Adhamiyah

Al-Adhamiyah (Arabic: الأعظمية‎, al-aʿẓamiyyah; BGN: Al A‘z̧amīyah), also Azamiya, is a neighborhood and east-central district of the city of Baghdad, Iraq. It is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad.

Adhamiyah is located north-west of the city center and is an upscale area. It has 100,000 inhabitants. This area was 85% Sunni, 15% Shi'ite before 2003 and the Iraqi invasion. Now, it serves as one of the few points of refugee for the Sunni minority of Baghdad, and nearly totally Sunni in its religious composition.

The base of the population consists of people with a high intellectual background, whether it be politicians, artists, scholars and even sports figures. The name is a reference to Abū Ḥanīfah an-Nuʿmān, known as al-Imām al-Aʿẓam (Arabic: الإِمَـام الأَعـظَـم‎, "The Great Imam"), a renowned scholar and founder of the prominent Sunni Hanafī school of Islamic religious jurisprudence. Abu Hanifa Mosque is a prominent landmark, built around the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah an-Nuʿmān.[1][2]

Abu Hanifa Mosque, 2008
Abu Hanifa Mosque in Adhamiya

History

Adhamiyah neighborhood dates back to the Abbasid period and is one of the oldest areas of Baghdad.

2005 Al-Aaimmah bridge stampede

Although Adhamiyah has been the site of many clashes between Iraqi insurgents and US forces as well as tensions between Shi'ite security forces and Sunni residents, in September 2005, the residents of Adhamiyah were credited with saving hundreds of Shi'ite lives. Shi'ite pilgrims, who were caught in a stampede on Al-Aimmah Bridge, while coming from the opposing shore of Kadhimiyah, began jumping from the bridge in an attempt to escape the crush, only to face drowning in the Tigris below. Adhamiyah residents dove into the waters, pulling hundreds of Shi'ites to the shore, where their fellow residents transported them to hospitals and mosques. In some cases, residents used mattresses from their own beds as makeshift stretchers. A teenage Sunni called "Othman Ali Abdul-Hafez" drowned while rescuing people.[3] According to the Interior Ministry, upwards of 900 Shi'ite pilgrims died in the stampede, with over 400 wounded.[4]

Population movements

Shi'ite families forced out in 2006 post-Samarra fled to surrounding Shiite neighborhoods like Shaab. Sunni families displaced from these Shiite areas moved in. Many long-established Sunni residents went abroad and either locked their homes or arranged for trusted Sunni neighbors to guard them against displaced Sunni newcomers, fearing people who might break into the house and stay there. As of 2015, Adhamiyah remains one of the few majority Sunni districts in Baghdad.[5]

Adhamiyah wall

On April 10, 2007, Coalition forces began to construct a 5-kilometre-long (3 mi), 3.7-metre-high (12 ft) wall around the Adhamiyah neighborhood in an attempt to reduce Sunni-Shi'a violence.[6] Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki called for a halt to construction on April 22,[7] but it was finished anyway in May.

Summer 2007 onwards

During summer 2007, two Bradley Fighting Vehicles were destroyed by deep buried IEDs in the Adhamiyah area. One was from C Company and one was from A Company, Task Force Spader, 1st Battalion 26th Infantry Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division, US Army. Sniper and IED tactics were commonly used against Coalition forces in the area during this time.

By late fall 2007, life in Adhamiya had begun to resemble a city again with traffic jams, the reopening of shops, and an abatement of violence. Security efforts of the 2-319th AFAR 82nd Airborne Division, 3rd Squadron 7th Cavalry Regiment and cooperation of the local law enforcement and military.[8] However, in January 2008 terrorists killed Col. Riyadh al-Samarrai, a founder of the Sunni Awakening Council, a new American ally, in Adhamiya at the offices of the Sunni Endowment. He was a close aide and security adviser to the leader of the Sunni Endowment, Sheik Ahmed Abdul Ghafour al-Samarrai, who held Al Qaeda responsible.

Infrastructure

Electricity has improved. Six or seven hours a day is the quota, although people still rely heavily on private generators. Americans guarded fuel convoys going through the wall until June 30, 2009, when they withdrew from the city pursuant to the security agreement with Iraq.

Garbage removal has improved. Americans are clearing rubble, and young Iraqis have been hired to pick up trash, but people often burn garbage at the huge trash dumps nearby, which is a nuisance for residents.

See also

References

  1. ^ al-Aadhamy. History of the Great Imam mosque and al-Adhamiyah mosques 1. p. 29.
  2. ^ Al Shakir, Osama S. (2013-10-20). "History of the Mosque of Abu Hanifa and its school". Abu Hanifa An-Nu'man Mosque. Retrieved 2017-06-20. (in Arabic)
  3. ^ "Sunni rescuer hailed as Iraq hero". BBC News. 2005-09-05. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
  4. ^ "Iran blames disaster on 'suspicious hands'". Theage.com.au. 2005-09-01. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
  5. ^ Baghdad: Ethnic Composition in 2015, the metropolitan area and the province. 2015.
  6. ^ "Iraqis Decry US "Separation Wall" Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine", U.N. Observer, 4-21-2007.
  7. ^ "Al-Maliki demanded a halt to construction of a wall around Sunni neighborhood in Baghdad", International Herald Tribune, 4-22-2007.
  8. ^ "Lead Surge Brigade Returns to Fort Bragg". dvidshub.net. Retrieved 13 April 2018.

