Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia; German: Adelheid; 13 August 1792 – 2 December 1849) was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom. Adelaide was the daughter of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
|Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen|
Portrait by Sir William Beechey, c.1831
|Queen consort of the United Kingdom |
|Tenure||26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837|
|Coronation||8 September 1831|
|Born||13 August 1792|
|Died||2 December 1849 (aged 57)|
Bentley Priory, Middlesex, England
|Burial||13 December 1849|
William IV of the United Kingdom
(m. 1818; died 1837)
|Father||George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen|
|Mother||Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg|
Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Thuringia, Germany, the eldest child of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; her mother was Luise Eleonore, daughter of Christian Albrecht, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. She was titled Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony with the style Serene Highness from her birth until the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), when the entire House of Wettin was raised to the style of Highness. She was baptised at the castle chapel on 19 August. Her godparents numbered twenty-one, including her mother, the Holy Roman Empress, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Crown Princess of Saxony, the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, the Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.
Saxe-Meiningen was a small state, covering about 423 square miles (1,100 km2). It was the most liberal German state and, unlike its neighbours, permitted a free press and criticism of the ruler. At the time, no statute existed which barred a female ruling over the small duchy and it was not until the birth of her brother, Bernhard, in 1800, that the law of primogeniture was introduced.
By the end of 1811, King George III was incapacitated and, although still King in name, his heir-apparent and eldest son George was Prince Regent. On 6 November 1817 the Prince Regent's only daughter, Princess Charlotte, died in childbirth. Princess Charlotte was second in line to the throne: had she outlived her father and grandfather, she would have become queen. With her death, the King was left with twelve children and no legitimate grandchildren. The Prince Regent was estranged from his wife, who was forty-nine years old, thus there was little likelihood that he would have any further legitimate children. To secure the line of succession, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, and the other sons of George III sought quick marriages with the intent of producing offspring who could inherit the throne. William already had ten children by the popular actress Dorothea Jordan, but, being illegitimate, they were barred from the succession.
Considerable allowances were likely to be voted by Parliament to any royal duke who married, and this acted as a further incentive for William to marry. Adelaide was a princess from an unimportant German state, but William had a limited choice of available princesses and, after deals with other candidates fell through, a marriage to Adelaide was arranged. The allowance proposed was slashed by Parliament, and the outraged Duke considered calling off the marriage. However, Adelaide seemed the ideal candidate: amiable, home-loving, and willing to accept William's illegitimate children as part of the family. The arrangement was settled and William wrote to his eldest son, "She is doomed, poor dear innocent young creature, to be my wife."
Adelaide's dowry was set at 20,000 florins, with additional three separate annuities being promised by her future husband, the English regent, and the State of Saxe-Meiningen.
Adelaide married William in a double wedding with William's brother, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, and his bride Victoria, Dowager Princess of Leiningen, on 11 July 1818, at Kew Palace in Surrey, England. They had only met for the first time about a week earlier, on 4 July at Grillon's Hotel in Bond Street. Neither William nor Adelaide had been married before, and William was twenty-seven years her senior.
Despite these unromantic circumstances, the couple settled amicably in Hanover (where the cost of living was much lower than in England), and by all accounts were devoted to each other throughout their marriage. Adelaide improved William's behaviour; he drank less, swore less and became more tactful. Observers thought them parsimonious, and their lifestyle simple, even boring. William eventually accepted the reduced increase in his allowance voted by Parliament.
On the Continent, Adelaide became pregnant, but in her seventh month of pregnancy, she caught pleurisy and gave birth prematurely on 27 March 1819 during the illness. Her daughter, Charlotte, lived only a few hours. Another pregnancy in the same year caused William to move the household to England so his future heir would be born on British soil, yet Adelaide miscarried at Calais or Dunkirk during the journey on 5 September 1819. Back in London, they moved into Clarence House, but preferred to stay at Bushy House near Hampton Court where William had already lived with Dorothea Jordan. She became pregnant again, and a second daughter, Elizabeth, was born on 10 December 1820. Elizabeth seemed strong but died less than three months old on 4 March 1821 of "inflammation in the Bowels". Ultimately, William and Adelaide had no surviving children. Twin boys were stillborn on 8 April 1822, and a possible brief pregnancy may have occurred within the same year.
