Addie Joss

Adrian "Addie" Joss (April 12, 1880 – April 14, 1911), nicknamed "The Human Hairpin,"[1] was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball. He pitched for the Cleveland Bronchos, later known as the Naps, between 1902 and 1910. Joss, who was 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) and weighed 185 pounds (84 kg), pitched the fourth perfect game in baseball history (which, additionally, was only the second of the modern era). His 1.89 career earned run average (ERA) is the second-lowest in MLB history, behind Ed Walsh.

Joss was born and raised in Wisconsin, where he attended St. Mary's College (now part of Wyalusing Academy) in Prairie du Chien and the University of Wisconsin. He played baseball at St. Mary's and then played in a semipro league where he caught the attention of Connie Mack. Joss did not sign with Mack's team, but he attracted further major league interest after winning 19 games in 1900 for the Toledo Mud Hens. Joss had another strong season for Toledo in 1901.

After an offseason contract dispute between Joss, Toledo and Cleveland, he debuted with the Cleveland club in April 1902. Joss led the league in shutouts that year. By 1905, Joss had completed the first of his four consecutive 20-win seasons. Off the field, Joss worked as a newspaper sportswriter from 1906 until his death. In 1908, he pitched a perfect game during a tight pennant race that saw Cleveland finish a half-game out of first place; it was the closest that Joss came to a World Series berth. The 1910 season was his last, and Joss missed most of the year due to injury.

In April 1911, Joss became ill and he died the same month due to tuberculous meningitis. He finished his career with 160 wins, 234 complete games, 45 shutouts and 920 strikeouts. Though Joss played only nine seasons and missed significant playing time due to various ailments, the National Baseball Hall of Fame's Board of Directors passed a special resolution for Joss in 1977 which waived the typical ten-year minimum playing career for Hall of Fame eligibility.[2] He was voted into the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1978.

Addie Joss
Addie Joss by Carl Horner 1902
Pitcher
Born: April 12, 1880
Woodland, Wisconsin
Died: April 14, 1911 (aged 31)
Toledo, Ohio
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 25, 1902, for the Cleveland Bronchos
Last MLB appearance
July 25, 1910, for the Cleveland Naps
MLB statistics
Win–loss record160–97
Earned run average1.89
Strikeouts920
WHIP0.968
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1978
Election MethodVeteran's Committee

Early life

Addie Joss was born in Woodland, Dodge County, Wisconsin.[3][4] His parents Jacob and Theresa (née Staudenmeyer) worked as farmers; his father, a cheesemaker who was involved in local politics, had emigrated from Switzerland.[5] A heavy drinker of alcohol, he died from liver complications in 1890, when Joss was 10 years old; Joss remained sober throughout his life as a result of his father's death.[6]:p.21 Joss attended elementary school in Juneau and Portage and high school at Wayland Academy in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin.[7] By age 16 he finished high school and began teaching himself. He was offered a scholarship to attend St. Mary's College (also known as Sacred Heart College) in Watertown, where he played on the school's baseball team.[6]:p.21 He also attended the University of Wisconsin (now University of Wisconsin–Madison), where he studied engineering.[7][8]:p.200 Officials in Watertown were impressed with the quality of play of St. Mary's and put the team on a semipro circuit.[6]:p.21 During his time on the semipro circuit, Joss employed his unique pitching windup, which involved hiding the ball until the very last moment in his delivery.[6]:p.21

Connie Mack also sent a scout to watch Joss and later offered the young pitcher a job playing on his Albany club in the Western League, which Joss declined.[6]:p.22 In 1899, Joss played for a team in Oshkosh, earning $10 per week ($301 in today's dollars). After player salaries were frozen by team owners, Joss joined the junior team in Manitowoc, which had been split into two teams, as a second baseman and was soon promoted to the senior squad, where he was developed into a pitcher.[9] He was seen by a scout for the Toledo Mud Hens and in 1900 accepted a position with the team for $75 per month ($2,259).[6]:p.22 While in Ohio he was considered "the best amateur pitcher in the state."[10] He started the Mud Hens' season opener on April 28 and earned the win in the team's 16–8 victory.[9] He won 19 games for the club in 1900.