External links

Coordinates: 33°22′06″N 44°21′44″E / 33.3684°N 44.3621°E

11th Division (Iraq)

The 11th Infantry Division is a formation (military) of the Iraqi Army. Its headquarters is located in the former Ministry of Defence building in Baghdad.

Division units:

42nd Infantry Brigade ('Tigers') - Adhamiyah (NE Baghdad) (former 2nd Brigade, 6th Division)

43rd Infantry Brigade - Western Baghdad

44th Infantry Brigade - Sadr City

45th Infantry Brigade - Eastern Baghdad (planned to be operational in 2008)The 11th Division was put in place at the end of 2007 as part of the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 and the Baghdad Security Plan. It was formed from an experienced brigade, the 2nd Brigade, 6th Division (which became its 1st Brigade) and received the help of the 4th Brigade of the 1st Division (which is still operating in Baghdad au côté de la 11th Division), to which were added two newly formed brigades and one still forming at the time. It played a significant role in the Siege of Sadr City from April 2008. The division's area of responsibility is the east of Baghdad. Its soldier numbers are low compared to a standard infantry division and it may become an armoured division.

First Gulf War (1990-1991):

The Iraqi 11th infantry division occupied Kuwait City during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991. There it participated in the Battle of Kuwait International Airport.

Abu Hanifa Mosque

The Abu Hanifa Mosque (Arabic: مسجد أبي حنيفة‎, translit. Masjid Abī Ḥanīfah) also known as (Arabic: جامع الإمام الأعظم‎, translit. Gāmi` al-imām al-aʿẓam) is one of the most prominent Sunni mosques in Baghdad, Iraq.

It is built around the tomb of Abu Hanifah an-Nu'man, the founder of the Hanafi madhhab or school of Islamic religious jurisprudence. It is in the al-Adhamiyah district of northern Baghdad, which is named after Abu Hanifa's reverential epithet Al-imām al-aʿẓam ("The Great Leader").

Administrative districts in Baghdad

There are nine administrative districts in the city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, that correspond to the nine district advisory councils. The Baghdad Security Plan used these nine districts as the nine security districts.

These were formed in 2003 following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. District council members are selected from the 89 Neighborhood Advisory Councils in Baghdad.

The number of neighborhood representatives on the district council is based upon the community's population. The Baghdad City Advisory Council consists of 37 members drawn from the district councils and is also based on the district's population.In the list below, alternate spellings (in parentheses) are from United Nations humanitarian info.org map listing 89 neighborhoods.

Al-Aimmah Bridge

Jisr al-'Ā'immah (Arabic: جسر الأئمة‎, Al-Aimmah Bridge, literally "Bridge of the Imams") is a bridge over the river Tigris in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad. The bridge links the areas of A'dhamiyyah, which is a majority Sunni Arab area, from its east bank, with the Shi'te area of Kadhimiyyah on its west. A'dhamiyyah is where the Mosque of Sunni Imam Abu Hanifah is located. Kadhimiyyah is where the Mosque of Shi'ite Imams Musa al-Kadhim and Muhammad at-Taqi is located.

Al-Naft SC

Al Naft Sport Club (Arabic: نادي النفط الرياضي‎, lit. 'Oil SC') is an Iraqi football club based in Adhamiyah District, East Districts of the Tigris River, Baghdad. They play in the highest division in Iraq which is the Iraqi Premier League.

Al-Wazireya

Al-Wazireya or Waziriyah (Arabic: الوزيرية) is a Shiia neighborhood in the Adhamiyah District of Baghdad, Iraq. It is at one end of the Al-Sarafiya bridge, across the Tigris River from Utafiyah.

On August 27, 2006 a vehicle borne improvised explosive device exploded on the street outside the Al Sabah newspaper office. It destroyed more than 20 cars, killing two people and wounding as many as 30.

Baghdad Governorate

Baghdad Governorate (Arabic: محافظة بغداد‎ Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād), also known as the Baghdad Province, is the capital governorate of Iraq. It includes the capital Baghdad as well as the surrounding metropolitan area. The governorate is the smallest of the 18 provinces of Iraq but the most populous.

Gunner Palace

Gunner Palace is a 2004 documentary film by Michael Tucker, which had a limited release in the United States on March 4, 2005. The film was an account of the complex realities of the situation in Iraq during 2003–2004 amidst the Iraqi insurgency not seen on the nightly news. Told first-hand by American troops stationed in the middle of Baghdad, Gunner Palace presents a portrait of a dangerous and chaotic war.