Princess Victoria of Kent came to be acknowledged as William's heir presumptive, as Adelaide had no further pregnancies. While there were rumours of pregnancies well into William's reign (dismissed by the King as "damned stuff"), they seem to have been without basis.
At the time of their marriage, William was not heir-presumptive to the throne, but became so when his brother Frederick, Duke of York, died childless in 1827. Given the small likelihood of his older brothers producing heirs, and William's relative youth and good health, it had long been considered extremely likely that he would become king in due course. In 1830, on the death of his elder brother, George IV, William acceded to the throne. One of King William's first acts was to confer the Rangership of Bushy Park (for thirty-three years held by himself) on Queen Adelaide. This act allowed Adelaide to remain at Bushy House for her lifetime.
The King and Adelaide were crowned on 8 September 1831 at Westminster Abbey. Adelaide was deeply religious and took the service very seriously. William despised the ceremony, and acted throughout, it is presumed deliberately, as if he was "a character in a comic opera", making a mockery of what he thought to be a ridiculous charade. Adelaide alone among those attending received any praise for her "dignity, repose and characteristic grace".
Adelaide was beloved by the British people for her piety, modesty, charity, and her tragic childbirth history. A large portion of her household income was given to charitable causes. She also treated the young Princess Victoria of Kent (William's heir presumptive and later Queen Victoria) with kindness, despite her own inability to produce an heir and the open hostility between William and Victoria's mother, the Dowager Duchess of Kent. She refused to have women of questionable virtue attend her Court. Wrote Clerk of the Privy Council Charles Greville of her, "The Queen is a prude and refuses to have the ladies come décolletées to her parties. George the 4th, who liked ample expanses of that kind, would not let them be covered."
Adelaide attempted, perhaps unsuccessfully, to influence the King politically. She never spoke about politics in public; however, she was strongly Tory. It is unclear how much of William's attitudes during the passage of the Reform Act 1832 were due to her influence. The Press, the public and courtiers assumed that she was agitating behind the scenes against reform, but she was careful to be non-committal in public. As a result of her alleged partiality, she became unpopular with reformers. Unbelievable rumours circulated that she was having an affair with her Lord Chamberlain, the Tory Lord Howe, but almost everyone at court knew that Adelaide was inflexibly pious and was always faithful to her husband. The Whig Prime Minister, Lord Grey, had Lord Howe removed from Adelaide's household. Attempts to reinstate him after the Reform Bill had passed were not successful, as Lord Grey and Lord Howe could not come to an agreement as to how independent Howe could be of the government.
In October 1834, a great fire destroyed much of the Palace of Westminster, which Adelaide considered divine retribution for the vagaries of reform. When the Whig ministry of Lord Melbourne was dismissed by the King, The Times newspaper blamed the Queen's influence, though she seems to have had very little to do with it. Influenced by her similarly reactionary brother-in-law, the Duke of Cumberland, she did write to the King against reform of the Church of Ireland.
Both William and Adelaide were fond of their niece, Princess Victoria of Kent, and wanted her to be closer to them. Their efforts were frustrated by Victoria's mother, the Duchess of Kent. The Duchess refused to acknowledge Adelaide's precedence, left letters from Adelaide unanswered and commandeered space in the royal stables and apartments for her own use. The King, aggrieved at what he took to be disrespect from the Duchess to his wife, bluntly announced in the presence of Adelaide, the Duchess, Victoria and many guests, that the Duchess was "incompetent to act with propriety", that he had been "grossly and continually insulted by that person", and that he hoped to have the satisfaction of living beyond Victoria's age of majority, so that the Duchess of Kent would never be Regent. Everyone was aghast at the vehemence of the speech, and all three ladies were deeply upset. The breach between the Duchess and the King and Queen was never fully healed, but Victoria always viewed both of them with kindness.
