sunni
[6][7][8][9]
By
Shi'a
[8][9][10]
By

Ahmadiyya

By
Zaidiyyah
4x 4x 4x 8x or 4x[a] ٱللهُ أَكْبَر Allāhu ʾakbar God is the greatest.
2x 2x 2x 2x أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله ʾašhadu ʾan lā ʾilāha ʾillā Llāh I acknowledge that there is no deity but God.
2x 2x 2x 2x أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ ٱلله ʾašhadu ʾanna Muḥammadan rasūlu Llāh I acknowledge that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
None 2x[b] None None أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيًّا وَلِي ٱلله ʾašhadu ʾanna ʿaliyyan walī Llāh I testify that Ali is the viceregent (wali) of God.
2x 2x 2x 2x حَيَّ عَلَى ٱلصَّلَاة Ḥayya ʿalā ṣ-ṣalāh Hasten to the prayer (Salah).
2x 2x 2x 2x حَيَّ عَلَى ٱلْفَلَاح Ḥayya ʿalā l-falāḥ Hasten to the salvation.
2x for
Fajr prayer
only[c]
None 2x for
Fajr prayer
only
None الصلاة خير من النوم aṣ-Ṣalātu kḫayrun mina n-naum Prayer is better than sleep.
2x 2x 2x 2x ٱللهُ أَكْبَر Allāhu ʾakbar God is greatest.
1x 2x 1x 1x لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله Lā ʾilāha ʾillā Llāh There is no deity but God.
  1. ^ Traditionally 4x.[11] Followers of the Maliki madh'hab also repeat this line four times.
  2. ^ According to Usuli Twelver Shi'a scholars, this phrase is not a part of adhan and iqamah, but is recommended (Mustahabb). Akhbari Shia Twelver, however, consider as an integral part of adhan and iqamah.[12] Fatimid, Ismaili, Alavi Bohras and Dawoodi Bohra believe and include and recite this at same place, twice in main adhan, but not in Iqama. They also recite mohammadun -va- ali-un khayr-ul- basar va itarat-o- homa khayr-ul-itar (Muhammad and Ali are the best gentleman and their progeny is the best of progeny) twice after the 6th part (Ḥayya ʿala-khayr il-ʿamal). This tradition is continued from their first Da'i al-Mutlaq, Zoeb bin Moosa (1132 CE), after their 21st Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, and claim this is true Fatimid tradition.[13][14][15]
  3. ^ Followers of the Maliki madh'hab say this line twice and repeat the following two lines before line four, as noted in Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Ch. 2, No. 0740.

Views

Sunni view

Sunnis state that the adhan was not written or said by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, but by one of his Sahabah (his companions). Umar, a prominent sahabi of Muhammad, had a vision in his dream, in which the call for prayers was revealed to him by God. He later related this to his companions. Meanwhile, this news reached Muhammad, and he liked it and confirmed it. Because of his stunning voice Muhammad chose a freed Habeshan slave by the name of Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi to make the call for prayers. Muhammad preferred the call better than the use of bells (as used by the Christians) and horns (as by the Jews).[8][9][16]

During the Friday prayer (Salat Al Jumu'ah), there is one adhan but some Sunni Muslims increase it to two adhans; the first is to call the people to the mosque, the second is said before the Imam begins the khutbah (sermon). Just before the prayers start, someone amongst the praying people recites the iqama as in all prayers. The basis for this is that at the time of the Caliph Uthman he ordered two adhans to be made, the first of which was to be made in the marketplace to inform the people that the Friday prayer was soon to begin, and the second adhan would be the regular one held in the mosque. Not all Sunnis prefer two adhans as the need for warning the people of the impending time for prayer is no longer essential now that the times for prayers are well known.

Shi'a view

Shi'a sources state Muhammad, according to God's command, ordered the adhan as a means of calling Muslims to prayer. Shi'a Islam teaches that no one else contributed, or had any authority to contribute, towards the composition of the adhan.[8][9][10]

Other Shi'a sources state that Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi was, in fact, the first person to recite the adhan publicly out loud in front of the Muslim congregation.

The fundamental phrase lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh is the foundation stone of Islam along with the belief in it. It declares that "there is no god but the God". This is the confession of Tawhid or the "doctrine of Oneness [of God]".

The phrase Muḥammadun rasūlu llāh fulfills the requirement that there should be someone to guide in the name of God, which states Muhammad is God's Messenger,rasūl, nabi (prophet). This is the acceptance of prophethood or Nabuwat of Muhammad.

