The Adelaide class is a ship class of six guided missile frigates constructed in Australia and the United States of America for service in the Royal Australian Navy. The class is based on the United States Navy's Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, but modified for Australian requirements. The first four vessels were built in the United States, while the other two were constructed in Australia.
The first ship entered service in November 1980, and one of the six ships is active as of 2019. Canberra and Adelaide were paid off in 2005 and 2008 respectively, and later sunk as dive wrecks: their decommissioning was to offset the cost of a A$1 billion weapons and equipment upgrade to the remaining four ships. Sydney was decommissioned in late 2015, after spending most of the year as a moored training ship. Darwin was decommissioned in late 2017 and Newcastle in June 2019. The Hobart-class air-warfare destroyers have been progressively replacing the last four frigates from 2016 onwards.
HMAS Darwin, the fourth ship in the Adelaide class
|Name:||Adelaide-class Guided Missile Frigate|
|Operators:||Royal Australian Navy|
|Preceded by:||Daring-class destroyer|
|Succeeded by:||Hobart-class destroyer|
|Built:||21 June 1978 – 21 February 1992|
|In service:||15 November 1980 – present|
|In commission:||15 November 1980 – present|
|Class and type:||Modified Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate|
|Displacement:||4,100 tons full load|
|Beam:||45 ft (14 m)|
|Draught:||22 ft (6.7 m)|
|Propulsion:||2 × General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, each providing 20,500 hp (15,287 kW). Total 41,000 hp (30,574 kW)|
|Speed:||Over 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)|
|Range:||4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)|
|Sensors and |
|AN/SPS-49 radar, Mk 92 fire control system, AN/SPS-55 radar, AN/SQS-56 sonar|
|Aircraft carried:||2 × S-70B Seahawk or 1 × Seahawk and 1 × AS350B Squirrel|
|Notes:||Mk 41 VLS and ESSM capability installed during the FFG Upgrade project|
Following the cancellation of the Australian light destroyer project in 1973, the British Type 42 destroyer and the American Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate were identified as alternatives. Although the Type 42 met the RAN's requirements as a replacement for the cancelled light destroyers and the Daring-class destroyers, fitting the ship with the SM-1 missile would have been difficult. On the other hand, the Perry class was still at the design stage; a design that was described by assessment project staff as "a second rate escort that falls short of the DDL [light destroyer] requirements on virtually every respect". Despite this, the Australian government approved the purchase of two US-built Perry-class ships in 1974.
The risk of acquiring an unproven design was seen as acceptable because of the success of the USN's Charles F. Adams-class destroyer (of which the RAN operated three ships as the Perth class), when compared to the equivalent British ships the RAN would have purchased. Final government approval to order two ships was granted in 1976, with a third ship ordered in 1977. The order was expanded in April 1980 with the order of a fourth unit. These four ships were built by Todd Pacific Shipyards of Seattle, Washington, as part of the USN's shipbuilding program, and were assigned USN hull numbers during construction, which were replaced with RAN pennant numbers upon entering service. The first, HMAS Adelaide (USN hull number FFG-17, RAN pennant number FFG 01) was built to the Flight I design, while Canberra (FFG-18/FFG 02) and Sydney (FFG-35/FFG 03) were the first and last ships of the Flight II design, respectively. The final American-built ship was Darwin (FFG-44/FFG 04); constructed to the Flight III design. In 1980, two more ships (Melbourne and Newcastle) were ordered, but were built in Australia by AMECON of Williamstown, Victoria, and did not receive USN numbers.
From the withdrawal of the Perth-class destroyers in 2001 until the introduction of the Hobart-class in 2017, these ships were the RAN's primary air defence vessels, armed with a Mark 13 missile launcher for SM-2 missiles. They also have significant anti-surface capability, being armed with a 76-millimetre (3.0 in) Mk 75 gun and the Harpoon ASM (also fired by the Mark 13 launcher), and a pair of triple torpedo tubes for ASW. In addition, two S-70B Seahawk helicopters are carried.
