Adenitis

Adenitis is a general term for an inflammation of a gland.[1] Often it is used to refer to lymphadenitis which is the inflammation of a lymph node.

Adenitis
SpecialtyEndocrinology

Classification

Lymph node adenitis

Lymph adenitis or lymph node adenitis is caused by infection in lymph nodes. The infected lymph nodes typically become enlarged, warm and tender. A swelling of lymph nodes due to growth of lymph cells is called lymphadenopathy. Types include:

  • Neck
  • Abdomen
    • Mesenteric adenitis is an inflammation of the mesenteric lymph nodes in the abdomen. It can be caused by the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica.[2] If it occurs in the right lower quadrant, it can be mistaken for acute appendicitis, often preceded by a sore throat. Clinical manifestations may include fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Most often occurs in children age 5-14.

Other

Sebaceous adenitis is an inflammation of the sebaceous glands in the skin. These glands normally produce sebum (skin oil, a lipid-rich secretion) which prevents drying of the skin.

References

  1. ^ "Adenitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Ellis H, Calne R, Watson C. Lecture Notes on General Surgery tenth edition, p. 28. ISBN 0-632-06371-8

External links

Akita (dog)

Template:Infobox dog type

The Akita (秋田犬, Akita-inu, Japanese pronunciation: [akʲita.inɯ]) is a large breed of dog originating from the mountainous regions of northern Japan. There are two separate varieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, commonly called "Akita Inu" ("inu" means "dog" in Japanese), or "Japanese Akita"; and an American strain, known as the "Akita" or "American Akita". The Japanese strain comes in a narrow palette of colors, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed, while the American strain comes in all dog colors. The Akita has a short double-coat similar to that of many other northern spitz breeds such as the Siberian Husky, but long-coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene.

The Akita is a powerful, independent and dominant breed, commonly aloof with strangers but affectionate with family members. As a breed, Akitas are generally hardy, but they have been known to be susceptible to various genetic conditions and can be sensitive to certain drugs.

In all countries except the United States, the Japanese and American strains of Akita are considered two separate breeds. In the United States, however, the two strains are considered a single breed with differences in type. For a while, the American strain of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita who lived in Japan before World War II.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms commonly include right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. However, approximately 40% of people do not have these typical symptoms. Severe complications of a ruptured appendix include widespread, painful inflammation of the inner lining of the abdominal wall and sepsis.Appendicitis is caused by a blockage of the hollow portion of the appendix. This is most commonly due to a calcified "stone" made of feces. Inflamed lymphoid tissue from a viral infection, parasites, gallstone, or tumors may also cause the blockage. This blockage leads to increased pressures in the appendix, decreased blood flow to the tissues of the appendix, and bacterial growth inside the appendix causing inflammation. The combination of inflammation, reduced blood flow to the appendix and distention of the appendix causes tissue injury and tissue death. If this process is left untreated, the appendix may burst, releasing bacteria into the abdominal cavity, leading to increased complications.The diagnosis of appendicitis is largely based on the person's signs and symptoms. In cases where the diagnosis is unclear, close observation, medical imaging, and laboratory tests can be helpful. The two most common imaging tests used are an ultrasound and computed tomography (CT scan). CT scan has been shown to be more accurate than ultrasound in detecting acute appendicitis. However, ultrasound may be preferred as the first imaging test in children and pregnant women because of the risks associated with radiation exposure from CT scans.The standard treatment for acute appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix. This may be done by an open incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) or through a few smaller incisions with the help of cameras (laparoscopy). Surgery decreases the risk of side effects or death associated with rupture of the appendix. Antibiotics may be equally effective in certain cases of non-ruptured appendicitis. It is one of the most common and significant causes of severe abdominal pain that comes on quickly. In 2015 about 11.6 million cases of appendicitis occurred which resulted in about 50,100 deaths. In the United States, appendicitis is the most common cause of sudden abdominal pain requiring surgery. Each year in the United States, more than 300,000 people with appendicitis have their appendix surgically removed. Reginald Fitz is credited with being the first person to describe the condition in 1886.

Bubo

A bubo (Greek βουβών, boubôn, "groin") is defined as adenitis or inflammation of the lymph nodes.Buboes are a symptom of bubonic plague, and occur as painful swellings in the thighs, neck, groin or armpits. They are caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria spreading from flea bites through the bloodstream to the lymph nodes, where the bacteria replicate, causing the nodes to swell. Plague buboes may turn black and rot away the surrounding tissue, or they may discharge large amounts of pus. Infection can spread from buboes around the body, resulting in other forms of the disease such as pneumonic plague.Plague patients whose buboes swell to such a size that they burst tend to survive the disease. Before the discovery of antibiotics, doctors often drained buboes to save patients.Buboes are also symptoms of other diseases, such as chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum. In these conditions, a course of antibiotics is the recommended treatment, and incision and drainage or excision of the swollen lymph nodes is to be avoided.