Contract dispute

Midway through the 1901 season, the Boston Americans of the upstart American League offered $1,500 ($45,174) to Toledo to buy out Joss's contract. The St. Louis Cardinals of the National League (NL) matched Boston's offer; Toledo rejected both offers. Joss continued to pitch for the Mud Hens and by the end of the 1901 season he had won 27 games and had 216 strikeouts (some sources say 25 games).[6]:p.22[11]:p.47 He became known as "the god of the Western League."[11]:p.47

After the season ended, Joss returned to Wisconsin where he led Racine to the 1901 Wisconsin baseball state championship against Rube Waddell's Kenosha squad. He also enrolled at Beloit College and played American football.[11]:p.47 It was reported that Joss had signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League as early as August 18 and received a $400 advance ($12,046), but Joss denied receiving any money.[11]:p.47 Mud Hens owner Charles Stroebel stated that he had signed Joss and other Mud Hens players for the 1902 season on August 12 and that the Western League was under the protection of the National League through September 1901. Before 1901 ended, the Cleveland Bronchos offered $500 ($15,058) to Toledo in exchange for Joss and manager Bob Gilks, who would be a scout for Cleveland. Toledo and Joss agreed and Joss was now a member of the American League, which was paying a premium on baseball talent to rival the National League.[6]:p.22 Dodgers owner Charles Ebbets invited Joss for a meeting, which Joss declined, and Joss let it be known that he had told Stroebel he would play for the Mud Hens for the 1902 season, and received a $150 ($4,344) advance in February 1902.

In March 1902, Joss signed with Cleveland. Toledo sportswriters took exception to Joss, one writing that "he voluntarily signed a contract [with Toledo] for this season but when Bill Armour of Cleveland showed him the $500 bill he forgot his pledge and sneaked off like a whipped cur."[11]:p.48 Stroebel later argued that Joss had returned only $100 of the $150 advance. For not returning the entire advance, Joss was charged with a felony and Stroebel pursued legal action. Joss made his major league debut with the Bronchos on April 26, and two days later he arrived in Toledo to turn himself in, accompanied by Bronchos majority owner Charles Somers, who was also American League vice president. The court set bond at $500 ($14,479). Stroebel also filed a civil suit against the Bronchos, stating that his business had been interfered with, but Stroebel agreed to withdraw his charges in July when he accepted Bronchos pitcher Jack Lundbom.[11]:p.48

Major league career

Cleveland Bronchos/Naps (1902–07)

Joss made his major league debut with the Cleveland Bronchos (also known as the Bluebirds) against the St. Louis Browns. The Browns' Jesse Burkett hit a shallow pop fly in the direction of right fielder Zaza Harvey. Home plate umpire Bob Caruthers ruled that Harvey did not make a clean catch, so Burkett was credited with a hit.[9][10] (Harvey and witnesses said the ball never hit the ground.)[12] Joss finished his major league debut with a one-hitter.

Addie Joss Baseball

Joss compiled a 17–13 record and 2.77 ERA during his major league rookie season. He led the American League with five shutouts.[7]

On October 11, 1902, Joss married Lillian Shinivar in Monroe, Michigan. Shinivar was in attendance when Joss made his professional debut with the Mud Hens in 1900. The couple had a son, Norman, and a daughter, Ruth.[5][6]:p.35 Following the conclusion of the 1902 season, Joss was selected to the All-Americans, an all-star team from the American League who played exhibition games against their counterparts from the National League.[9] To begin the 1903 season, the Cleveland organization changed the team's name to the "Naps" in honor of second baseman Nap Lajoie. In Joss' second year, he went 18–13 and lowered his ERA from the season before to 2.19. His walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP) was an MLB-low 0.948.[7]