Queen Adelaide was dangerously ill in April 1837, at around the same time that she was present at her mother's deathbed in Meiningen, but she recovered. By June, it became evident that the King was fatally ill himself. Adelaide stayed beside William's deathbed devotedly, not going to bed herself for more than ten days. William IV died from heart failure in the early hours of the morning of 20 June 1837 at Windsor Castle, where he was buried. Victoria was proclaimed as Queen, but subject to the rights of any issue that might be born to Adelaide on the remotely possible chance that she was pregnant.
The first queen dowager in over a century (Charles II's widow, Catherine of Braganza, had died in 1705, and Mary of Modena, wife of the deposed James II, died in 1718), Adelaide survived her husband by twelve years.
In early October 1838, for health reasons, Adelaide travelled to Malta aboard HMS Hastings, stopping at Gibraltar on the way and staying on the island for three months. Lacking a Protestant church on Malta, the queen dowager paid for the construction of the Collegiate Church of St Paul in Valletta. In the summer of 1844, she paid her last visit to her native country, visiting Altenstein Palace and Meiningen.
Queen Adelaide had been given the use of Marlborough House, Pall Mall in 1831, and held it until her death in 1849. She also had the use of Bushy House, Bushy Park at Hampton Court. Suffering from chronic illness, Adelaide often moved her place of residence in a vain search for health, staying at the country houses of various British aristocracy. She became a tenant of William Ward and took up residence at the latter's newly purchased house, Witley Court in Worcestershire, from 1842 until 1846. Whilst at Witley Court she had two chaplains – Rev. John Ryle Wood, Canon of Worcester and Rev. Thomas Pearson, Rector of Great Witley. She financed the first village school in Great Witley. From 1846 to 1848, she rented Cassiobury House from Lord Essex. During her time there, she played host to Victoria and Albert. Within three years, Adelaide had moved on again, renting Bentley Priory in Stanmore from Lord Abercorn.
A semi-invalid by 1847, Adelaide was advised to try the climate of Madeira for the winter that year, for her health. Here she donated money to the poor and paid for the construction of a road from Ribeiro Seco to Camara de Lobos.
Queen Adelaide's last public appearance was to lay the foundation stone of the church of St John the Evangelist, Great Stanmore. She gave the font and when the church was completed after her death, the east window was dedicated to her memory.
She died during the reign of her niece Queen Victoria on 2 December 1849 of natural causes at Bentley Priory in Middlesex and was buried at St. George's Chapel, Windsor. She wrote instructions for her funeral during an illness in 1841 at Sudbury Hall:
I die in all humility … we are alike before the throne of God, and I request therefore that my mortal remains be conveyed to the grave without pomp or state … to have as private and quiet a funeral as possible. I particularly desire not to be laid out in state … I die in peace and wish to be carried to the fount in peace, and free from the vanities and pomp of this world.
Queen Adelaide's name is probably best remembered in the Australian state of South Australia, founded during the brief reign of William IV. The capital city of Adelaide was named after her at its founding in 1836; the Queen Adelaide Club for women is still active, and a bronze statue of Queen Adelaide stands in the foyer of the Town Hall. The Queen Adelaide Society was inaugurated in Adelaide in 1981 by the late Dorothy Howie with the twin objectives of promoting public awareness of Queen Adelaide and to provide an annual donation to a South Australian children's charity.
There are Adelaide Streets, Adelaide Avenues and Adelaide Roads throughout the former empire; there is also Adelaide Hospital (now the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght) in Dublin, and an Adelaide railway station in Belfast. Australia has two Adelaide Rivers, in the Northern Territory and Tasmania, and an Adelaide Reef in Queensland. The town of Adelaide (originally Fort Adelaide) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, as well as Sir Benjamin D'Urban's short-lived colony in the same area, Queen Adelaide Province. Queen's Park, Brighton is also named in her honour. The Citadel in Port Louis, capital of the Republic of Mauritius, is named Fort Adelaide for her, the building having been started during the reign of William in 1834. In 1832 Adelaide Township was surveyed in what became the western part of Middlesex County in Ontario (now part of the municipality of the Township of Adelaide-Metcalfe). There is a small group of islands in southern Chile named Queen Adelaide Archipelago and Adelaide Island in the British Antarctic Territory.