Kalema at Bab al Nasr, Fatimid Cairo
photo of kalima at Bab al-Nasr of Shia Fatimid dynasty of Cairo with phrase ʿalīyun walī allāh
Kalema-tut-shahadat
The qiblah of Mustansir of Shia Fatimid dynasty of, in Mosque of Ibn Tulun of Cairo showing Kalimat ash-shahādah with the phrase ʿalīyun walī llāh

Muhammad declared Ali (Ali bin Abu Talib) as his successor, at Ghadir Khumm, which was required for the continuation of his guidance. According to the hadith of the pond of Khumm, Muhammad stated that "Of whomsoever I am the mawla, Ali is his mawla". Hence, it is recommended to recite the phrase ʿalīyun walī llāh means "Ali is His (God's) Wali "the headman."

In one of the Qiblah of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah (1035–1094) of Fatemi era masjid of Qahira (Mosque of Ibn Tulun) engraved his name and kalimat ash-shahādah as lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, muḥammadun rasūlu llāh, ʿalīyun walī llāh.

Adhan reminds Muslims of these three Islamic teaching Tawhid, Nabuwat and Imamate before each prayer. These three emphasise devotion to God, Muhammad and Imam, which are considered to be so linked together that they can not be viewed separately; one leads to other and finally to God.

The phrase is optional to some Shia as justified above. They feel that Ali's Valayat is self-evident, a testification and need not be declared. However, the greatness of God is also taken to be self-evident, but Muslims still declare Allāhu ʾakbar to publicize their faith. This is the reason that the most Shia give for the recitation of the phrase regarding Ali.

Dua (invocation)

What to recite during Adhan (call to prayer)

While listening to the adhan, Muslims repeat the same words silently, except when the muezzin says:" حي على الصلاة or حي على الفلاح " (ḥayya ʿalā ṣ-ṣalāh or ḥayya ʿala l-falāḥ)[17] they silently say:" لا حولا و لا قوة إلا بالله " (lā ḥawla wa lā quwata ʾillā bi-llāh) (there is no strength or power except from God).[18]

What to recite after Adhan

Immediately following the Adhan, Muslims recite the following dua (supplications):

1. ﻭَﺃَﻧَﺎ ﺃَﺷْﻬَﺪُ ﺃَﻥْ ﻟَﺎ ﺇِﻟَﻪَ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻭَﺣْﺪَﻩُ ﻟَﺎ ﺷَﺮِﻳﻚَ ﻟَﻪُ ﻭَﺃَﻥَّ ﻣُﺤَﻤَّﺪﺍً ﻋَﺒْﺪُﻩُ ﻭَﺭَﺳُﻮﻟُﻪُ، ﺭَﺿِﻴﺖُ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﻪِ ﺭَﺑَّﺎً ﻭَﺑِﻤُﺤَﻤَّﺪٍ رَﺳُﻮﻻً ﻭَﺑِﺎﻹِْﺳﻼَﻡِ ﺩِﻳﻨﺎً ".

Wa ʾanaa ʾašhadu ʾan lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāhu waḥdahu lā šarīka lahu wa-ʾanna muḥammadan ʿabduhu wa-rasūluhu, raḍītu bi-llāhi rabban wa-bi-muḥammadin rasūlan wa-bi-lʾislāmi dīnan.[19]

English: I bear witness that there is no god but God alone with no partner and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, and the Lord God's chosen messenger is Muhammad and Islam is his religion.

2. An invocation of blessings on Muhammad:

ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺻــﻞ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻭ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﺁﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﻠﻴﺖ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻧﻚ ﺣَﻤِﻴﺪٌ ﻣَجيد. ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺭﻙ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻭ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﺁﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻋﻠٰﯽ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻧﻚ ﺣﻤﻴﺪ ﻣﺠﻴﺪ

Allāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa ʿalā ʾaali muḥammadin, kamā ṣallayta ʿalā ʾibrāhīma wa ʿalā ʾaali ʾibrāhīma innaka ḥamīdun maǧīd. Allāhumma bārik ʿalā muḥammadin wa ʿalā ʾaali muḥammadin kamā bārakta ʿalā ʾibrāhīma wa ʿalā ʾaali ʾibrāhīma innaka ḥamīdun maǧīd.[20]

3. Muhammad's name is invoked requested:

،ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺭﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺁﺕ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺜﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻋﺪﺗﻪ

Allāhumma rabba haḍihi d-daʿawati t-tammah wa-ṣ-ṣalāti l-qaʾimah, ʾāti muḥammadan al-wasīlata wa-l-faḍīlah wa-bʿaṯhu l-maqalam al-maḥmūdan illaḍī waʿadtah[21]

4. Dua are then made directly to God, between the adhan and the iqamaah.

According to Abu Dawud, Muhammad said: "Repeat the words of the muezzin and when you finish, ask God what you want and you will get it".[22]

Form

Each phrase is followed by a longer pause and is repeated one or more times according to fixed rules. During the first statement each phrase is limited in tonal range, less melismatic, and shorter. Upon repetition the phrase is longer, ornamented with melismas, and may possess a tonal range of over an octave. The adhan's form is characterised by contrast and contains twelve melodic passages which move from one to another tonal center of one maqam a fourth or fifth apart. Various geographic regions in the Middle East traditionally perform the Adhan in particular maqamat: Medina, Saudi Arabia uses Maqam Bayati while Mecca uses Maqam Hijaz. The tempo is mostly slow; it may be faster and with fewer melismas for the sunset prayer. During festivals, it may be performed antiphonally as a duet.[23]

Modern legal standing

Bangladesh

In 2016, opposition leader Khaleda alleged that the government were obstructing the broadcasting of adhans through loudspeakers, citing security concerns for the prime minister Sheikh Hasina".[24]

Israel

In 2016, Israel’s ministerial committee approved a draft bill that limits the volume of the use of public address systems for calls to prayer, particularly, outdoor loudspeakers for adhaan, citing it as a factor of noise pollution.[25][26][27] The bill was submitted by Knesset member Motti Yogev of the far right Zionist party Jewish Home and Robert Ilatov of the right wing Yisrael Beiteinu.[26] The ban is meant to affect three mosques in Abu Dis village of East Jerusalem, disbarring them from broadcasting the morning call (fajr) prayers.[28] The bill was backed by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu who said: “I cannot count the times — they are simply too numerous — that citizens have turned to me from all parts of Israeli society, from all religions, with complaints about the noise and suffering caused to them by the excessive noise coming to them from the public address systems of houses of prayer.”[27] The Israel Democracy Institute, a non-partisan think tank, expressed concerns that it specifically stifles the rights of Muslims, and restricts their freedom of religion.[27][28]

Turkey

As an extension of the reforms brought about by the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Turkish government at the time, encouraged by Atatürk, introduced secularism to Turkey. The program involved implementing a Turkish adhan program as part of its goals, as opposed to the conventional Arabic call to prayer.[29] Following the conclusion of said debates, on the 1 February 1932, the Adhan was chanted in Turkish and the practice was continued for a period of 18 years. There was some resistance against the Adhan in Turkish language and protests surged. In order to suppress this protests, in 1941, a new law was issued, with which people who chanted the Adhan in Arabic could be imprisoned until for up to 3 months and be fined with up to 300 Turkish Lira.

On 17 June 1950, a new government led by Adnan Menderes, restored Arabic as the liturgical language.[30]

Sweden

The Fittja Mosque (in Botkyrka south of Stockholm) was in 2013 the first mosque to be granted permission for a weekly public call to Friday prayer, on condition that the sound volume does not exceed 60 dB.[31] In Karlskrona (province of Blekinge, southern Sweden) the Islamic association built a minaret in 2017 and has had weekly prayer calls since then.[32][33] The temporary mosque in Växjö filed for a similar permission in February 2018,[34] which sparked a nationwide debate about the practice.[35][36][37] A yearlong permission was granted by the Swedish Police Authority in May the same year.[38][39]

In popular culture

Turkish National Anthem

The adhan is mentioned in the eighth verse of İstiklâl Marşı, the Turkish national anthem:

O glorious God, the sole wish of my soul is that,
No heathen's hand should ever touch the bosom of my sacred Temples.
These adhans, whose shahadahs are the foundations of my Dīn (religion),
May their noble sound last loud and wide over my eternal homeland.