For the 1904 season, the 24-year-old Joss went 14–10 with a 1.59 ERA and did not give up a home run during the season.[7] Illness during the season reduced his starts.[9] He had his first of four 20-win seasons in 1905 as he ended the season with a 20–12 record and 2.01 ERA. He finished with a career-high 132 strikeouts.[7] In 1906 his 1.72 ERA was third in the league and he finished with a 21–9 record and tied a career-high with nine shutouts.[7] To begin the 1907 season, Joss won his first 10 starts. He threw two one-hitters on the season, the first on September 4 against the Detroit Tigers and the second on September 25 versus the New York Highlanders. When teammate Heinie Berger threw his own one-hitter on September 26, it marked just the second time since 1900 that two pitchers from the same team had thrown back-to-back one-hitters.[9] Joss finished the season with career-bests in wins (finished 27–11) and ​338 23 innings pitched.[7] His win total tied with Doc White for highest in the American League and his WHIP was second-best (behind Cy Young) while both his complete game (34) and shutout (6) totals were third-best in the league.[13]

1908 season and perfect game

Before the 1908 season started, the Naps' home field, League Park, was expanded by about 4,000 seats. The Detroit Tigers, Chicago White Sox, and Naps were engaged in a race for the post-season described as "one of the closest and most exciting known."[14]:p.56 Three games remained in the regular season and the Naps were a half-game behind the Detroit Tigers as they headed into a October 2, 1908, match-up against the Chicago White Sox, who trailed the Naps by one game.[15] Game attendance was announced at 10,598, which was labeled by sportswriter Franklin Lewis as an "excellent turnout for a weekday."[14]

In what proved to be one of the tightest ever pitching duels in a perfect game, Joss took the mound for the Naps, while the White Sox pitcher was future Hall of Famer Ed Walsh. Neither pitcher would give up an earned run in the 1–0 game.[16] Walsh, blistering through his own 39 win season, struck out 15 batters, gave up only one base on balls and allowed only four scattered hits by the Naps.[16] The Naps' Joe Birmingham scored the team's only run, which came in the third inning—the lone, unearned run scored as a result of a botched pickoff play and a wild pitch. The tension in the ballpark was described by one writer as "a mouse working his way along the grandstand floor would have sounded like a shovel scraping over concrete."[9] Joss, having faced the minimum 24 batters in the first eight inning, retired the first two batters in the top of the ninth. Joss then faced White Sox pinch hitter John Anderson. Anderson hit a line drive that could have resulted in a double had it not gone foul. He then hit a ball to Naps third baseman Bill Bradley, which Bradley bobbled before throwing to first baseman George Stovall. Stovall dug the ball out of the dirt to achieve the final out. With the win, Joss recorded the second ever perfect game in MLB's modern era. He accomplished the feat with just 74 pitches, the lowest known pitch count ever achieved in a perfect game.[17] Fans swarmed the field. After the game, Joss said, "I never could have done it without Larry Lajoie's and Stovall's fielding and without Birmingham's base running. Walsh was marvelous with his spitter, and we needed two lucky strikes to win."[14]:p.57

For the season, Joss averaged 0.83 walks per nine innings, becoming one of 29 pitchers in MLB history to average less than one walk per nine innings.[18] His season-ending WHIP of .806 is the fifth-lowest single-season mark in MLB history.[19] The Naps finished with a 90–64 record, a half-game behind Detroit.[20] It was the closest Joss ever got to a World Series appearance.[9]

Final years with Naps (1909–10)

Joss near the end of his career
Joss near the end of his career

After amassing four consecutive 20-win seasons, he struggled in 1909 as a result of fatigue; by September he was shut down for the season.[9] Joss finished the year with a 14–13 record in ​242 23 innings pitched and recorded a 1.71 ERA.[7] He finished fourth in the American League in ERA and third in WHIP (.944).[21]