From 2005 onwards, all RAN frigates deploying to the Persian Gulf are fitted with two M2HB .50 calibre machine guns in Mini Typhoon mounts, installed on the aft corners of the hangar roof. Two TopLite EO directors are used with the guns.
The Australian frigates were originally fitted with American Mark 46 anti-submarine torpedoes, but by 2008, they had been replaced with the European MU90 Impact torpedo in three of the four frigates as part of the FFG Upgrade, with the conversion of Newcastle underway at that point.
There have been two major upgrades distinguishing the Adelaide class from the American Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates.
The first three ships were constructed to the Perry class' 'short' hull design (Flight I and II), with an identical length for both the main deck and the keel. Ships from FFG-36 onwards (including Darwin) were built with an increase in overall length—achieved by angling the transom (the section between the fantail and the keel) to increase the area of the flight deck and allow the operation of Seahawk helicopters. Adelaide, Canberra, and Sydney were later upgraded to match the slightly larger ships, and were fitted with the updated sonars and ESM systems of the Flight III design.
In the mid-1990s, the Australian government commenced SEA 1390, also known as the FFG Upgrade Project. Originally costing A$1 billion, which has expanded to A$1.46 billion, the project includes improvements to the combat and fire control system, the sonar suite, and the air defence missiles. The upgrade was for four ships and intended to expand their service life to approximately 2020. The project cost was partly offset by the decommissioning of the two oldest units: Canberra paying off in 2005 and Adelaide in 2008. Modification of each ship took place at Garden Island Dockyard, with Australian Defence Industries (ADI, now Thales Australia) selected as project leader for the upgrade phase of the project.
After the refit, the ships are capable of firing SM-2MR and RGM-84 Harpoon missiles from the Mark 13 launcher. An 8-cell Mark 41 Vertical Launch System for Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile has also been installed forward of the Mark 13 launcher. The Phalanx CIWS was upgraded to Block 1B, and the torpedoes, missiles, and other ship-mounted weapons were upgraded to the latest versions.
By January 2008, the FFG Upgrade Project was running at least four years behind schedule. The frigates' anti-missile and anti-torpedo detection and defence systems could not be integrated as intended, leaving the ships vulnerable to attack. The first ship refitted, HMAS Sydney, was initially not accepted back into service by the RAN because of the problems, which have also prevented any refitted ship from serving in a combat zone. Australian Defence Association executives and serving navy personnel have blamed both political parties for the problems: while the Howard Liberal government was responsible for the project, the preceding Labor government chose to maintain the frigates instead replacing them with the more expensive and much more labour-intensive, but more capable Kidd-class destroyers in the early 1990s.
By November 2008, Darwin's upgrade had been completed, while the problems experienced with Sydney had been rectified in both ships. It is planned to start deploying these warships to the Gulf in 2009. The RAN and Thales subsequently claimed that the two upgraded ships were the "most capable ships in the history of the RAN", and that once the other two Adelaides were upgraded, the navy would possess the "most lethal frigate fleet on earth". It was reported at the same time that other nations operating guided missile frigates, including the United States, Canada, Greece, and Turkey, were considering similar upgrades.
Canberra was subsequently sunk as a dive wreck on 4 October 2009, 2 nautical miles (3.7 km; 2.3 mi) off Ocean Grove, Victoria, in 30 metres (98 ft) of water. Adelaide was converted into a dive wreck, but plans to scuttle her off Avoca Beach, New South Wales in April 2010 were postponed following protests by resident action groups and a tribunal hearing, which ordered the removal of wiring and paint from sections of the frigate before she was sunk on 13 April 2011.
Sydney entered port for the final time in February 2015, but remained commissioned as an alongside training ship until 7 November. In May 2017, having not received any offers to convert the hull for use as a dive wreck, Sydney was sold for scrap.
