Aden

Aden (UK: /ˈeɪdən/ AY-dən, US: /ˈɑːdɛn/ AH-den; Arabic: عدنʿAdin/ʿAdan  Yemeni: [ˈʕæden, ˈʕædæn]) is a port city and the temporary capital of Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some 170 km (110 mi) east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula joined to the mainland by a low isthmus. This harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 5th and 7th centuries BC. The modern harbour is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden gives its name to the Gulf of Aden.

Aden consists of a number of distinct sub-centres: Crater, the original port city; Ma'alla, the modern port; Tawahi, known as "Steamer Point" in the colonial period; and the resorts of Gold Mohur. Khormaksar, located on the isthmus that connects Aden proper with the mainland, includes the city's diplomatic missions, the main offices of Aden University, and Aden International Airport (the former British Royal Air Force station RAF Khormaksar), Yemen's second biggest airport. On the mainland are the sub-centres of Sheikh Othman, a former oasis area; Al-Mansura, a town planned by the British; and Madinat ash-Sha'b (formerly Madinat al-Itihad), the site designated as the capital of the South Arabian Federation and now home to a large power/desalinization facility and additional faculties of Aden University.

Aden encloses the eastern side of a vast, natural harbour that comprises the modern port. This city is rather large, yet has no natural resources available in it. However, Aden does have reservoirs, the Aden Tanks. These reservoirs accumulate rain water for the sole purpose of drinking for the city's citizens. The city is prosperous with rich merchants living here and Indian vessels arriving for trade.[1] The volcanic peninsula of Little Aden forms a near-mirror image, enclosing the harbour and port on the western side. Little Aden became the site of the oil refinery and tanker port. Both were established and operated by British Petroleum until they were turned over to Yemeni government ownership and control in 1978.

Aden was the capital of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen until that country's unification with the Yemen Arab Republic in 1990, and again briefly served as Yemen's temporary capital during the aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen, as declared by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi after he fled the Houthi occupation of Sana'a.[2] From March to July 2015, the Battle of Aden raged between Houthis and loyalists to President Hadi. Water, food, and medical supplies ran short in the city.[3] On 14 July, the Saudi Army launched an offensive to retake Aden for Hadi's government. Within three days the Houthis had been removed from the city.[4] Since February 2018, Aden has been seized by the Southern Transitional Council.

Aden

عدن
Aden. Steamer Point. Aug 2013 (9727325813)
Street Scene Aden Yemen
Old Town Aden Yemen
Cisterns of Tawila
Aden. Steamer Point. Aug 2013. (9713909915)
Clockwise from top:
Steamer point, Mosque and the old town, St.Francis of Assisi Church, Cisterns of Tawila, Old Town streetview
Aden is located in Yemen
Aden
Aden
Location in Yemen
Aden is located in Asia
Aden
Aden
Aden (Asia)
Coordinates: 12°48′N 45°02′E / 12.800°N 45.033°ECoordinates: 12°48′N 45°02′E / 12.800°N 45.033°E
CountryYemen
GovernorateAden
OccupationPeople's Democratic Republic of Yemen Southern Transitional Council
Area
 • Total760 km2 (290 sq mi)
Elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
(2017)
 • Total1,760,923
 • Density2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (GMT)
Area code(s)967
Port of Aden, Yemen from ISS
Port of Aden from ISS, 2016

History

Antiquity

A local legend in Yemen states that Aden may be as old as human history itself. Some also believe that Cain and Abel are buried somewhere in the city.[5]

The port's convenient position on the sea route between India and Europe has made Aden desirable to rulers who sought to possess it at various times throughout history. Known as Eudaemon (Ancient Greek: Ευδαίμων, meaning “blissful, prosperous,” in Ancient Greek) in the 1st century BC, it was a transshipping point for the Red Sea trade, but fell on hard times when new shipping practices by-passed it and made the daring direct crossing to India in the 1st century AD, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The same work describes Aden as "a village by the shore," which would well describe the town of Crater while it was still little-developed. There is no mention of fortification at this stage, Aden was more an island than a peninsula as the isthmus (a tombolo) was not then so developed as it is today.

Medieval

Hogenberg.Aden
Aden, with Portuguese fleet. in Braun & Hogenberg.1590
Stamp Aden 1951 2sh
1951 stamp depicting Steamer Point with the outside of the volcanic rim of Crater in the background

Although the pre-Islamic Himyar civilization was capable of building large structures, there seems to have been little fortification at this stage. Fortifications at Mareb and other places in Yemen and the Hadhramaut make it clear that both the Himyar and the Sabean cultures were well capable of it. Thus, watch towers, since destroyed, are possible. However, the Arab historians Ibn al Mojawir and Abu Makhramah attribute the first fortification of Aden to Beni Zuree'a. Abu Makhramah has also included a detailed biography of Muhammad Azim Sultan Qamarbandi Naqsh in his work, Tarikh ul-Yemen. The aim seems to have been twofold: to keep hostile forces out and to maintain revenue by controlling the movement of goods, thereby preventing smuggling. In its original form, some of this work was relatively feeble.