Chancroid

Chancroid ( SHANG-kroyd) (also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle) is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact. While uncommon in the western world, it is the most common cause of genital ulceration worldwide.

Cherry eye

Cherry eye is a disorder of the nictitating membrane (NM), also called the third eyelid, present in the eyes of dogs and cats. Cherry eye is most often seen in young dogs under the age of two. Common misnomers include adenitis, hyperplasia, adenoma of the gland of the third eyelid; however, cherry eye is not caused by hyperplasia, neoplasia, or primary inflammation. In many species, the third eyelid plays an essential role in vision by supplying oxygen and nutrients to the eye via tear production. Normally, the gland can turn inside-out without detachment. Cherry eye results from a defect in the retinaculum which is responsible for anchoring the gland to the periorbita. This defect causes the gland to prolapse and protrude from the eye as a red fleshy mass. Problems arise as sensitive tissue dries out and is subjected to external trauma Exposure of the tissue often results in secondary inflammation, swelling, or infection. If left untreated, this condition can lead to dry eye syndrome and other complications.

Hatchcock's sign

Hatchcock's sign is a clinical sign in which upward pressure on the angle of the mandible causes pain due to parotitis in mumps, but no pain in adenitis.

Neapolitan Mastiff

The Neapolitan Mastiff or Mastino (Italian: Mastino Napoletano) is a large, ancient dog breed. This massive breed is often used as a guard and defender of family and property due to their protective instincts and their fearsome appearance.

Neck

The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx, trachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the top part of the spinal cord.

In anatomy, the neck is also called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix, the neck of the uterus. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck (as in cervical vertebrae or cervical lymph nodes) or to the uterine cervix (as in cervical cap or cervical cancer).

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) is a not-for-profit organization based in Columbia, Missouri that aims to research and prevent orthopedic and hereditary diseases in companion animals.

As a private not-for-profit foundation, the OFA has funded nearly $3 million in research aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of inherited companion animal disease. The OFA funds projects through the AKC Canine Health Foundation, the Morris Animal Foundation and occasionally through direct grants. The OFA has achieved Ruby Donor status with MAF, and Millennium Founder status with the AKC CHF. OFA supported research is not limited to orthopedic disease, and has included cancers, heart disease, and thyroid disease as examples. Some research has been breed specific, some for all breeds, some for multiple species, and has been done at many of our leading universities and research institutions. And, with the recent completion of the mapping of the canine genome, the OFA is focusing more of its research dollars towards research at the molecular level.

The OFA was founded by John M. Olin in 1966, after several of his dogs became affected by hip dysplasia. Originally studying hip dysplasia alone, the OFA has expanded its efforts and now studies and has health databases on a wide range of diseases including elbow dysplasia, patellar luxation, legg-calve-perthes, thyroid, cardiac, congenital deafness, sebaceous adenitis, and shoulder OCD. The methodology of the evaluation is considered a subjective method. There are other methodologies in practice that include a Distraction Index for Penn Hip evaluations, an objectvite scoring method practiced by the British Veterinary Association, and an evaluative grade based on point by point criterion in the Federation Cynologique International system.

The OFA offers DNA certification for canine degenerative myelopathy, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis for American Bulldogs, Fanconi syndrome for Basenjis and Neonatal encephalopathy with seizures for Standard Poodles through an exclusive agreement with the University of Missouri.

Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis

Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis or periodic fever aphthous pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome is a medical condition, typically starting in young children, in which high fever occurs periodically at intervals of about 3–5 weeks, frequently accompanied by aphthous-like ulcers, pharyngitis and/or cervical adenitis (cervical lymphadenopathy). The syndrome was described in 1987 and named two years later.

Periodic fever syndrome

Periodic fever syndromes (also known as autoinflammatory diseases or autoinflammatory syndromes) are a set of disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic and organ-specific inflammation. Unlike autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, in which the disease is caused by abnormalities of the adaptive immune system, patients with autoinflammatory diseases do not produce autoantibodies or antigen-specific T or B cells. Instead, the autoinflammatory diseases are characterized by errors in the innate immune system.The syndromes are diverse, but tend to cause episodes of fever, joint pains, skin rashes, abdominal pains and may lead to chronic complications such as amyloidosis.Most autoinflammatory diseases are genetic and present during childhood. The most common genetic autoinflammatory syndrome is familial Mediterranean fever, which causes short episodes of fever, abdominal pain, serositis, lasting less than 72 hours. It is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene, which codes for the protein pyrin.

Pyrin is a protein normally present in the inflammasome. The mutated pyrin protein is thought to cause inappropriate activation of the inflammasome, leading to release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Most other autoinflammatory diseases also cause disease by inappropriate release of IL-1β. Thus, IL-1β has become a common therapeutic target, and medications such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab have revolutionized the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases.