In honour of the Queen's many visits, several places in Leicestershire were named after Queen Adelaide. They include Queen Street in Measham and the Queen Adelaide Inn (now demolished) in Appleby Magna. There is also the Queen Adelaide Oak in Bradgate Park (once home to Lady Jane Grey), under which Queen Adelaide had picnicked on venison and crayfish from the estate.
In 1849 there was a cholera epidemic in the East End of London. The following year, Queen Adelaide's dispensary opened in Warner Place, Bethnal Green. It moved to William Street in 1866 and by 1899 was handling 10,000 medical and dental patients a year. In 1963, the funds that had set up the dispensary became Queen Adelaide's charity, which still operates today.
Queen Adelaide was played by Harriet Walter in the 2009 film The Young Victoria, as a kindly but practical counsellor to the inexperienced queen. Delena Kidd portrayed her in the 2001 television serial Victoria & Albert.
The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom are impaled with her father's arms as Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. The arms were Quarterly of nineteen, 1st, Azure, a lion barry Argent and Gules (Landgrave of Thuringia); 2nd, Gules, an escarbuncle Or and a shield at the centre point Argent (Cleves); 3rd, Or, a lion rampant Sable (Meissen); 4th, Or, a lion rampant Sable (Jülich); 5th, Argent, a lion rampant Gules crowned Azure (Berg); 6th, Azure, an eagle displayed Or (Palatinate of Saxony); 7th, Or, two pales Azure (Landsberg); 8th, Sable, an eagle displayed Or (Palatinate of Thuringia); 9th, Or, semé of hearts Gules a lion rampant Sable crowned of the second (Orlamünde); 10th, Argent, three bars Azure (Eisenberg); 11th, Azure, a lion passant per fess Or and Argent (Tonna in Gleichen); 12th, Argent, a rose Gules barbed and seeded Proper (Burgraviate of Altenburg); 13th, Gules plain (Sovereign rights); 14th, Argent, three beetles' pincers Gules (Engern); 15th, Or a fess chequy Gules and Argent (Marck); 16th, Per pale, dexter, Gules, a column Argent crowned Or (Roemhild), sinister, Or, on a mount Vert, a cock Sable, wattled Gules (Hannenberg); 17th, Argent three chevronels Gules (Ravensberg); and over all an inescutcheon barry Or and Sable, a crown of rue (or a crancelin) in bend Vert (Saxony).
As the Duchess of Clarence, she used the arms of her husband (the royal arms with a label of three points Argent, the centre point bearing a cross Gules, the outer points each bearing an anchor Azure) impaled with those of her father, the whole surmounted by a coronet of a child of the sovereign.
|Princess Charlotte of Clarence||27 March 1819||Died a few hours after being baptised, in Hanover.|
|Stillborn child||5 September 1819||Born dead at Calais or Dunkirk.|
|Princess Elizabeth of Clarence||10 December 1820||4 March 1821||Born and died at St James's Palace.|
|Stillborn twin boys||8 April 1822||Born dead at Bushy Park.|
|Ancestors of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen|
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Cadet branch of the House of WettinBorn: 13 August 1792 Died: 2 December 1849
Title last held byCaroline of Brunswick
| Queen-consort of the United Kingdom
Title next held byAlbert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
as Prince consort
| Queen-consort of Hanover
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Events from the year 1819 in the United Kingdom.Bad Liebenstein
Bad Liebenstein is a municipality and spa town in Wartburgkreis district of Thuringia, Germany.Catherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds
Catherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (21 January 1764 – October 1837), formerly Catherine Anguish, was the second wife of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds.
She was the daughter of Thomas Anguish, Esq., a lawyer from Great Yarmouth, whose son Thomas heir to the estates of Sir Thomas Allin, 4th Baronet, of Somerleyton. Her beauty was praised by Lord Sheffield in the "Auckland Correspondence".She married Osborne in 1788, while he was still Marquess of Carmarthen. He had divorced his first wife, Amelia, in 1779. However, his son from his first marriage, George Osborne, would inherit the dukedom.