After 1175 AD, rebuilding in a more solid form began, and ever since Aden became a popular city attracting sailors and merchants from Egypt, Sindh, Gujarat, East Africa and even China. According to Muqaddasi, Persians formed the majority of Aden's population in the 10th century.[6][7]

In 1421, China's Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor ordered principal envoy grand eunuch Li Xing and grand eunuch Zhou Man of Zheng He's fleet to convey an imperial edict with hats and robes to bestow on the king of Aden. The envoys boarded three treasure ships and set sail from Sumatra to the port of Aden. This event was recorded in the book Yingyai Shenglan by Ma Huan who accompanied the imperial envoy.[8]

In 1513, the Portuguese, led by Afonso de Albuquerque, launched an unsuccessful four-day naval siege of Aden.[9]

British administration 1839–1967

Port of Aden 1890's
Port of Aden 1890
Aden postcard
Port of Aden (around 1910). Ships lying off Steamer Point at the entrance to the modern inner harbour.[10]
Map of Aden (Baedeker 1914)
Map of Aden peninsula, ca. 1914
Aden. Esplanade Road, Crater, late 1930s
Esplanade Road in the late 1930s

Before British administration, Aden was ruled by the Portuguese between 1513–1538 and 1547–1548. It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire between 1538–1547 and 1548–1645.

In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company.[11]

After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen.

Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians—housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. In 1838, under Muhsin bin Fadl, Lahej ceded 194 km2 (75 sq mi) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to secure the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. In 1850 it was declared a free trade port with the liquor, salt, arms, and opium trades developing duties as it won all the coffee trade from Mokha.[12] The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Mumbai, and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden was to remain under British control until November 1967.

Until 1937, Aden was governed as part of British India and was known as the Aden Settlement. Its original territory was enlarged in 1857 by the 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi) island of Perim, in 1868 by the 73 km2 (28 sq mi) Khuriya Muriya Islands, and in 1915 by the 108 km2 (42 sq mi) island of Kamaran. The settlement would become Aden Province in 1935.

In 1937, the Settlement was detached from India and became the Colony of Aden, a British Crown colony. The change in government was a step towards the change in monetary units seen in the stamps illustrating this article. When British India became independent in 1947, Indian rupees (divided into annas) were replaced in Aden by East African shillings. The hinterland of Aden and Hadhramaut were also loosely tied to Britain as the Aden Protectorate which was overseen from Aden.

Stamp Aden 1939 2.5a
Aden is known for its boat-oriented stamps. Mukalla is on the Hadhramaut coast, about 500 km (311 mi) east of Aden, in what was then the Aden Protectorate.

Aden's location also made it a useful entrepôt for mail passing between places around the Indian Ocean and Europe. Thus, a ship passing from Suez to Bombay could leave mail for Mombasa at Aden for collection. See Postage stamps and postal history of Aden.

The 1947 Aden riots saw more than 80 Jews killed, their property looted and schools burned by a Muslim mob. After the Suez Crisis in 1956, Aden became the main location in the region for the British.

Aden sent a team of two to the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Perth, Western Australia.

Little Aden 1955 to 1967

Mualla Main Road
Mualla Main Road, 1966. Vehicles at the time drove on the left, in the British custom

Little Aden is still dominated by the oil refinery built for British Petroleum. Little Aden was well known to seafarers for its tanker port with a very welcoming seaman's mission near to the BP Aden tugs' jetties, complete with swimming pool and air conditioned bar. The accommodation areas for the refinery personnel were known by the original Arabic names of Bureika and Ghadir.

Bureika was wooden housing bunkhouses built to accommodate the thousands of skilled men and laborers imported to build the refinery, later converted to family housing, plus imported prefabricated houses "the Riley-Newsums" that are also to be found in parts of Australia (Woomera). Bureika also had a protected bathing area and Beach Club.

Ghadir housing was stone built, largely from the local granite quarry; much of this housing still stands today, now occupied by wealthier locals from Aden. Little Aden also has a local township and numerous picturesque fishing villages, including the Lobster Pots of Ghadir. The British Army had extensive camps in Bureika and through Silent Valley in Falaise Camp, these successfully protected the refinery staff and facilities throughout the troubles, with only a very few exceptions. Schooling was provided for children from kindergarten age through to primary school, after that, children were bussed to The Isthmus School in Khormaksar, though this had to be stopped during the Aden Emergency.

1955 British pass. - Aden
1955 British passport for former Aden protectorate citizens – Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut الدولة القعيطية

Federation of South Arabia and the Aden Emergency

Aden02 flickr
Aden in 1960

In order to stabilize Aden and the surrounding Aden Protectorate from the designs of the Egyptian backed republicans of North Yemen, the British attempted to gradually unite the disparate states of the region in preparation for eventual independence. On 18 January 1963, the Colony of Aden was incorporated into the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South against the wishes of North Yemen. The city became the State of Aden and the Federation was renamed the Federation of South Arabia (FSA).