Iraqi University

The Iraqi University (Al Iraqia University) offers bachelor's and graduate university degrees. It is located in the Adhamiyah district of Baghdad, Iraq. It was founded in 1989 and was formerly named the Islamic University. In 2010, the university council recommended that the name be changed to Iraqi University.The university accepts students from all over the Islamic world. It offers degrees in sciences, humanities, applied medicine, engineering, media and arts, law, education, and other subjects.

List of United States Military installations in Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)

The US Armed Forces had several temporary military bases in Iraq between 2003 and 2011, most a type of forward operating base (FOB).

Depending on their size or utility, the facilities are called : Camp, Forward Operating Base (FOB), Contingency Operating Base (COB), Contingency Operating Site (COS), Combat Outpost (COP), Patrol Base (PB), Outpost, Logistic Base (Log Base), Fire Base (FB), Convoy Support Center (CSC), Logistic Support Area (LSA) and Joint Security Station (JSS).

List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad

This article lists neighborhoods and the nine administrative districts within 50 km of Baghdad, Iraq.

The order is not alphabetical, but is instead arranged according to whether the neighborhood is east or west of the Tigris and then grouped roughly by north-south order. Place names may be affected by differences in translation of Arabic to English. If sourced information on the location was not available, the neighborhood is grouped in the unknown section in alphabetical order. According to a report published by the New York Times on June 3, 2007, there are 457 distinct neighborhoods in Baghdad.

Maysalun Hadi

Maysalun Hadi (born 1954) is an Iraqi writer. She was born in the Adhamiyah district of Baghdad and studied statistics at Baghdad University. As a writer, she has published numerous books and articles, spanning a wide range of genres. Her novel Prophecy of Pharaoh won the Bashraheel prize for best Arabic novel and was translated into English by Angham Altamimi. Another novel A Light Pink Dream was made into a film, while Throne and Stream has been translated into English and French. Her most recent work Mohammed's Brothers was nominated for the Arabic Booker Prize.Hadi lives in Baghdad.

Meeting Resistance

Meeting Resistance is a 2007 documentary film about the Iraq War. The film presents the views of eleven Iraqi resistance fighters in the Adhamiyah neighborhood of Baghdad. The film was directed by journalists Molly Bingham (United States) and Steve Connors (UK).

The interviewees are all anonymous and (with one exception) faceless or out-of-focus on camera. They are presented as nicknames: The Teacher, The Warrior, The Traveler, The Imam, The Wife, The Syrian, The Fugitive, The Local, The Republican Guard, The Lieutenant, and The Professor.

The US military currently organizes showings for its forces in Iraq so they can know who they are fighting.

Neighbourhoods of Baghdad

The city of Baghdad is divided into 89 administrative neighbourhoods, gathered into nine administrative districts.

Operation Tiger Hammer

Operation Tiger Hammer was part of the Iraq War that began in 2003. Iraqi Army soldiers conducted a battalion-sized cordon and search operation in the Adhamiyah District of the Iraqi capital 7 June.

The combined mission, dubbed Operation Tiger Hammer, was conducted by elements of the 1st and 3rd battalions of the 1st Brigade, 11th Iraqi Army Division with support provided by Multi-National Division – Baghdad Soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, operating in Baghdad with the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division.

The four-hour operation netted nine detainees and 38 illegal weapons.

Just after sunrise, the U.S. troops established blocking positions around the neighborhood while the Iraqi units fanned out through the narrow streets, searching houses and apartment complexes room-by-room for weapons and contraband.

"This just shows the commitment of the Iraqi Army to protecting the people of Adhamiyah by going after criminals and terrorists who want to create instability and hinder progress," said Capt. Leon McGill, of Waynesville, Missouri, a U.S. military transition team advisor.

No US deaths were reported during the operation.

Qanat al-Jaish

Army Canal (Qanat al-Jaish in Arabic) ia a 25-kilometer waterway connecting the Tigris and Diyala rivers, forms the western boundary of Sadr City, and when completed, will once again supply irrigation water to nearby agricultural areas and clean drinking water to Rusafa, Baghdad. Also along its course a highway road runs.The Army Canal, which runs a total of 25 kilometers spanning from Adhamiyah in northeastern Baghdad to Rustimiyah in southeastern Baghdad, was built in 1959 by Abd al-Kassem Quassim, the former president of Iraq. It later became a ribbon of stagnant water and because of sludge, low water levels and lack of maintenance.

Ross A. McGinnis

Ross Andrew McGinnis (14 June 1987 – 4 December 2006) was a United States Army soldier who was killed in the Iraq War and was posthumously awarded the United States' highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor. While serving as the gunner in a HMMWV, his convoy was attacked and a hand grenade was thrown into his vehicle. McGinnis was subsequently killed in action when he deliberately threw himself on the grenade, saving the lives of at least four other soldiers in the vehicle. He was the fourth service member to receive the Medal of Honor during the Iraq War, which was presented to his family following his death.

Sha'ab, Baghdad

Sha'ab (Arabic: الشعب‎) is a neighborhood of Adhamiyah district, Baghdad, Iraq, It is subdivided into Sha'ab east (22nd), Sha'ab south (23rd), Sha'ab north (24th). The neighborhood is almost entirely Shia Muslim.

Main districts
Neighborhoods

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