He pitched a second no-hitter on April 20, 1910, against the White Sox, becoming the first pitcher in MLB history to no-hit the same team twice, a feat not matched until Tim Lincecum of the San Francisco Giants no-hit the San Diego Padres in both 2013 and 2014.[22] In the second inning, the White Sox' Freddy Parent hit a ball toward third base. Bill Bradley failed to field the ball cleanly and thus his throw to first base was not in time to get Parent out. The initial ruling on the field was a base hit but it was later changed to an error. Joss gave up two walks and recorded 10 assists.[9] He made just 13 appearances that season due to a torn ligament in his right elbow. He made his last appearance of the season on July 25, and left the game in the fifth inning due to arm soreness. In his final game, he allowed three runs on five hits and two walks with six strikeouts in a 4–0 loss. [23] The Naps finished 71–82.[24] In his final major league season, Joss finished with a 5–5 record in ​107 13 innings.[25] The Naps finished the year 71–81. This marked the fifth time in Joss' nine years that the franchise finished with a losing record.[26]

Career marks

Of his 160 major league wins, 45 were shutouts. Joss' 1.89 career ERA is ranked second all-time (to Ed Walsh), while his 0.97 WHIP is the lowest career WHIP in MLB history.[27][28][29]:p.27 He finished with a 160–97 record, 234 complete games, and 920 strikeouts.

Joss's repertoire included a fastball, a "slow ball" (today known as a changeup), and an "extremely effective" curve.[30] Baseball historians Rob Neyer and Bill James ranked Joss' fastball third (1900–1904) and sixth (1905–1909) in the major leagues.[31] George Moriarty explained that Joss had only one curveball because "he believed that with a few well mastered deliveries he could acquire great control and success with less strain on his arm."[32] In an era filled with spitball pitchers, Joss achieved his success without ever altering the baseball. Joss threw with a corkscrew windup motion, described as "an exaggerated pinwheel motion."[33] Shortstop Roger Peckinpaugh described his windup: "He would turn his back toward the batter as he wound up, hiding the ball all the while, and then whip around and fire it in."[34]

Illness and injury accompanied Joss throughout much of his professional career. In 1903, a high fever forced him to miss the last month of the season.[5] He contracted malaria in April 1904 and then missed several starts with a back injury in 1905.[5]

Journalism and engineering interests

Joss was concerned about supporting his family after his baseball career ended; many players of the day had little education and few marketable job skills beyond their abilities on the diamond. As sportswriter Franklin Lewis wrote, "Only a handful of players in the rough, stirring, early days of the major leagues arrived from campuses. And when they did, sometimes the shock was too great for them. Some grizzled holdovers from the 1890s were around and they bore down heavily on the eardrums of the so-called college-boy set."[14]:p.55 Joss was hired as a sports columnist after the 1906 season for the Toledo News-Bee.[9][35] He also served as their Sunday sports editor. His writings proved so popular that sales of the paper increased and a special phone line was installed in his office to field the large volume of calls he received from fans. The increased popularity gave him an advantage when negotiating with the Naps before the 1907 season, and the club agreed to pay him $4,000 (equivalent to $108,000 in 2018).[9] (By 1910, player salaries averaged only $2,500.)[36]

He later also wrote for the Cleveland Press and covered the World Series for the News-Bee and Press from 1907–1909.[5] The Press introduced Joss in columns this way: "Of all the baseball players in the land, Addie Joss is far and away the best qualified for this work. A scholarly man, an entertaining writer, an impartial observer of the game."[10] Biographer Scott Longert wrote that "the writer was becoming as well-known as the ballplayer."[10] An editorial in the Toledo Blade said, "In taking his vocation seriously, [Joss] was, in return, taken seriously by the people, who recognized in him a man of more than usual intelligence and one who would have adorned any profession in which he had elected to engage."[33]

During the 1908–1909 offseasons, Joss worked on designing an electric scoreboard that would later be known as the Joss Indicator. The Naps decided to install the scoreboard, which allowed spectators to monitor balls and strikes at League Park.[9]