An insurgency against British administration known as the Aden Emergency began with a grenade attack by the communist's National Liberation Front (NLF), against the British High Commissioner on 10 December 1963, killing one person and injuring fifty, and a "state of emergency" was declared.

In 1964, Britain announced its intention to grant independence to the FSA in 1968, but that the British military would remain in Aden. The security situation deteriorated as NLF and FLOSY (Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen) vied for the upper hand.

In January 1967, there were mass riots between the NLF and their rival FLOSY supporters in the old Arab quarter of Aden town. This conflict continued until mid February, despite the intervention of British troops. In June 1967, 23 British Army officers were ambushed and shot dead by members of Aden Police during the Aden Mutiny in the Crater District. During the period there were as many attacks on the British troops by both sides as against each other culminating in the destruction of an Aden Airways DC3 plane in the air with no survivors.

The increased violence was a determining factor in the British ensuring all families were evacuated more quickly than initially intended, as recorded in From Barren Rocks to Living Stones.

On 30 November 1967 British troops were evacuated, leaving Aden and the rest of the FSA under NLF control. The Royal Marines, who had been the first British troops to arrive in Aden in 1839, were the last to leave — with the exception of a Royal Engineer detachment (10 Airfields Squadron left Aden on 13 December 1967).

Independence

Aden, Yemen Port
View of Aden from the sea

Aden became the capital of the new People's Republic of South Yemen which, in 1970, was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. With the unification of northern and southern Yemen in 1990, Aden was no longer a national capital but remained the capital of Aden Governorate which covered an area similar to that of the Aden Colony.

On 29 December 1992, Al Qaeda conducted its first known terrorist attack in Aden, bombing the Gold Mohur Hotel, where US servicemen were known to have been staying en route to Somalia for Operation Restore Hope. A Yemeni and an Austrian tourist died in the attack.[13]

Aden was briefly the centre of the secessionist Democratic Republic of Yemen from 21 May 1994 but was reunited by Republic of Yemen troops on 7 July 1994.

Members of al Qaeda attempted to bomb the US guided-missile destroyer The Sullivans at the port of Aden as part of the 2000 millennium attack plots. The boat that had the explosives in it sank, forcing the planned attack to be aborted.

The bombing attack on destroyer USS Cole took place in Aden on 12 October 2000.

In 2007 growing dissatisfaction with unification led to the formation of the secessionist South Yemen Movement. According to The New York Times, the Movement's mainly underground leadership includes socialists, Islamists and individuals desiring a return to the perceived benefits of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.[14]

President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi fled to Aden, his hometown, in 2015 after being deposed in a coup d'état. He declared that he was still Yemen's legitimate president and called on state institutions and loyal officials to relocate to Aden.[15] In a televised speech on 21 March 2015, he declared Aden to be Yemen's "economic and temporary capital" while Sana'a is controlled by the Houthis.[2]

Aden was hit by violence in the aftermath of the coup d'état, with forces loyal to Hadi clashing with those loyal to former president Ali Abdullah Saleh in a battle for Aden International Airport on 19 March 2015.[16] After the airport battle, the entire city became a battleground for the Battle of Aden, which left large parts of the city in ruins and has killed at least 198 people since March 25, 2015.[3] On 14 July 2015, the Saudi Arabian Army launched an offensive to win control of the city. Within three days, the city was cleared of Houthi rebels, ending the Battle of Aden with a coalition victory.[4]

Beginning on 28 January 2018, separatists loyal to the STC seized control of the Yemeni government headquarters in Aden in a coup d'etat against the Hadi-led government.[17][18]

President of the STC Aidarus al-Zoubaidi announced the state of emergency in Aden and that "the STC has begun the process of overthrowing Hadi’s rule over the South".[19]

Main sites

Street Scene Aden Yemen
A street scene at the old town of Aden. 1999

Aden has a number of historical and natural sites of interest to visitors. These include:

