Adem Demaçi

Adem Demaçi (pronounced [dɛmatʃi] (listen); 26 February 1936 – 26 July 2018) was a Kosovo Albanian politician and writer.

Adem Demaçi
Born26 February 1936
Died26 July 2018 (aged 82)
Burial placeThe Martyr Cemetery, Prishtina
NationalityKosovo Albanian
Other names
  • Balkan Mandela[1]
    * Baca Adem
    * Adem Dema
Alma materUniversity of Prishtina
University of Belgrade
University of Skopje
  • Activist
  • Politician
Years active1950–2017
Known forActivist for human rights
Peaceful struggle against the Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo
Notable work
Gjarpijt e gjakut (English: The Snakes of Blood)
Home townPrishtina, Kosovo
Political partyParliamentary Party of Kosovo (1996–98)
MovementKosovo Liberation Army
Spouse(s)Xhemajlije Hoxha - Demaçi
ChildrenAbetare and Shqiptar[2]
AwardsSakharov Prize 1990
Human Rights Prize at the University of Oslo 1995
Hero of Kosovo 2010

Early life

Demaçi studied literature, law, and education in Pristina, Belgrade, and Skopje respectively. In the 1950s, he published a number of short stories with pointed social commentary in the magazine Jeta e re (English: New Life), as well as a 1958 novel titled Gjarpijt e gjakut (English: The Snakes of Blood) exploring blood vendettas in Kosovo and Albania. The latter work brought him literary fame.[3] In 1963 he founded the underground organisation the Revolutionary Movement for the Union of Albanians.[4]

Demaçi was first arrested for his opposition to the authoritarian government of Josip Broz Tito in 1958, serving three years in prison. He was again imprisoned 1964–1974 and 1975–1990. He was released from prison by new president of Serbia Slobodan Milošević.[3]

In 2010 he received the order Hero of Kosovo.[5]

Political career

After his release, he was Chairman of the Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedoms of the People of Kosovo from 1991 to 1995. He also served as editor-in-chief of Zëri, a magazine based in Prishtina, from 1991 to 1993.[3][6] In 1991, he was awarded the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought.[3]

In 1996, Demaçi moved into politics, replacing Bajram Kosumi as the president of the Parliamentary Party of Kosovo;[3] Kosumi became his vice-president. During this time, he proposed a confederation of states consisting of Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia that would be known as "Balkania". His prison record gave him credibility among Kosovars, but his tenure in party leadership was marked by factionalism and a lack of action.[6]

Two years later, he joined the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), serving as the head of its political wing.[3] In a 1998 interview with The New York Times, he refused to condemn the KLA's use of violence, stating that "the path of nonviolence has gotten us nowhere. People who live under this kind of repression have the right to resist."[7] In 1999, he resigned from the KLA after it attended peace talks in France, criticising the proposed deal for not guaranteeing Kosovo's independence. Sources stated that Demaçi had grown estranged from the KLA's younger, more pragmatic leadership, leaving him "faced with a decision of jumping or waiting to be pushed".[8]

Though Demaçi's wife left Kosovo before the war, he remained in Pristina with his 70-year-old sister during the entire Kosovo War.[3][9] He was critical of Ibrahim Rugova and other Albanian leaders who fled the conflict, stating that they were missing an important historical event.[10] Yugoslav soldiers arrested Demaçi twice, but were largely humane with him.[9]

Following the war, Demaçi served as director of Kosovo Radio and Television until January 2004. He remained active in politics, affiliated with Albin Kurti, head of the nationalist movement Vetëvendosje!.[3]


At the age of 82, Demaçi died on 26 July 2018 in Prishtina, Kosovo. His death was marked by three days of national mourning. On 28 July 2018, Demaçi was buried in the cemetery of martyrs in Prishtina, in a state funeral ceremony.

Notes and references


a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by 103 out of 193 United Nations member states.