Death and benefit game

Joss attended spring training with Cleveland before the start of the 1911 season. He collapsed on the field from heat prostration on April 3 in an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.[29]:p.27 He was taken to a local hospital and released the next day.[8]:p.200 As early as April 7, press reports had taken note of his ill health, but speculated about "ptomaine poisoning" or "nervous indigestion."[29]:p.28 The Naps traveled to Toledo for exhibition games on April 10 and Joss went to his home on Fulton Street where he was seen by his personal physician, Dr. George W. Chapman.[29]:p.28[37]:p.69 Chapman thought Joss could be suffering from nervous indigestion or food poisoning. By April 9, as Joss was coughing more and had a severe headache, Chapman changed his diagnosis to pleurisy and reported that Joss would not be able to play for one month and would need ten days of rest to recover. Joss could not stand on his own and his speech was slurred. On April 13, Chapman sought a second opinion from the Naps' team doctor, who performed a lumbar puncture and diagnosed Joss with tuberculous meningitis.[b] The disease had spread to Joss' brain and he died on April 14, 1911, two days after his 31st birthday[5][6] and two days after Cleveland's season opener.[38]

Joss was well-liked by his peers and baseball fans. Upon hearing of his death, the Press wrote "every train brings flowers" and "floral tributes by the wagonload are hourly arriving at the Joss home from all sections of the country."[6]:p.34 His family arranged for the funeral to take place on April 17. On that day, the Naps were to face the Detroit Tigers in the Tigers' home opener. Naps players signed a petition stating that they would not attend the game so they could instead attend the funeral. They asked for the game to be rescheduled, but the Tigers balked at the request. American League president Ban Johnson initially supported the Tigers' position, but he ultimately sided with the Naps. Naps owner Charles Somers and 15 Naps players attended the funeral, which was officiated by player-turned-evangelist Billy Sunday.[37]:p.72

1911 Addie Joss Benefit Game
1911 Addie Joss Benefit Game

The first "all-star" game was played as a benefit for Joss's family on July 24, 1911.[6]:p.35 The Naps invited players from the other seven American League teams to play against them. Visiting club players who were involved in the game included Home Run Baker, Ty Cobb, Eddie Collins, Sam Crawford, Walter Johnson, Tris Speaker, Gabby Street, and Smokey Joe Wood. "I'll do anything they want for Addie Joss' family", Johnson said.[39]:p.10 Washington Senators manager Jimmy McAleer volunteered to manage the all-stars. "The memory of Addie Joss is sacred to everyone with whom he ever came in contact. The man never wore a uniform who was a greater credit to the sport than he", McAleer said.[39]:p.10 The game was attended by approximately 15,270 fans and raised nearly $13,000 ($350,000 today) to help Joss' family members pay remaining medical bills.[5][9][37]:p.78 The Naps lost 5–3.[39]:p.11

Recognition

Boston Globe sports editor Jason Nason campaigned for Joss' induction into the Hall of Fame starting in the 1950s.[40] Sportswriter Red Smith wrote in 1970 in support of Joss. "Could you write a history of baseball without mentioning Joss? Nobody ever has. That ought to be the measure of a man's fitness for the Hall of Fame, the only measure."[41] However, Warren Giles, then-chairman of the Hall of Fame's Veterans Committee, pointed out to baseball historian Bob Broeg in 1972 that induction to the Hall required "participation in ten championship seasons." Joss had been on the Cleveland roster in 1911 and participated in spring training, falling ill just before regular season play commenced. Hence it was argued he had "participated" in the 1911 season, his tenth.[42] The Hall's Board of Directors waived the eligibility requirements for Joss.[2][43] Joe Reichler, a member of the Commissioner's office, worked to allow Joss to become eligible for the Hall and succeeded in 1977.[40] Joss was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1978.[6] He is the only player in the Hall of Fame whose regular season playing career lasted fewer than 10 years.[10]:p.51