  • The historical British churches.[20]
  • The Zoroastrian Temple
  • The Cisterns of Tawila—an ancient water-catchment system located in the sub-centre of Crater
  • Sira Fort
  • The Aden Minaret[21]
  • Little Ben, a miniature BigBen Clock Tower overlooking Steamer Point. Built during the colonial period, this was restored in 2012 after 3 decades of neglect since the British withdrawal of 1967. The Landing Pier at Steamer Point is a 19th-century building used by visiting dignitaries during the colonial period, most notably Queen Elizabeth during her 1954 visit to the colony. This building was hit by an airstrike in 2015 and currently lies derelict. Nearby is the Crescent Hotel which contained a number of artifacts relating to the Royal Visit of 1954 and which currently remains derelict as a result of a recent airstrike.
  • The Palace of the Sultanate of Lahej/National Museum—The National Museum was founded in 1966 and is located in what used to be the Palace of the Sultanate of Lehej. Northern forces robbed it during the 1994 Civil War, but its collection of pieces remains one of the biggest in Yemen.[22][23]
  • The Aden Military Museum which features a painting depicting the 20th June 1967 ambush by Arab Police Barracks on a British Army unit when 22 officers were killed while driving in 2 Landrovers on Queen Arwa Road, Crater.
  • The Rimbaud House, which opened in 1991, is the two-story house of French poet Arthur Rimbaud who lived in Aden from 1880–1891. Rimbaud moved to Aden on his way to Ethiopia in an attempt for a new life. As of the late 1990s, the first floor of the house belonged to the French Consulate, a cultural centre and a library. The house is located in al-Tawahi—the European Quarter of Aden—and is politically and culturally debated for its French nature in an area previously colonized by Britain.[24]
  • The fortifications of Jebal Hadid and Jebal Shamsan
  • The beaches of Aden and Little Aden—Some of the popular beaches in Aden consist of Lover's Bay Beach, Elephant Beach and Gold Beach. The popular beach in Little Aden is called Blue Beach.[22] Some beaches are private and some are public, which is subject to change over time due to the changing resort industry. According to the Wall Street Journal, kidnappings on the beaches and the threat of Al Qaeda has caused problems for the resort industry in Aden, which used to be popular among locals and Westerners.[25]
  • Al-Aidaroos Mosque[21]
  • Main Pass – now called Al-Aqba Road is the only road into Aden through Crater. This Arched bridge overlooking Aden city was built during the Ottoman Empire and was also known as Main Gate. It was demolished in 1964 in a controlled explosion by the British Army to widen the roadway from a 2 lane road to a 4 lane bypass. A painted crest of the 24th British army battalion is still visible on the brickwork leading up the hill near the Gate site and is believed to be the only remaining army Crest from colonial rule still visible in Aden. A quarter scale miniature stone replica of the now demolished Main Pass Bridge is located at the nearby Al Aqba intersection/roundabout.

Economy

Historically, Aden would import goods from the African coast and from Europe, the United States, and India.[26][27] As of 1920, the British described it as "the chief emporium of Arabian trade, receiving the small quantities of native produce, and supplying the modest wants of the interior and of most of the smaller Arabian ports." At the docks, the city provided coal to passing ships. The only item being produced by the city, as of 1920, was salt.[27] Also, the port was the stop ships had to take when entering the Bab-el-Mandeb; this was how cities like Mecca had received goods by ship. Yemen Airlines, the national airline of South Yemen, had its head office in Aden. On 15 May 1996, Yemen Airlines merged with Yemenia.[28][29]

During the early 20th century Aden was a notable centre of coffee production. Women processed coffee beans, grown in the Yemen highlands.[30] Frankincense, wheat, barley, alfalfa, and millet was also produced and exported from Aden.[31][32] The leaves and stalks of the alfalfa, millet and maize produced in Aden were generally used as fodder.[32] As of 1920, Aden was also gathering salt from salt water. An Italian company called Agostino Burgarella Ajola and Company gathered and process the salt under the name Aden Salt Works. There was also a smaller company from India, called Abdullabhoy and Joomabhoy Lalji & Company that owned a salt production firm in Aden. Both companies exported the salt. Between 1916–1917, Aden produced over 120,000 tons of salt. Aden has also produced potash, which was generally exported to Mumbai.[33]

Aden produced jollyboats. Charcoal was produced as well, from acacia, and mainly in the interior of the region. Cigarettes were produced by Jewish and Greek populations in Aden. The tobacco used was imported from Egypt.[34]

Transportation

Aden03 flickr
Aden's harbour in 1960

Historically, Aden's harbour has been a major hub of transportation for the region. As of 1920, the harbour was 13 by 6 km (8 by 4 mi) in size. Passenger ships landed at Steamer Point now called Tawahi.[26]

During the British Colonial period motor vehicles drove on the left, as in the United Kingdom. On 1 January 1977, Aden, in line with Yemen and neighbouring states, changed to driving on the right.

The city was served by Aden International Airport, the former RAF Khormaksar station which is 10 km (6.2 mi) away from the city, before the Battle of Aden Airport and the 2015 military intervention in Yemen closed this airport along with other airports in Yemen. July 22, Aden International Airport was declared fit for operation again after the Houthi forces were driven from the city, and a Saudi plane carrying aid reportedly became the first plane to land in Aden in four months.[35] The same day, a ship chartered by the World Food Programme carrying fuel docked in Aden's port.[36]

Climate

Aden has a hot desert climate (BWh) in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. Although Aden is extremely dry year-round, it is humid throughout the year.