"The Armed Man"

The adhan appears in "The Armed Man: A Mass For Peace" composed by Karl Jenkins.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nathal M. Dessing Rituals of Birth, Circumcision, Marriage, and Death Among Muslims in the Netherlands Peeters Publishers 2001 ISBN 978-9-042-91059-1 page 25
  2. ^ H Azodanloo (1992), Formalization of Friday sermons and consolidation of the Islamic republic of Iran, Journal of Critical Studies of Iran & the Middle East, 1(1), 12-24
  3. ^ N Mohammad (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381-397
  4. ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  5. ^ William Muir, The Life of Mohammad from Original Sources, reprinted by Adamant Media ISBN 1-4021-8272-4
  6. ^ Sahih Bukhari 89.329 Archived 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Sahih Muslim : Book 020: Number 4477, 4478, 4480, 4481, 4482, 4483 Archived 2011-08-20 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b c d Sunan Abu Dawood : Book 36: Number 4266 Archived 2011-08-06 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b c d Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic) Chapter of Fitan, 2:45 (India) and 4:501 Tradition # 2225 (Egypt); Hadith #2149 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
  10. ^ a b Quran : Surah Sajda: Ayah 24-25
  11. ^ Kitab rab as-sad by Sana'ani
  12. ^ "Akhbari". Akhbari. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  13. ^ Islamic Laws : Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah Archived September 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Importance and Conditions of Prayers - Question #466 Archived July 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Adhan Call to Prayer". duas.org. Retrieved on 25 August 2016.
  16. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (May 1994). The Life of Muhammad. p. 200. ISBN 9789839154177.
  17. ^ Muwatta
  18. ^ Sahîh Al-Bukhari #548
  19. ^ Sahîh Muslim 386
  20. ^ Sahîh Al-Bukhari 3370
  21. ^ Sahih Al-Bukhari 588
  22. ^ Abu Dawud 524
  23. ^ Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). The Music of the Arabs, p.157-158, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
  24. ^ "Azan not being allowed thru loudhailers for Hasina's security: Khaleda". Prothom Alo. Prothom Alo. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Israel to limit volume of prayer call from mosques".
  26. ^ a b "Israel to ban use of loudspeakers for 'Azaan' despite protest". The Financial Express. Ynet. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  27. ^ a b c "Israeli PM backs bill to limit Azan". Dawn. AFP. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  28. ^ a b Hawwash, Kamel (7 November 2016). "Israel's ban on the Muslim call to prayer in Jerusalem is the tip of the iceberg". Middle East Monitor. Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  29. ^ The Adhan in Turkey Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Aydar, Hidayet (2006). "The issue of chanting the Adhan in languages other than Arabic and related social reactions against it in Turkey". dergipark.gov.tr. p. 59-62. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  31. ^ "Ljudkablar dras för första böneutropet" [Cables laid out for the first call to prayer] (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. 24 April 2014.
  32. ^ "Blekinge har fått sin första minaret" [Blekinge has gotten its first minaret] (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 13 Oct 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  33. ^ "Swedish town allows calls to prayer from minaret". Anadolu Agency. 17 Nov 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Moskén i Växjö vill ha böneutrop" [The mosque in Växjö wants prayer calls] (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  35. ^ "Christian Democrat leader opposes Muslim call to prayer in Sweden". Radio Sweden. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  36. ^ Lawal Olatunde (14 February 2018). "Swedish church supports Muslims Adhan". Islamic Hotspot. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  37. ^ "This Jewish leader is defending the Muslim call to prayer in Sweden". The New Arab. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  38. ^ Thorneus, Ebba (May 8, 2018). "Polisen tillåter böneutrop via högtalare". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  39. ^ Broke, Cecilia (May 8, 2018). "Polisen ger klartecken till böneutrop i Växjö" [The Police gives clearance for prayer calls in Växjö]. SVT (in Swedish). Retrieved December 27, 2018.

External links

1931 Kashmir agitation

On July 13, 1931 thousands of Kashmiris had flocked to Central Jail, Srinagar to witness the trial of Abdul Qadeer. As the time for obligatory prayer approached one Kashmiri stood up to deliver adhan. The Dogra Governor Ray Zada Tartilok Chand ordered his soldiers to open fire on him. When he was killed another Kashmiri stood up to continue the adhan from the verse where the adhan had been broken. He too was killed. A total of 22 Kashmiris were killed trying to complete delivering the adhan.The people carried the dead and paraded through the streets of Srinagar, chanting slogans against Dogra brutalities. The incident shook the whole state and week long mourning was observed. Traffic between Srinagar and Rawalpindi and between Srinagar and Jammu was halted between July 13 and July 26, 1931. The protests intensified after the killings, with communal anti-Hindu riots also breaking out, leading to the death of three Hindus, many more wounded and many Hindu-owned shops being looted. The Hindus retaliated, leading to outbreak of riots between the two groups. The uprising and violence spread to Kashmir Province and Jammu as well. Three British companies, numbering about 500 soldiers were sent to support Hari Singh and restore law and order. The incident also led to the young Sheikh Abdullah coming into prominence, with his rivalry with the Maharaja continuing until 1947.