The duke and his second wife had two children:
Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne (1789-1861), who died unmarried. In 1843, following the death of both his mother's brothers, he inherited the Allin estates.
Lady Catherine Anne Sarah Osborne (1791-1878), who married Major John Whyte-Melville and had children.The duchess was fond of music and an accomplished singer, particularly known for her interpretations of works by Handel. She was a patron of the novelist Ann Radcliffe, who dedicated an edition of The Romance of the Forest to her.In 1813, the duchess was appointed governess to Princess Charlotte of Wales, daughter of the Prince Regent and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick. It was claimed by Lady Charlotte Bury that Princess Charlotte despised the duchess. She was obliged to resign from her position, when the princess declined to marry the partner chosen for her, William, Prince of Orange.
Between 1830 and 1837, as Dowager Duchess, she was Mistress of the Robes to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom.Consort crown
A consort crown is a crown worn by the consort of a monarch for her coronation or on state occasions.
Unlike with reigning monarchs, who may inherit one or more crowns for use, consorts sometimes had special crowns made uniquely for them and which were worn by no other later consort.
All British queens consort in the 20th century, Alexandra of Denmark, Mary of Teck and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, wore their own specially made consort crowns, made in 1902, 1911 and 1937 respectively; (each went on to outlive her respective husband but, as a dowager, retained the title, crown and other privileges of a queen until death). Previous English and British queens consort had used the crown of Mary of Modena, wife of King James II, until Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the consort of King William IV, who had a special new consort crown created for her.
In Imperial Russia, there were no unique consort crowns, because the Lesser Imperial Crown was intended to be used for coronation of all empresses consort, and after that, they did not wear crowns.Crown of Queen Adelaide
The Crown of Queen Adelaide was the consort crown of the British queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wife of King William IV. It was used at Adelaide's coronation in 1831. It was emptied of its jewels soon afterwards, and has never been worn since.Crown of Queen Alexandra
The Crown of Queen Alexandra was the consort crown of Alexandra of Denmark, the queen consort of King Edward VII. It was manufactured for the 1902 coronation.Electoral district of Adelaide
Adelaide is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. The 22.8 km² state seat of Adelaide currently consists of the Adelaide city centre including North Adelaide and suburbs to the inner north and inner north east: Collinswood, Fitzroy, Gilberton, Medindie, Medindie Gardens, Ovingham, Thorngate, Walkerville, most of Prospect, and part of Nailsworth. The federal division of Adelaide covers the state seat of Adelaide and additional suburbs in each direction.
The electorate's name comes from the city which it encompasses, which is named after Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the German born Queen consort of the King of England, King William IV.Emily Nugent, Marchioness of Westmeath
Emily Nugent, Marchioness of Westmeath (14 July 1789 – 21 January 1858), formerly Lady Emily Anne Bennet Elizabeth Cecil, was the first wife of George Nugent, 1st Marquess of Westmeath.