Climate data for Aden
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
35.0
(95.0)
37.8
(100.0)
41.1
(106.0)
41.1
(106.0)
41.1
(106.0)
42.8
(109.0)
38.3
(100.9)
38.9
(102.0)
35.0
(95.0)
32.8
(91.0)
42.8
(109.0)
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
28.6
(83.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.2
(90.0)
34.1
(93.4)
36.6
(97.9)
35.9
(96.6)
35.3
(95.5)
35.4
(95.7)
33.0
(91.4)
30.7
(87.3)
28.9
(84.0)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.7
(78.3)
26.0
(78.8)
27.2
(81.0)
28.9
(84.0)
31.0
(87.8)
32.7
(90.9)
32.1
(89.8)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
28.9
(84.0)
27.1
(80.8)
26.0
(78.8)
29.1
(84.4)
Average low °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.2
(73.8)
24.0
(75.2)
25.6
(78.1)
27.7
(81.9)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
24.6
(76.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
25.5
(77.9)
Record low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
17.2
(63.0)
18.9
(66.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
23.9
(75.0)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
25.0
(77.0)
18.9
(66.0)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
5
(0.2)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
5
(0.2)
1
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
5
(0.2)
36
(1.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 20
Average relative humidity (%) 72 72 74 74 72 66 65 65 69 68 70 70 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 241.8 203.4 217.0 240.0 303.8 282.0 241.8 269.7 270.0 294.5 285.0 257.3 3,106.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.8 7.2 7.0 8.0 9.8 9.4 7.8 8.7 9.0 9.5 9.5 8.3 8.5
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[37]
Aden mean sea temperature[37]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
25 °C (77 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 87, 307. ISBN 9780330418799.
  2. ^ a b "Yemen's President Hadi declares new 'temporary capital'". Deutsche Welle. 2015-03-21. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
  3. ^ a b Fahim, Karim; Bin Lazrq, Fathi (2015-04-10). "Yemen's Despair on Full Display in 'Ruined' City". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  4. ^ a b "Proxies and paranoia". The Economist. Economist Group. The Economist. 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
  5. ^ Modern Middle East Nations and Their Strategic Place in the World: Yemen, 2004, by Hal Markovitz. ISBN 1-59084-521-8
  6. ^ Lawrence G. Potter (2009). The Persian Gulf in History. p. 180. ISBN 9780230618459.
  7. ^ Dr Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh (2013). Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime Political Geography. p. 64. ISBN 9781136817175.
  8. ^ Ma Huan Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, 1433, translated by J.V.G. Mills, with foreword and preface, Hakluty Society, London 1970; reprinted by the White Lotus Press 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3
  9. ^ Broeze (2013-10-28). Gateways Of Asia. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-136-16895-6.
  10. ^ Port of Aden inner harbour
  11. ^ J. K. Laughton, ‘Jourdain, John (c.1572–1619)’, rev. H. V. Bowen, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008
  12. ^ Great Britain Hydrographic Dept (1900). The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot (5th ed.). Order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. p. 348.
  13. ^ "Timeline: Al Qaeda's Global Context: Al Qaeda's First Attack". Frontline: The Man Who Knew. pbs.org. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
  14. ^ Worth, Robert F. (2010-02-28). "In Yemen's South, Protests Could Cause More Instability". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  15. ^ "Head of GCC visits embattled Hadi in Aden". The Daily Star. 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
  16. ^ Hendawi, Hamza (20 March 2015). "Fierce gun battle between factions at Yemen airport". The Scotsman. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  17. ^ "Separatist clashes flare in south Yemen". BBC News. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via www.BBC.com.
  18. ^ "Yémen: les séparatistes sudistes, à la recherche de l'indépendance perdue". Le Point. 28 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  19. ^ "South Yemen separatists send reinforcements to Aden". Almasdarnews.com. 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  20. ^ http://www.yementimes.com/en/1537/Culture/192/Aden%E2%80%99s-rich-religious-heritage.htm
  21. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ a b McLaughlin, Daniel (2008). Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 183.
  23. ^ "Arabia Antica: Pre-islamic Arabia, Culture and Archaeology: About". arabiantica.humnet.unipi.it. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  24. ^ Taminian, Lucine (1998). "Rimbaud's House in Aden, Yemen: Giving Voice(s) to the Silent Poet". Cultural Anthropology. 13 (4): 464. doi:10.1525/can.1998.13.4.464. JSTOR 656569.
  25. ^ Abi Habib, Maria (2013-06-06). "Aden, Once The Lively Beach Resort of Yemen, Struggles Under Sway of Al Qaeda". The Wall Street Journal.
  26. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 68.
  27. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 69.
  28. ^ "North and South Yemen Airlines to Merge". Flight International. 10–16 April 1996. 10.
  29. ^ "Yemenia background Archived 2009-10-27 at the Wayback Machine". Yemenia. Retrieved on 26 October 2009.
  30. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83.
  31. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 84.
  32. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.
  33. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 98.
  34. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 99.
  35. ^ "Aden Airport ready to operate". Yemen Times. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-27.
  36. ^ "New WFP Ship Arrives In Aden Port With Fuel For Humanitarian Operations". World Food Programme. United Nations. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
  37. ^ a b "Klimatafel von Aden-Chormaksar / Jemen" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 25 February 2016.