In 1981, Lawrence Ritter and Donald Honig included him in their book The 100 Greatest Baseball Players of All Time. They described what they called "the Smoky Joe Wood Syndrome", where a player of truly exceptional talent has a career curtailed by injury or illness. They argued that such a player should still be included among the greatest all-time players, in spite of career statistics that would not quantitatively rank him with the all-time greats. They believed that Joss' career ERA was proof enough of his greatness to be included. Baseball author John Tierney wrote: "Joss is remembered for a remarkably low career ERA, but he pitched in a time before earned runs were compiled as an official statistic, and his career ended in 1910, before the American League introduced its new baseball in 1911, leading to a nearly 25 percent increase in runs scored."[44]

Joss was inducted into the Cleveland Indians Hall of Fame on July 29, 2006.[45] He was inducted in the same class as Ray Chapman, Rocky Colavito, Al López, Sam McDowell, Al Rosen and Herb Score.

Footnotes

  • a Sources differ on the number of one-hitters. Porter states six one-hitters[5] while Schneider lists five.[8]:p.200 A career summary at the time of his Hall of Fame selection noted seven in total which is consistent with records at the time of Bob Feller's eighth one-hitter in 1946.[46][47]
  • b Fleitz writes in Shoeless: The Life and Times of Joe Jackson that Joss was diagnosed with pleurisy by the Naps team doctor while in Chattanooga.[37]:p.69 Coffey writes in 27 Men Out: Baseball's Perfect Games while on a train ride back to Toledo, Joss stopped in Cincinnati and was diagnosed by "a doctor" who stated Joss had "congestion in his right lung with a bad attack of pleurisy" and an "affection [sic] of the brain."[6]:p.34 Kneib writes in Meningitis the Naps were scheduled to go to Cincinnati but Joss did not receive an examination until he returned to Toledo, where he was examined and diagnosed with pleurisy by his personal physician and roughly a week later, seen in Toledo by the Naps' team doctor who diagnosed Joss with tubercular meningitis.[29]:p.28