Emily was one of the three daughters of James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury, and his wife, the former Lady Mary Amelia Hill (herself the daughter of Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire.Emily Cecil married the marquess, then Lord Delvin, on 29 May 1812, at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. Lord Delvin was already known to have kept a mistress, the mother of his illegitimate children, and his family had recently been the subject of scandal surrounding his parents' divorce, but the couple were reported to be deeply in love.The couple had two children:
Lady Rosa Emily Mary Anne Nugent (1814–1883), who married Fulke Greville-Nugent, 1st Baron Greville
William Henry Wellington Brydges Nugent, Lord Delvin (24 November 1818 – 16 November 1819)Between the birth of the two children, the couple separated and were then reconciled. After the death of their infant son, Lord Delvin, they separated again, and it was agreed that their daughter would remain in the care of her mother; a legal battle ensued and custody was awarded to the earl. The marchioness later claimed that her mother-in-law, the former Countess of Westmeath, had recommended her to "make use of your prettiness" with the Duke of Wellington, in order to promote her husband's career. Lord Delvin succeeded to his father's earldom in 1814, and in 1822, he was created a marquess in the Peerage of Ireland.As an indirect result of the custody battle, the marchioness's friend Caroline Norton helped to push forward the passing of the Custody of Infants Act 1839, increasing the rights of mothers. The marchioness herself was actively involved in the campaign.In 1825, the marchioness sought a legal separation from her husband in Ireland's ecclesiastical courts on the grounds of adultery and cruelty, after the marquess had been given a prison sentence for persistent duelling with those he believed to be his wife's lovers. She also claimed that he had been physically violent towards her, something he already had a reputation for. He was persuaded to sign a financial settlement ensuring that his daughter would inherit a large proportion of his estate. The couple finally divorced in 1827.Despite the scandal, the marchioness was appointed a Lady of the Bedchamber to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom, retaining the post throughout the king's reign. The position brought her a salary of £275 a year.The marquess remarried in 1858, shortly after the death of his first wife.Emma Cust, Countess Brownlow
Emma Cust, Countess Brownlow, (28 July 1791 – 28 January 1872), formerly Lady Emma Sophia Edgcumbe, was the third wife of John Cust, 1st Earl Brownlow. The couple had no children, although the earl had children from his two previous marriages.
Emma was born in Portugal Street (now Piccadilly), Hyde Park, London, the daughter of Richard Edgcumbe, 2nd Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, and his wife, the former Lady Sophia Hobart.She married the earl on 17 July 1828 at St George's, Hanover Square, London. In 1830 she was appointed a Lady of the Bedchamber to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom, a position she retained until Adelaide's death in 1849. Her portrait was painted by James Rannie Swinton during the 1840s. Following her husband's death in 1853, she was known as the Dowager Countess Brownlow. The earl's son having predeceased him, the title passed to his grandson, John William Spencer Brownlow Egerton-Cust, who died in 1867, and thereafter to John's younger brother, Adelbert Brownlow-Cust, 3rd Earl Brownlow.Lady of the Bedchamber
The Lady of the Bedchamber is the title of a lady-in-waiting holding the official position of personal attendant on a British queen or princess. The position is traditionally held by a female member of a noble family. They are ranked between the First Lady of the Bedchamber and the Women of the Bedchamber. They are also styled Gentlewoman of Her Majesty's Bedchamber.
The equivalent title and office has historically been used in most European royal courts (Dutch: Dames du Palais; French: dames or Dame de Palais; German: Hofstaatsdame or Palastdame; Italian: Dame di Corte; Russian: Hofdame or Statsdame; Spanish: dueña de honor; Swedish: statsfru).Marianne Wellesley, Marchioness Wellesley
Marianne (or Mary Anne) Wellesley, Marchioness Wellesley (1788 – 17 December 1853), formerly Marianne Patterson, born Marianne Caton, was an American who became the second wife of Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, a brother of the Duke of Wellington.
She originated from Baltimore, Maryland, where her father, Richard Caton, was a merchant. The family was Roman Catholic, and Marianne's mother, Mary, was the daughter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton (died 1832), the last surviving signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Marianne first married Robert Patterson, whose sister, Elizabeth (died 1879), was the first wife of Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother. The Pattersons (originally spelled Paterson) were wealthy neighbours of the Catons in Baltimore. The couple came to Europe for the benefit of Marianne's health, bringing with them two of Marianne's sisters. One sister, Louisa, married a baronet, Sir Felton Hervey-Bathurst, in 1813, and after his death married Francis D'Arcy-Osborne, later Duke of Leeds. Another Caton sister, Elizabeth, married George William Stafford-Jerningham, 8th Baron Stafford, as his second wife.Following his first wife's death in 1816, and the death of Marianne's husband in 1822, they were married on 29 October 1825 in Dublin. Prior to their marriage, they may already have been lovers. The marquess was short of money and Marianne's inheritance may have been part of the reason for his proposal. Her family disapproved of the marriage because of Wellesley's reputation and his several children by his first wife, Hyacinthe-Gabrielle Roland.The marchioness's portrait was painted by Christina Robertson; an engraving by Thomas Anthony Dean is held by the National Portrait Gallery, London. She was also the subject of an unfinished portrait by Thomas Lawrence.In 1830, the marchioness was appointed a Lady of the Bedchamber to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the queen of William IV of the United Kingdom, and held the position until King William's death in 1837.She died, aged 65, at Hampton Court Palace, and was buried at Costessey, Norfolk.Mistress of the Robes
The Mistress of the Robes is the senior lady in the Royal Household of the United Kingdom.