References

  • Norris, H.T.; Penhey, F.W. (1955). "The Historical Development of Aden's defences". The Geographical Journal. CXXI part I.

External links

  • Aden travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • ArchNet.org. "Aden". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02.
2016 Aden car bombing

At least 27 people were killed in a triple suicide car bomb explosion, that hit roadblocks manned by loyalist forces in Aden, the largest city in southern Yemen, where several jihadist organizations are active. Two car bombs exploded in al-Shaab, west of Aden, and an ambulance exploded near a checkpoint in the center of the city of Mansoura, declared "provisional" capital of Yemen, since its resumption in July 2015 by pro-government forces, after their fight against the Shiite Houthi rebels. The Yemeni branch of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for the attack.

23 May 2016 Yemen bombings

On 23 May 2016, two suicide bombings, conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, killed at least 45 potential army recruits in Aden, Yemen. The first attack, which targeted a lineup, killed 20. The second attack, which occurred inside the base, killed 25. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for the attack. The attack was preceded by the 2016 Yemen Police bombings in the Yemeni city of Mukalla, which killed more than 48 people and injured over 60.

Aden Adde International Airport

Aden Adde International Airport (Somali: Garoonka Caalamiga Ee Aadan Cadde, Arabic: مطار آدم عدي الدولي‎) (IATA: MGQ, ICAO: HCMM), Aden Abdulle International Airport, formerly known as Mogadishu International Airport, is an international airport serving Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. It is named after Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, the first President of Somalia.

Originally a modest-sized airport, the facility grew considerably in size in the post-independence period after numerous successive renovation projects. With the outbreak of the civil war in 1991, Aden Adde International's flight services experienced routine disruptions. However, with the security situation in Mogadishu greatly improved in the late 2010–2011 period, large-scale rehabilitation of the grounds' infrastructure and services once again resumed. By early 2013, the airport had restored most of its facilities and introduced several new features.

Aden Emergency

The Aden Emergency, also known as the Radfan Uprising, was an insurgency against the Occupying Forces of the former British Empire in the Protectorate of South Arabia, which now form part of Yemen. Partly inspired by Nasser's pan-Arab nationalism, it began on 14 October 1963 with the throwing of a grenade at a gathering of British officials at Aden Airport. A state of emergency was then declared in the British Crown colony of Aden and its hinterland, the Aden Protectorate. The emergency escalated in 1967 and hastened the end of British rule in the territory which had begun in 1839. On 30 November 1967, British forces withdrew and the independent People's Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed.

Aden Jefferies

Aden Jefferies is a fictional character from the Australian Channel Seven soap opera Home and Away, played by Todd Lasance. He debuted on-screen during the episode airing on 4 August 2005. Aden was introduced in 2005 as a recurring character and as part of Cassie Turner's (Sharni Vinson) storylines. Lasance was offered the role after previously auditioning for a separate character. In 2007, Lasance was asked to return on another guest contract, though was promoted to the regular cast soon after.

Aden is characterised as a "bad boy" who goes on a journey to become one of the "good guys". Aden's backstory played a substantial role in his early material. His childhood was plagued with sexual abuse at the hands of his grandfather, while Aden's father, Larry Jefferies (Paul Gleeson) became an alcoholic. Lasance and scriptwriters have both pointed out that these events impacted on Aden's life and contribute to his destructive personality. As Aden begins to trust others again, he gains a close circle of friends including Nicole Franklin (Tessa James), Roman Harris (Conrad Coleby) and Morag Bellingham (Cornelia Frances). He also has a nemesis throughout his tenure in the form of Geoff Campbell (Lincoln Lewis). However, his main relationship is with Belle Taylor (Jessica Tovey); when the actors first heard that their on-screen counterparts would enter a relationship, they both complained to producers. Both felt like it would not work out and be ill-received by viewers. However, the two realised they had chemistry as a duo and took a chance. The couple became popular with viewers and fans coined the term "Adelle" to refer to the pair.

Other storylines include holding those closest to him as hostages and being admitted to a psychiatric ward. He is also forced to cope with Belle's death after their wedding and a subsequent relationship with his best friend Nicole. Certain media outlets enjoyed Aden and Belle's romance citing the moment they were torn apart as a "sad loss". Aden also gained recognition as being a popular "bad boy" from Inside Soap. For his portrayal of Aden, Lasance won the award for the "Most Popular Actor" at the 2009 Logie Awards.