  1. ^ "Kosovars Pay Tribute To Demaci, The 'Balkans' Mandela'" (Death of Adem Demaci). RFE/RL's Balkan Service. Radio Free Europe. July 27, 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  2. ^ Young, Antonia. "Shkëlzen Gashi, Adem Demaçi Biography: a Century of Kosova's History through One Man's Life" (PDF). Central and East European Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. pp. 73–4. ISBN 978-0810872318. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  4. ^ Robertson, James (18 August 2018). "From Enver Hoxha to Bill Clinton". Jacobin. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b "ICG Kosovo Spring Report". International Crisis Group. 1 March 1998. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  7. ^ Hedges, Chris (13 March 1998). "Kosovo Leader Urges Resistance, but to Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  8. ^ "Kosovo rebel leader quits". BBC News. 2 March 1999. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  9. ^ a b Erlanger, Steven (10 August 1999). "Champion of Free Kosova Now Urges Moderation". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  10. ^ Jacky Rowland (27 May 1999). "Kosovo leader calls for Nato troops". BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
10 February 2007 protest in Kosovo

On February 10, 2007, Kosovo Albanians protested against the Ahtisaari Plan. The crowd in Pristina protested against a UN plan on the future status of Kosovo. Many ethnic Albanians were unhappy that the plan fell short of granting full independence for Kosovo. The proposals, unveiled on February 2 by chief UN envoy Martti Ahtisaari, recommended a form of self-rule - which in itself was strongly opposed by Serbia. Arben Xheladini and Mon Balaj were killed on February 10, 2007, during a demonstration after the Romanian Police serving in the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, UNMIK, fired rubber bullets. Others were seriously injured. The international rights watchdog Amnesty International urged the UN Special Representative in Kosovo to persuade the UN mission in Kosovo, UNMIK, to apologize for the “failure to protect the lives of Mon Balaj and Arben Xheladini ... and provide the complainants with full reparation for the damage suffered”.



was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1936th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 936th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1930s decade.


2018 (MMXVIII)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2018th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 18th year of the 3rd millennium, the 18th year of the 21st century, and the 9th year of the 2010s decade.

2018 was designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.


Adem (Ottoman Turkish: آدم‎, Ādem) is a masculine given name common in Turkey.

Ahmet Haxhiu

Ahmet Haxhiu (6 May 1932 – 6 July 1994) was a Kosovo Albanian political activist and one of the main gunrunners for Kosovo Liberation Army in the early 1990s. He was one of the leading figures of the Revolutionary Movement for Albanian Unification, which aimed at uniting various illegal groups who fought against the government of FR Yugoslavia. Haxhiu later joined People's Movement of Kosovo and was considered the right hand of Adem Demaçi.On 28 November 2012 (Albanian Flag Day), Ahmet Haxhiu was awarded "The Order Hero of Kosovo" by the fourth President of the Republic of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga.He was the grandfather of Kosovar politician Albulena Haxhiu.

Albin Kurti

Albin Kurti (born 24 March 1975 in Prishtina, Kosovo ) is an Albanian activist and politician who is the leader of Vetëvendosje!, and Member of the Assembly of Kosovo. He came to prominence in 1997 as the vice-president of the University of Prishtina Student Union, and a main organiser of non-violent demonstrations in 1997 and 1998. When Adem Demaçi became the political representative of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), Kurti worked in his office.

Balkania (proposed state)

Balkania was the name of a proposed state in the Balkans, suggested by the Kosovo Albanian politician Adem Demaçi in 1993. Intended as an alternative to Serb-Albanian ethnic conflict, it would have transformed the rump third Yugoslavia into a democratic confederation consisting of Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro.The proposal became moot when in 2006 Montenegro declared independence, and after still disputed Kosovo declaration of independence in 2008.

Battle of Junik

The Battle of Junik (Albanian: Beteja e Junikut; Serbian: Битка за Јуник, Bitka za Junik) was a battle fought during the Kosovo War between the ethnic Albanian paramilitary organization known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and the security forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia over the town of Junik in western Kosovo.