See also

References

  1. ^ Hall of Fame Pitchers at America's Library/The Library of Congress
  2. ^ a b "Fame Beckons Joss, MacPhail". Milwaukee Sentinel. United Press International. January 31, 1978. p. 2. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  3. ^ "Addie Joss". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  4. ^ "Birth Record Details". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Porter, David L. (2000). Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: G–P. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 775. ISBN 0-313-31175-7. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Coffey, Michael (2004). 27 Men Out: Baseball's Perfect Games. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 0-7434-4606-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Addie Joss Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c Schneider, Russell (2004). The Cleveland Indians Encyclopedia. Champaign, Illinois: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-840-2. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Semchuck, Alex. "Addie Joss". Sabr.org. Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e Buckley, Jr., James (2012). Perfect: The Inside Story of Baseball's Twenty Perfect Games. Chicago: Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1-60078-676-1. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Pajot, Dennis (2011). Baseball's Heartland War, 1902–1903: The Western League and American Association Vie for Turf, Players and Profits. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-6337-4. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  12. ^ La Russa, Tony; Purdy, Dennis (2006). The Team-by-Team Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York: Workman Publishing. p. 350. ISBN 978-0-7611-5376-4.
  13. ^ "1907 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d Lewis, Franklin A. (2006). The Cleveland Indians. Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-885-2. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  15. ^ Goldman, Steven (September 8, 2006). "You Could Look It Up: No Hits For You". Baseball Prospectus. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Addie Joss Perfect Game Box Score". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  17. ^ "Perfect Games by Pitchers". Baseballalmanac.com. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  18. ^ Wilbert, Warren N. (2003). What Makes an Elite Pitcher?: Young, Mathewson, Johnson, Alexander, Grove, Spahn, Seaver, Clemens and Maddux. McFarland & Company. p. 88. ISBN 0-7864-1456-1. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  19. ^ "Single-Season Leaders & Records for Walks & Hits per IP". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  20. ^ "1908 American League Season Summary". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  21. ^ "1909 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  22. ^ McEntire, Madison (2006). Big League Trivia: Facts, Figures, Oddities, and Coincidences from our National Pastime. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. p. 86. ISBN 1-4259-1292-3. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  23. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/boxes/PHA/PHA191007252.shtml
  24. ^ "1909 American League Season Summary". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  25. ^ Baldassaro, Lawrence; Johnson, Richard A., eds. (2002). The American Game: Baseball and Ethnicity. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8093-2445-8. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  26. ^ "Cleveland Indians Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  27. ^ "Career Leaders & Records for Earned Run Average". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  28. ^ "Career Leaders & Records for Walks & Hits per IP". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  29. ^ a b c d e Kneib, Martha (2005). Meningitis. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4042-0257-9. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  30. ^ Poremba, David Lee (2000). The American League: The Early Years. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 0-7385-0710-5. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  31. ^ Neyer, Rob; James, Bill (2004). The Neyer/James Guide to Pitchers: An Historical Compendium on Pitching, Pitchers and Pitches. New York: Fireside. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0-7432-6158-5. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  32. ^ "The Greatest Pitcher I Ever Faced." Baseball Magazine, 1911
  33. ^ a b Gutman, Bill (2008). "Shine On, Superstar". What If the Babe Had Kept His Red Sox?: And Other Fascinating Alternate Histories From the World of Sports. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-629-6. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  34. ^ Honig, Donald (1977). The Man in the Dugout. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company.
  35. ^ Husman, John R. (2003). Baseball in Toledo. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 0-7385-2327-5.
  36. ^ Frommer, Harvey (1992). Shoeless Joe and Ragtime Baseball. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8032-1862-8. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  37. ^ a b c d Fleitz, David L. (2001). Shoeless: The Life and Times of Joe Jackson. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-3312-4. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  38. ^ https://www.baseball-reference.com/teams/CLE/1911-schedule-scores.shtml
  39. ^ a b c Lew Freedman (2010). The Day the Stars Came Out: Major League Baseball's First All-Star Game, 1933. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-4708-4.
  40. ^ a b Whatever Happened to the Hall of Fame?: Baseball, Cooperstown, and the Politics of Glory. New York: Fireside. 1995. p. 334. ISBN 0-684-80088-8. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  41. ^ Berkow, Ira (1986). Red: A Biography of Red Smith. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-8032-6040-5. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  42. ^ Addie Joss: King of Pitchers, by Scott Longert, published by the Society of American Baseball Research, 1998
  43. ^ "Hall of Fame changes rules". St. Petersburg Times. October 4, 1977. p. 3C. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  44. ^ Tierney, John P. (2004). Jack Coombs: A Life in Baseball. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-7864-3959-1. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  45. ^ "Indians resurrect hall of fame". The Vindicator. Youngstown, Ohio. Associated Press. July 12, 2006. p. C4. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  46. ^ "Baseball Hall of Fame Inducts 3". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. August 8, 1978. p. 14. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  47. ^ "Feller Sets New Mark With Eighth One-Hitter of Career". Ottawa Citizen. Associated Press. August 9, 1946. p. 14. Retrieved November 8, 2012.

External links

Preceded by
Cy Young
Perfect game pitcher
October 2, 1908
Succeeded by
Charlie Robertson
Preceded by
Bob Rhoads
Addie Joss
No-hitter pitcher
October 2, 1908
April 20, 1910
Succeeded by
Addie Joss
Chief Bender
1905 Cleveland Naps season

The 1905 Cleveland Naps season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fifth in the American League with a record of 76–78, 19 games behind the Philadelphia Athletics.

1908 Major League Baseball season

The 1908 Major League Baseball season. The Chicago Cubs defeated the Detroit Tigers 4–1 to win the World Series.

1909 Cleveland Naps season

The 1909 Cleveland Naps season was a season in American baseball. The team finished sixth in the American League with a record of 71–82, 27½ games behind the Detroit Tigers.

1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the first edition of the All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic". This was the first official playing of the midseason exhibition baseball game between Major League Baseball's (MLB's) National League (NL) and American League (AL) All-Star teams. The game was held on July 6, 1933, at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois, the home of the AL's Chicago White Sox. The game resulted in the AL defeating the NL 4–2, in two hours and five minutes.