Aden Protectorate

The Aden Protectorate (Arabic: محمية عدن‎ Maḥmiyyat ‘Adan) was a British protectorate in southern Arabia which evolved in the hinterland of the port of Aden and in the Hadramaut following the conquest of Aden by Great Britain in 1839, and it continued until the 1960s. In 1940 it was divided for administrative purposes into the Western Protectorate and the Eastern Protectorate. Today the territory forms part of the Republic of Yemen.

August 2016 Aden bombing

On August 29, 2016, morning a powerful car suicide bombing was conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, on an army camp in Aden, Yemen in which 72 people died and 67 wounded. The new military recruits were signing in a local government school, when the explosion took place. According to military sources, the recruitment was being done for new soldiers, for Yemen and Saudi led coalition army, needed for fighting the Huthi rebels, at the northern border with Saudi Arabia. ISIS claimed responsibility and referred to it as martyrdom operation. The bombing was another in a series of recent terrorist attacks, by Islamist militants, including Islamic State, in Yemen, especially on soldiers, public defense workers, and recruits, as a consequence of 18-month-old civil war between the Houthi movement and Hadi's supporters.

Colony of Aden

The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony (Arabic: مستعمرة عدن‎ Musta‘marat ‘Adan) was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen. It consisted of the port of Aden and its immediate surroundings (an area of 192 km2 (74 sq mi)).

Prior to 1937, Aden had been governed as part of British India (originally as the Aden Settlement subordinate to the Bombay Presidency, and then as a Chief Commissioner's province). Under the Government of India Act 1935 the territory was detached from British India and established as a separate colony of the United Kingdom; this separation took effect on 1 April 1937.

On 18 January 1963, the colony was reconstituted as the State of Aden (Arabic: ولاية عدن‎ Wilāyat ʿAdan) within the new Federation of South Arabia. The federation in turn became the People's Republic of South Yemen on 30 November 1967, marking the end of British rule.

The hinterland of the Colony of Aden was separately governed as the Aden Protectorate.

December 2016 Aden suicide bombings

The December 2016 Aden suicide bombings were terrorist attacks that occurred on 10 December and 18 December 2016 targeted on Yemeni soldiers in Aden, the responsibility of bombing was claimed by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group, claimed responsibility for the attack, according to Amaq news agency. The suicide bombing occurred in a gathering of soldiers who were to receive their salaries on 10 December 2016. The blasts took place at same military base camps on 18 December 2016.

Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (Arabic: خليج عدن‎, Ḫalīǧ ʻAdan, Somali: Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west. In the northwest, it connects with the Red Sea through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, and in the southeast, it connects with the Indian Ocean through the Guardafui Channel. It shares its name with the port city of Aden in Yemen, which forms the northern shore of the gulf. Historically, the Gulf of Aden was known as "The Gulf of Berbera", named after the ancient Somali port city of Berbera on the south side of the gulf. However, as the city of Aden grew during the colonial era, the name of "Gulf of Aden" was popularized.

The waterway is part of the important Suez Canal shipping route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Sea in the Indian Ocean, with 21,000 ships crossing the gulf annually.

MV Powerful

The MV Powerful is a Danish-flagged cargo ship owned by Excel Maritime Carriers Ltd. of Greece. It was attacked with the intention of hijack by Somali pirates using assault rifles on November 11, 2008 in the Arabian Sea's Gulf of Aden in the Horn of Africa. Its capture was thwarted by the Royal Marines of the British frigate, HMS Cumberland, as well as the crew of the Russian Neustrashimy class frigate.The November 11 incident off Somalia's coast occurred 60 nautical miles (110 km) south of the Yemeni coast, in the Gulf of Aden. The engagement was attributed to Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa and was described by The Times as "the first time the Royal Navy had been engaged in a fatal shoot-out on the high seas in living memory."

Modern history of Yemen

The modern history of Yemen began with the withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire. In 1839 the British set up a protective area around the southern port of Aden and in 1918 the northern Kingdom of Yemen gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. North Yemen became a republic in 1962, but it was not until 1967 that the British Empire withdrew from what became South Yemen. In 1970, the southern government adopted a communist governmental system. The two countries were formally united as the Republic of Yemen on May 22, 1990.

Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden

Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden (Korean: 아덴만 여명 작전) was a naval operation by the Republic of Korea Navy against Somali pirates in the Arabian Sea. The operation was spurred by the pirates' seizure of the South Korean chemical tanker Samho Jewelry. In response, the South Korean government sent a destroyer and 30 naval commandos to retake the ship and rescue its crew. After trailing the tanker for several days and fighting a preliminary engagement that neutralized four of the pirates, the South Korean forces retook the ship by force on January 21, 2011 in a successful boarding action that resulted in the death of eight and the capture of five out of thirteen pirates.