Junik was occupied by the KLA early in the war and became a centre of arms smuggling from northern Albania due to its strategic location. The town was besieged by the Yugoslav Army (VJ) and Ministry of Internal Affairs (MUP) on 28 July 1998, and was the site of intense clashes for nearly three weeks afterwards. On 16 August, it was stormed by the Special Anti-Terrorist Unit, the special operations component of the MUP, forcing the remaining KLA fighters to flee into the surrounding hills and forests.

Four MUP personnel and two VJ soldiers were killed in the battle, according to contemporary reports. The KLA suffered between 13 and 100 fatalities. In addition, there were eight Kosovo Albanian civilian fatalities, and a further 12,000 Kosovo Albanian civilians were displaced by the fighting. After Junik's fall, the United States express concern that government forces had planted landmines around the town. In direct response to the town's capture, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1199 on 23 September 1998, calling for an end to hostilities in Kosovo.

Brotherhood and unity

Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Yugoslavia's post-war inter-ethnic policy. In Slovenia, the slogan "Brotherhood and Peace" (bratstvo in mir) was used in the beginning.After the invasion of Yugoslavia by Axis forces in April 1941, the occupying powers and their helpers sought to systematically incite hatred among the many national, ethnic and religious groups of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Communist Party successfully publicized the brotherhood and unity of Yugoslavia's nations (narodi) and national minorities (nacionalne manjine, later renamed to narodnosti) in their struggle against the fascist enemy and domestic collaborators. The decision of the second session of AVNOJ on the federalization of Yugoslavia in 1943 was regarded as the recognition of this Brotherhood and Unity principle.

After the war, the slogan designated the official policy of inter-ethnic relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, as embodied in its federal constitutions of 1963 and of 1974. The policy prescribed that Yugoslavia's nations (Serbs, Macedonians, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Muslims) and national minorities (Albanians, Hungarians, Romanians, Bulgarians, Jews, Italians, and others) are equal groups that coexist peacefully in the federation, promoting their similarities and interdependence in order to overcome national conflicts and hatred. Every individual was entitled to the expression of their own culture, while the ethnic groups had an oath to one another to maintain peaceful relations. Citizens were also encouraged and allowed to declare their nationality as Yugoslav, which usually polled at 10%. The policy also led to the adoption of national quota systems in all public institutions, including economic organizations, in which national groups were represented by their republic's or province's national composition.

Throughout Yugoslavia many factories, schools, public venues, folklore ensembles and sporting teams used to be named "Brotherhood and unity", as well as the Ljubljana-Zagreb-Beograd-Skopje highway (Highway "Brotherhood and Unity"). The country had a decoration called the Order of the Brotherhood and Unity.

Several prominent persons from former Yugoslavia were convicted for activities deemed to threaten the brotherhood and unity, such as acts of chauvinist propaganda, separatism and irredentism. Among people who needed and strived for their country's independence were former presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović) and Croatia (Franjo Tuđman and Stjepan Mesić), Croatian army general of Albanian descent Rahim Ademi and many others. One Kosovo Albanian, Adem Demaçi, was imprisoned for almost 30 years for allegations of espionage and irredentism.

Fadil Hoxha

Fadil Hoxha (Serbian: Фадиљ Хоџа, Fadilj Hodža) (15 March 1916 – 22 April 2001) was an ethnic Albanian Yugoslavian politician from Kosovo. He was a member of the Communist party and fought in the Yugoslav Partisans during the World War II. After the war, he was the first Chairman of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija (1945-1963) and later member of the Presidium of Yugoslavia (1974-1984).

Goli Otok

Goli Otok (pronounced [ɡôliː ǒtok]; Italian: Isola Calva) is a barren, uninhabited island that was the site of a political prison in use when Croatia was part of Yugoslavia. The prison was in operation between 1949 and 1989.

The island is located in the northern Adriatic Sea just off the coast of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia with an area of approximately 4.5 square kilometers (1.7 sq mi). Exposed to strong bora winds, particularly in the winter, the island's surface is almost completely devoid of vegetation, giving Goli Otok ("barren island" in Croatian) its name. It is also known as 'Croatian Alcatraz' because of its location on an island and high security.

Helge Rykkja

Helge Rykkja (born 27 August 1943) is a Norwegian author, poet, teacher and politician.