However, there are some autoinflammatory diseases that are not known to have a clear genetic cause. This includes PFAPA, which is the most common autoinflammatory disease seen in children, characterized by episodes of fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. Other autoinflammatory diseases that do not have clear genetic causes include adult-onset Still's disease, systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Schnitzler syndrome, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. It is likely that these diseases are multifactorial, with genes that make people susceptible to these diseases, but they require an additional environmental factor to trigger the disease.

Quadrant (abdomen)

The human abdomen is divided into regions by anatomists and physicians for purposes of study, diagnosis, and therapy. In the four-region scheme, four quadrants allow localisation of pain and tenderness, scars, lumps, and other items of interest, narrowing in on which organs and tissues may be involved. The quadrants are referred to as the left lower quadrant, left upper quadrant, right upper quadrant and right lower quadrant, as follows below. These terms are not used in comparative anatomy, since most other animals do not stand erect.

The left lower quadrant (LLQ) of the human abdomen is the area left of the midline and below the umbilicus. The LLQ includes the left iliac fossa and half of the left flank region. The equivalent term for animals is left posterior quadrant.

The left upper quadrant (LUQ) extends from the median plane to the left of the patient, and from the umbilical plane to the left ribcage. The equivalent term for animals is left anterior quadrant.

The right upper quadrant (RUQ) extends from the median plane to the right of the patient, and from the umbilical plane to the right ribcage. The equivalent term for animals is right anterior quadrant.

The right lower quadrant (RLQ) extends from the median plane to the right of the patient, and from the umbilical plane to the right inguinal ligament. The equivalent term for animals is right posterior quadrant.

Rosai–Dorfman disease

Rosai–Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy or sometimes as Destombes–Rosai–Dorfman disease, is a rare disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by abundant histiocytes in the lymph nodes or other locations throughout the body.

Samoyed dog

The Samoyed ( SAM-ə-yed or sə-MOY-ed; Russian: Самоедская собака or Самоед) is a breed of large herding dog, from the spitz group, with a thick, white, double-layer coat. It takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy white dogs to help with the herding. An alternative name for the breed, especially in Europe, is Bjelkier.

Sebaceous adenitis

Sebaceous adenitis in an uncommon skin disease found in some breeds of dog, and more rarely in cats, rabbits and horses. characterised by an inflammatory response against the dog's sebaceous glands (glands found in the hair follicles in the skin dermis), which can lead to the destruction of the gland. It was first described in veterinary literature in the 1980s.

Simulium

Simulium is a genus of black flies, which may transmit diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is a large genus with several hundred species, and 41 subgenera.The flies are pool feeders. Their saliva, which contains anticoagulants, a number of enzymes and histamine, is mixed with the blood, preventing clotting until it is ingested by the fly. These bites cause localized tissue damage, and if the number of feeding flies is sufficient, their feeding may produce a blood-loss anaemia.

The host’s reaction to fly attacks may include systemic illness, allergic reactions or even death, presumably mediated by histamine. In humans, this systemic reaction is known as “black fly fever” and is characterized by headaches, fever, nausea, adenitis, generalized dermatitis, and allergic asthma.

Tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils are fully removed from back the throat. The procedure is mainly performed for recurrent throat infections and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For those with recurrent throat infections surgery results in fewer infections in the year following but unclear long term benefits. In OSA it results in improved quality of life.Complications of surgery may include vomiting, trouble eating, throat pain, trouble talking, and bleeding. Bleeding occurs in about 1% within the first day and another 2% after that. Death occurs as a result in between 1 in 2,360 and 56,000 procedures. Following the surgery ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be used to treat postoperative pain. The surgery is often done using a metal instruments or electrocautery. The adenoids may also be removed.The surgery has been described since at least as early as 50 AD by Celsus. In the United States, as of 2010, tonsillectomy is performed less frequently than in the 1970s although it remains the second most common outpatient surgical procedure in children. The typical cost when done as an inpatient in the United States is US$4,400 as of 2013.

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous lymphadenitis (or tuberculous adenitis) is the most common form of tuberculosis infections that appears outside the lungs. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is a chronic, specific granulomatous inflammation of the lymph node with caseation necrosis, caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or related bacteria.

The characteristic morphological element is the tuberculous granuloma (caseating tubercule). This consists of giant multinucleated cells and (Langhans cells), surrounded by epithelioid cells aggregates, T cell lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Granulomatous tubercules eventually develop central caseous necrosis and tend to become confluent, replacing the lymphoid tissue.

Vestibular adenitis

Vestibular adenitis is a condition affecting the vagina. It is a chronic inflammation of the lesser vestibular glands, which lie just outside the hymenal ring. The condition can lead to small, extremely painful ulcerations of the vestibular mucosa.

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