South Arabia during World War I

The campaign in South Arabia during World War I was a minor struggle for control of the port city of Aden, an important way station for ships on their way from Asia to the Suez Canal. The British Empire declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 5 November 1914, and the Ottomans responded with their own declaration on 11 November. From the beginning, the Ottomans had planned an invasion of Britain's Aden Protectorate in cooperation with the local Arab tribes. The Ottomans had gathered in some strength on the Cheikh Saïd, a peninsula which juts out into the Red Sea towards the island of Perim.At the start of the war, the British had one force stationed in the Aden Protectorate, the Aden Brigade, which was part of the British Indian Army. In November 1914, an Ottoman force from Yemen attacked Aden, but was driven off by the Brigade.

South Yemen

South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية‎ Jumhūriyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra. It was also referred to as Democratic Yemen or Yemen (Aden).

South Yemen's origins can be traced to 1874 with the creation of the British colony of Aden and the Aden Protectorate, which consisted of two-thirds of the present-day Yemen. However, Aden became a province within the British Raj in 1937. After the collapse of Aden Protectorate, the state of emergency was declared in 1963 when the National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) rebelled against British rule.

The Federation of South Arabia and the Protectorate of South Arabia merged to become South Yemen on 30 November 1967 and became a Marxist socialist republic in 1970 supported by the Soviet Union. Despite its efforts to bring stability into the region, it was involved in a brief civil war in 1986. With the collapse of communism, South Yemen was unified with the Yemen Arab Republic (commonly known as "North Yemen") on 22 May 1990, to form the present-day Yemen. After four years, however, South Yemen declared its secession from the north, which resulted in the north occupying south Yemen and the 1994 civil war. Another attempt to restore South Yemen continues on since 2017.

Yemen

Yemen ( (listen); Arabic: ٱلْيَمَن‎, translit. al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (Arabic: ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْيَمَنِيَّة‎, translit. al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah), is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres (203,850 square miles). The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 miles). It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands.

Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015.

Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist-Leninist state. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.

Yemen is a developing country and the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced. The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state; major general Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, who controlled the largest share of the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces; and Abdullah ibn Husayn al-Ahmar, figurehead of the Islamist al-Islah party and Saudi Arabia's chosen broker of transnational patronage payments to various political players, including tribal sheikhs. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making.It is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions.

Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment, corruption, and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election. The total absence of central government during this transitional process engendered the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthis rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh, later declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; Saleh was shot dead by a sniper in Sana'a in December 2017. This resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016.Saudi Arabia (since 2015) and the United States (since 2016) have blocked food imports, leading to a famine that is affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has also caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April 2017. In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million.

Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the internationally recognized Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. Houthi forces controlling the capital Sana'a, and allied with forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, have clashed with forces loyal to the government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, based in Aden. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have also carried out attacks, with AQAP controlling swathes of territory in the hinterlands, and along stretches of the coast.On 21 March 2015, after taking over Sana'a and the Yemeni government, the Houthi-led Supreme Revolutionary Committee declared a general mobilization to overthrow Hadi and further their control by driving into southern provinces. The Houthi offensive, allied with military forces loyal to Saleh, began on the next day with fighting in Lahij Governorate. By 25 March, Lahij fell to the Houthis and they reached the outskirts of Aden, the seat of power for Hadi's government; Hadi fled the country the same day. Concurrently, a coalition led by Saudi Arabia launched military operations by using airstrikes to restore the former Yemeni government; the United States provided intelligence and logistical support for the campaign. According to the UN and other sources, from March 2015 to December 2017, 8,670–13,600 people were killed in Yemen, including more than 5,200 civilians, as well as estimates of more than 50,000 dead as a result of an ongoing famine due to the war. The conflict has widely been seen as an extension of the Iran-Saudi Arabia proxy conflict and as a means to combat Iranian influence in the region. In 2018, the United Nations warned that 13 million Yemeni civilians face starvation in what it says could become "the worst famine in the world in 100 years."The international community have sharply condemned the Saudi Arabian-led bombing campaign, which has included widespread bombing of civilian areas. Despite this, however, the crisis has not gained as much international media attention as compared to the Syrian civil war until recently.

Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than three decades. After Saleh left office in early 2012 as part of a mediated agreement between the Yemeni government and opposition groups, the government led by Saleh's former vice president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, struggled to unite the fractious political landscape of the country and fend off threats both from Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Houthi militants that had been waging a protracted insurgency in the north for years. In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. The rebels continued to apply pressure on the weakened government until, after his presidential palace and private residence came under attack from the militant group, Hadi resigned along with his ministers in January 2015. The following month, the Houthis declared themselves in control of the government, dissolving Parliament and installing an interim Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a cousin of Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi. However, Hadi escaped to Aden, where he declared that he remains Yemen's legitimate president, proclaimed the country's temporary capital, and called on loyal government officials and members of the military to rally to him. On 27 March 2015, BBC reported that Hadi had "fled rebel forces in the city of Aden" and subsequently "arrived in Saudi Arabia's capital Riyadh" as "Saudi authorities began air strikes in Yemen". Civil War subsequently erupted between Hadi's government and the Houthis. Since 2017 the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC) has also fought against the government.

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