In April 2017, the Polish government officially expressed interest in purchasing two of the remaining three frigates when they are retired from service. Negotiations between the Australian and Polish Governments for the sale were unsuccessful. In January 2019 the Greek Government sent an expression of interest to the Department of Defence for Melbourne and Newcastle.
|Name||Pennant number||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Paid off||Status/fate|
|Adelaide||FFG 01||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle||29 July 1977||21 June 1978||15 November 1980||19 January 2008||Scuttled as dive wreck, 13 April 2011|
|Canberra||FFG 02||1 March 1978||1 December 1978||21 March 1981||12 November 2005||Scuttled as dive wreck, 4 October 2009|
|Sydney||FFG 03||16 January 1980||26 September 1980||29 January 1983||7 November 2015||Broken up at Henderson, May 2017|
|Darwin||FFG 04||3 July 1981||26 March 1982||21 July 1984||9 December 2017||Awaiting disposal|
|Melbourne||FFG 05||AMECON, Williamstown||12 July 1985||5 May 1989||15 February 1992||-||Active in service|
|Newcastle||FFG 06||21 July 1989||21 February 1992||11 December 1993||30 June 2019||Awaiting disposal|
The Australian light destroyer project aimed to build a class of small destroyers for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The project began in 1966 with the goal of developing simple light destroyers (DDL) to support patrol boat operations. The project was rescoped in 1969 when the Navy decided to use the ships to replace other destroyers as they retired, leading to an increase in the design's size and complexity. Concerns over the ships' cost and technological risk led the government to cancel the DDL project in 1973 on the RAN's advice, and a variant of the United States' Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate was procured instead.Gloucester Cup
The Gloucester Cup is the common name for three awards of the Australian Defence Force. Formally referred to as the Duke of Gloucester Cup, the three awards are presented to the most efficient infantry battalion of the Australian Army, ship of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), and squadron of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) during the previous year. The awards were created by Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester in 1946, while he was serving as the Governor-General of Australia, and were first presented in 1947.HMAS Adelaide
Three ships of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Adelaide, after Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia:
HMAS Adelaide (1918) was a Town-class light cruiser commissioned in 1922 and decommissioned in 1946
HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01) was an Adelaide-class frigate commissioned in 1980 and decommissioned in 2008
HMAS Adelaide (L01) is a Canberra-class landing helicopter dock ship commissioned in 2015 and active as of 2016List of ship commissionings in 1980
The list of ship commissionings in 1980 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1980.List of ship commissionings in 1981
The list of ship commissionings in 1981 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1981.List of ship commissionings in 1983
The list of ship commissionings in 1983 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1983.List of ship commissionings in 1984
The list of ship commissionings in 1984 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1984.List of ship commissionings in 1992
The list of ship commissionings in 1992 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1992.List of ship commissionings in 1993
The list of ship commissionings in 1993 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1993.List of ship decommissionings in 2005
The list of ship decommissionings in 2005 includes a chronological list of all ships decommissioned in 2005.List of ship decommissionings in 2015
The list of ship decommissionings in 2015 includes a chronological list of ships decommissioned in 2015.List of ship launches in 1978
The list of ship launches in 1978 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1978.List of ship launches in 1980
The list of ship launches in 1980 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1980.List of ship launches in 1982
The list of ship launches in 1982 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1982.List of ship launches in 1989
The list of ship launches in 1989 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1989.List of ship launches in 1992
The list of ship launches in 1992 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1992.Mark 41 Vertical Launching System
The Mark 41 Vertical Launching System (Mk 41 VLS) is a shipborne missile canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The Vertical Launch System (VLS) concept was derived from work on the Aegis Combat System.Typhoon Weapon Station
The Typhoon is a type of remote weapon station manufactured by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems of Israel, and it shares similar design principles and common technologies with Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station (Samson RCWS), a land-based system manufactured by the same developer. Like Samson RCWS, Typhoon is also multi-configurable.
The Typhoon, and its lightweight variant, Mini Typhoon, are used by the Israeli Navy, Indian Navy, Philippine Navy, Royal Australian Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy, the Republic of Singapore Navy, Sri Lankan Navy and Singapore's Police Coast Guard.
|United States Navy|
| Royal Australian Navy|
| Republic of China Navy|
Cheng Kung class
| Spanish Navy|
Santa María class