Adhanpur

Adhanpur is a big village in the Amethi district of Uttar Pradesh, India. State, India. It belongs to Faizabad Division. It is located 43 km to the west of District headquarters Sultanpur. 10 km from Musafir Khana. 107 km from State capital Lucknow

Kochhit (3 km), Mahesh Pur (4 km), Dichauli (4 km), Newada (4 km), Thauri (4 km) are the nearby villages to Nara Adhan Pur. Nara Adhan Pur is surrounded by Jamo Tehsil towards west, Jagdishpur Tehsil towards west, Baldirai Tehsil towards East, Milkipur Tehsil towards East.

Jais, Rudauli, Sultanpur, Faizabad are the nearby cities to Nara Adhan Pur.

This place is in the border of the Sultanpur District and Faizabad District. Faizabad District Amaniganj is north of this place.

Adhen, Ras Al Khaimah

Adhen (Arabic: اذن‎) is the name of a settlement in Ras al-Khaimah. It was formerly the location of the Desert Regiment and Mortar Troop of the Trucial Oman Scouts.

Ali Ahmed Mulla

Ali Abdul Rahman Ahmed Mulla (Arabic: على أحمد ملا‎) is the veteran muazzin (caller for prayer) at the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ali Ahmed Mulla is the longest serving muazzin for the Masjid al-Haram and has been following his family tradition in this profession for over 31 years. He is widely respected across the Muslim world and recordings of his Adhan are widely bought, thought and enjoyed by Muslims and non-Muslims around the world through radios, CDs, tapes, and other forms of media. He also has stated that his main job other than a muazzin at the holy mosque is working in his self-owned business. Sheikh is married 4 times has 3 children with each wife.

Aodh (given name)

Aodh ( or ; Old Irish: Áed) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic male given name, originally meaning "fire". Feminine forms of the name include Aodhnait and Aodhamair. It appears in even more variants as a surname. As a surname, the root or a variant may be prefixed by O, Ó, or Ui (meaning "from" or "descendant of"), Mac or Mc (meaning "son of"), or Nic (meaning "daughter of").

The name was originally related to an Irish god of the underworld. The masculine given name Hugh is a common anglicization, although the names are not etymologically linked (see Hughes (surname), Hughes (given name)).

Pet forms of the name formed with the diminutive -án include Aodhán and Ádhán (Old Irish Aedán), names which are sometimes anglicized as Aidan, Aiden, and Edan. A double diminutive is Aodhagán and its modern form Aogán. Maodhóg (Old Irish Máedóc), anglicized Mogue, and the Welsh form Madog are formed from the affectionate prefix mo- and the separate diminutive -og.It was also used in Roman Britain as a native form of the Latin Dominus.

Azan

Azan is an Arabic word, which comes from the word azn, meaning 'to listen' or 'to hear', and may refer to:

Adhan or Azaan, Islamic call to prayer

Bayat e Turk

Bayat e Turk (Persian:بیات ترک) or Bayat e Zand (Persian:بیات زند) is a part of Dastgah-e Shur in Iranian traditional music. Some religious texts like Adhan are sung in this mode.

Bilal ibn Rabah

Bilal ibn Rabah (Arabic: بلال ابن رباح‎‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 60.

Bukit Bunga (state constituency)

Bukit Bunga is a state constituency in Kelantan, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kelantan State Legislative Assembly.

Dub Yalil

"Dub Yalil" is a world music song performed by Belgian singer Natacha Atlas. The melody and additional lyrics (the words to the "Adhan" - or Islamic call to prayer - are used in the first half of the song) were written by Atlas and produced by Transglobal Underground for the Atlas' debut album Diaspora (1995). It was released as a single in 1994.

Footsteps in the Light

Footsteps in the Light is a compilation album of songs by Yusuf Islam (formerly known as Cat Stevens) spanning the years from 1981 to 2004 after his conversion to Islam. It shows a major shift in his musical focus, and demonstrates Yusuf Islam's journey from that of a pop star to a Muslim performer, who began a slow return to recording music, beginning with a song written for his daughter Hasannah, "A is for Allah", after finding that few children's songs were available not just to entertain, but to acquaint young people with Islamic teachings. During this period, Yusuf employed only the use of voice and drums in recording these songs, due to a lack of consensus amongst the Islamic community regarding whether the use of musical instruments were permitted. Other than the songs written, Yusuf recorded nasheeds, spoken word, and Muslim prayers, as with the traditional call to prayer, the Aḏhān. Yusuf added his own touches to a very old Middle Eastern folk song, Tala'al Badru Alayna, adding a Western folk sound with melody and harmonics, and translating some of the verses into English from the original Arabic, so that the song might be understood in more than one language.