He was born in Mysen, started working at a lower secondary school in Kragerø in 1974 and took the cand.philol. degree in 1979. From 1966 to 1970, he was an editorial board member of the radical periodical Profil, and from 1968, he was a chief editor. He represented the Red Electoral Alliance in Kragerø city council from 1987 to 2003; some times as a deputy representative. He also worked to free Adem Demaçi from prison in 1990.He made his lyrical debut in 1966 with the poetry collection Bok. When it was re-released in 1997, it acquired "a certain classic status", according to conservative newspaper Aftenposten.

List of Albanian writers

This is a list of Albanian writers.

National Flag Order

The National Flag Order Albanian: Dekorata e Flamurit Kombëtar, is one of the highest decoration to be given in Albania, among the Civil awards and decorations of Albania, and was instituted by special law Nr.8113, of 28 March 1996.This award is granted to Albanians or foreigners for extraordinary contributions for the sublimation of the Albanian nation and Albania.

Mostly the proposer of this Order is the President of the Republic through his own initiative. It could also be the Speaker of Assembly or the Prime Minister.

Parliamentary Party of Kosovo

The Parliamentary Party of Kosovo (Partia Parliamentare e Kosovës, PPK) is a social-liberal political party in the Republic of Kosovo. It is led by former prime minister Bajram Kosumi. It is one of the oldest parties in Kosovo.

The party was founded 1990, out of the Kosovo Youth Parliament by Veton Surroi, who later left the party and formed the Reformist Party ORA. PPK has a history of being a longtime opposition party and a distant second to the ruling Democratic League of Kosovo under the Republic of Kosova (1990-2000). From 1996 to 1998, the party was led by human rights activist Adem Demaçi.

At the last legislative elections, 24 October 2004, the party was part of the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo.

Political prisoners in Yugoslavia

Political prisoners in Yugoslavia were mostly held after 1945 for opposition to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Soviet sentiments during and after the Informbiro period, or drives for regional autonomy or independence.

Sakharov Prize

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought. Named after Russian scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, the prize was established in December 1988 by the European Parliament. A shortlist of nominees is drawn up annually by the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Development, with the winner announced in October. The prize is accompanied by a monetary award of €50,000. The first prize was awarded jointly to South African Nelson Mandela and Russian Anatoly Marchenko. The 1990 award was given to Aung San Suu Kyi, but she could not receive it until 2013 as a result of her political imprisonment in Burma. The prize has also been awarded to organisations, the first being the Argentine Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in 1992. Five Sakharov laureates were subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize: Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Malala Yousafzai, Denis Mukwege, and Nadia Murad.Razan Zaitouneh (2011) was kidnapped in 2013 and is still missing. Nasrin Sotoudeh (2012) was released from prison in September 2013, but is still barred from leaving Iran, along with fellow 2012 laureate Jafar Panahi. The 2017 prize was awarded to the Democratic Opposition in Venezuela, under boycott of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.

Universiteti i Prishtinës

The University of Pristina (Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës) is a public higher education institution located in Pristina, Kosovo. It is the institution that emerged after the disestablishment of the University of Pristina (1969–1999) as a result of the Kosovo War. The inauguration of the university was a historical occurrence not only for the people of Kosovo, but for the whole Albanian nation. On 15 February, the solemn Parliament session took place, which is also proclaimed as The University of Pristina's Day. In the composition of the newly established University of Pristina were faculties with their headquarters in Pristina: the Faculty of Philosophy, Faculty of Law and Economics, Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Medicine. Now the University of Pristina has 17 faculties, of which 14 are academic faculties, and 3 are faculties of applied sciences.

Contained within the emblem is a translation of the name into Latin, Universitas Studiorum Prishtiniensis.

University of Oslo’s Human Rights Award

University of Oslo's Human Rights Award is an award which is awarded by the University of Oslo to individuals who have made important contributions in different fields. The award was launched in 1986 and since then, it is awarded every year to notable people from different walks of life. Those years when the award was not distributed are 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004.

It is also called the Lisl and Leo Eitinger Prize.

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