Formerly responsible for the queen's clothes and jewellery (as the name implies), the post now has the responsibility for arranging the rota of attendance of the ladies-in-waiting on the queen, along with various duties at state ceremonies. In modern times, the Mistress of the Robes is almost always a duchess. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this role often overlapped with or was replaced as First Lady of the Bedchamber.
In the past, whenever the queen was a queen regnant rather than a queen consort, the Mistress of the Robes was a political appointment, changing with the government. However, this has not been the case since the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, and Queen Elizabeth II has only had two Mistresses of the Robes in more than sixty years' reign. Queens dowager have their own Mistresses of the Robes, and in the 18th century Princesses of Wales had one too.Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Princess Adelaide "Adi" of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Erna Caroline Marie Elisabeth; later Princess Adalbert of Prussia; 16 August 1891 – 25 April 1971) was a daughter of Prince Frederick John of Saxe-Meiningen and his wife Countess Adelaide of Lippe-Biesterfeld.Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide; 10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British royal family. She was the second daughter of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (later King William IV), and his wife, Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. She was a granddaughter of King George III of the United Kingdom.
After having had one child who died on the day of her birth, Princess Charlotte (27 March 1819), and suffering a stillbirth, the third pregnancy of the Duchess of Clarence also did not go as expected. The Duchess delivered a girl, almost six weeks premature, on 10 December 1820 at St James's Palace. She was christened on the day of her birth at the Palace by William Howley, then Bishop of London.The Duke and Duchess of Clarence had wanted to name her Georgina, but King George IV asked that she be named Elizabeth instead. The couple agreed and christened her "Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide" (or Elizabeth-Georgiana-Adelaide).
She lived the remainder of her days at St James's Palace. After "being suddenly seized with the fatal disease, an intro-susception of the bowels" she died shortly thereafter, aged 12 weeks. After her death, her mother suffered three more stillbirths.
Elizabeth was buried at Windsor Castle, in St George's Chapel, on 10 March 1821. During her short life, she was ahead of her cousin, the future Queen Victoria, in the line of succession.Princess William
Princess William may refer to:
Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1736–1807), wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1776–1857), wife of Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1792–1849), wife of Prince William, 1st Duke of Clarence and St Andrews, who became William IV of the United Kingdom
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born 1982), wife of Prince William, Duke of CambridgeQueen Adelaide, Cambridgeshire
Queen Adelaide is a hamlet on the River Great Ouse in the Fens about 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) northeast of Ely, Cambridgeshire , England.
The hamlet is named after a pub, which in turn was named after Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wife of King William IV. The hamlet did not exist until the 19th century, when the railways reached Ely and the pub was built.
The B1382 road is Queen Adelaide's main street. South of the hamlet is a junction of three railways: the Fen, Breckland and Ely to Peterborough railway lines. Each of the three lines crosses the hamlet's main street with a separate level crossing. West of the hamlet there is also a loop line, the Adelaide Loop, that the B3182 crosses on a bridge.
Queen Adelaide is in the Church of England parish of Ely Cathedral, which is 2 miles (3 km) away by road, so in 1883 a chapel of ease was built in the hamlet. It was dedicated to St Etheldreda, who was a 7th-century East Anglian princess and Abbess of Ely. More recently the chapel has been deconsecrated and converted into a private house.Queen Street, Melbourne
Queen Street is a street in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. The street forms part of the original Hoddle Grid and was laid out in 1837. It runs roughly north-south and is primarily a commercial and financial thoroughfare of the city centre.
Queen Street is named for Queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort of King William IV.