In addition to the newer songs, Yusuf Islam added some of his popular hits from the 1970s, when he was a singer-songwriter in the folk rock genre. The songs from that time are "Peace Train", "Wild World", and "The Wind".

The album includes a 24-page song booklet of lyrics along with comments from Yusuf about each track.

Iqama

The word iqama (Arabic: إقامة‎) or ikamet (Turkish transliteration) refers to the second call to Islamic Prayer, given immediately before the prayer begins. Generally, the iqama is given more quickly and in a more monotonous fashion, compared to the adhan, as it is addressed to those already in the mosque rather than a reminder for those outside it to come to the mosque. Aside from a difference in the number of repetitions of each formulæ, the iqama differs from the first call to prayer, the adhan, in only one place (line 6, below):

The Hanafi and the Shi'i use the same number of repetitions of the formulæ for both the adhan and the iqama, contrary to all the other Islamic schools of law.However all Sunni Schools of thoughts say either can be recited as there are authentic hadiths for both ways.[1][2]

List of schools in Uva Province

The following is a list of schools in Uva Province, Sri Lanka.

Loudspeakers in mosques

Loudspeakers were invented in the early 20th century, and they were introduced in mosques in the 1930s, where they are used for the adhan ("call to prayer"), and sometimes for khutbah (sermons).

Outdoor loudspeakers, usually mounted on tall minarets, are used five times a day for the call to prayer, sometimes starting as early as 4 a.m. Some mosques have loudspeakers that are powerful enough to be heard as far as 5 km (3 mi) away. In areas where more than one mosque is present, the loudspeaker sounds overlap one another, especially in the early morning when sounds are more clearly heard. Loudspeakers are sometimes also used inside mosques to deliver sermons or for prayer.

Minaret

Minaret (; Persian: مأذنة‎ ma'thena, Azerbaijani: minarə, Turkish: minare), from Arabic: منارة‎ manarah, also known as Goldaste (Persian: گلدسته‎), is a type of tower typically found built into or adjacent to mosques. Minarets serve multiple purposes. While they provide a visual focal point, they are generally used for the Muslim call to prayer (Adhan). The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, a cap and head. They are generally a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown. They can either be free-standing or taller than the associated support structure. The architecture, function, and role of the minaret vary by region and time period.

NA-139 (Kasur-III)

NA-139 (Kasur-III) (Urdu: این اے-۱٣٩، قصور-۳‎) is a newly-created constituency for the National Assembly of Pakistan. It mainly consists of Chunian Tehsil and includes areas of the Tehsil which were previously included in the now-abolished Constituency NA-140. It also includes some Qanungo Halkas from Pattoki Tehsil - namely, Chak no. 34, Chakoki, and Wan Adhan.

Terapon Adhahn

Terapon Dang Adhahn (born c.1965) is a Thai convicted sex offender who, in May 2008, was sentenced to life in prison for raping and murdering 12-year-old Zina Linnik in Tacoma, Washington. He is currently housed in the Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla, Washington. His inmate number is 968071.Adhahn made national and international headlines for unfounded rumors, as he was not in Texas when Amber was abducted, that he was the abductor and murderer of AMBER Alert namesake Amber Hagerman.Charges were also filed against him involving the rape and abduction of 11-year-old Sabrina Rasmussen near Fort Lewis, Washington in 2000 and the repeated sexual assaults of a teenage acquaintance that span from 2000 to 2004.

Ursula Owusu

Ursula Owusu-Ekuful is a lawyer, women's rights activist and a Ghanaian parliamentarian representing Ablekuma West constituency. In 2016 she was the Minister of Communications. In April 2018 she suffered a backlash from section of the Ghanaian community when she made headlines for sharing a post on social media that suggested Ghanaian Muslims were intolerant. On Saturday, the 29th day of September 2018, She was installed as the Nkosuohemaa (Development Queen) by the traditional leaders and the people of Akem Asuom in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The instalment took place at the Palace of Asuomhene Osabarima Ofosuhene Apenteng II.

Wan Adhan railway station

Wan Adhan railway station (Urdu: وان ادھان ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is a closed railway station located in Punjab, Pakistan.

Salah (Islamic prayer)
Types of prayers (salat)
Prayer unit (raka'ah) and
components of prayer unit
Mosque
Conditions

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