The first MLB All-Star game (unofficial all-star game called the Addie Joss Benefit Game) was held on July 24, 1911, in Cleveland at Cleveland League Park (League Park, 1891–1946), the American League All-Stars versus the Cleveland Naps (1903–1915). The AL All-Stars won 5-3.

1978 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1978 introduced a new system that would continue to 1994. The special committee on Negro Leagues had disbanded after its 1977 meeting. Two of its members were appointed to the Veterans Committee, as part of expanding that body from twelve to eighteen members, and its responsibilities were extended to cover the Negro Leagues. Where the special committee had elected nine people in seven years from 1971, the expanded Veterans Committee would elect two in seventeen years up to 1994, before the next reform.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and

elected Eddie Mathews.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider older major league players as well as managers, umpires, executives, and figures from the Negro Leagues.

It selected Addie Joss and Larry MacPhail.

Addie Joss' perfect game

On October 2, 1908, Addie Joss pitched a perfect game, the fourth in Major League Baseball history, and only the second in American League history. He threw it at League Park, in Cleveland, Ohio.

Baseball Magazine

Baseball Magazine is a now-defunct baseball magazine, the first monthly baseball magazine published in the United States. The magazine was founded by Boston sportswriter Jake Morse prior to the 1908 season. It continued publishing through 1957. The magazine was based in Boston.Morse stated that his mission in starting Baseball Magazine was to "fill the need of a monthly organ filled with the highest thought surrounding the game, well edited, well printed, and filled with first class illustrations."

The magazine also strove to provide human interest stories about baseball stars, such as Ty Cobb and Christy Mathewson. F.C. Lane became the magazine's editor in 1911 and remained in that post until 1937. One of Lane's first issues was devoted to Cobb, including stories about him and a Q&A session with him. Morse had previously devoted issues to Cy Young in 1908, shortly after baseball commemorated Cy Young Day, and to Addie Joss in 1911, shortly after Joss' death. Despite the magazine's reverence for Young and Mathewson, in 1909 Morse wrote an article in Baseball Magazine proclaiming former Providence Grays pitcher Charles Radbourn to be "the greatest pitcher who ever lived." Another famous article from the magazine's early days described how difficult it was to be a catcher in baseball's early days.During the 1920s the magazine complained about players being paid to act as baseball writers.

Bob Tewksbury

Robert Alan Tewksbury (born November 30, 1960) is a retired Major League Baseball pitcher and current Mental Skills Coordinator for the Chicago Cubs. He played professionally for the New York Yankees, Chicago Cubs, St. Louis Cardinals, Texas Rangers, San Diego Padres and the Minnesota Twins.

Bob Tewksbury has the lowest ratio of base on balls per innings pitched for any starting pitcher to pitch in the major leagues since the 1920s, and the lowest ratio for any pitcher to pitch since the 1800s except for Deacon Phillippe, Babe Adams, Dan Quisenberry, and Addie Joss.

Bull Perrine

Frederick "Bull" Perrine (1877 – June 5, 1915) was a professional baseball umpire who worked in the American League from 1909 to 1912. Perrine umpired 507 major league games in his four-year career. He was the home plate umpire on April 20, 1910, when Addie Joss threw a no-hitter. Upon his retirement following an illness, league president Ban Johnson described Perrine as the league's best umpire.

Cleveland Indians award winners and league leaders

This is a list of award winners and league leaders for the Cleveland Indians professional baseball team.

Jim Bunning's perfect game

On June 21, 1964, Jim Bunning of the Philadelphia Phillies pitched the seventh perfect game in Major League Baseball history, defeating the New York Mets 6-0 in the first game of a doubleheader at Shea Stadium. A father of seven children at the time, Bunning pitched his perfect game on Father's Day. One of Bunning's daughters, Barbara, was in attendance, as was his wife, Mary.

Needing only 90 pitches to complete his masterpiece, Bunning struck out 10 batters, including six of the last nine he faced; the last two strikeouts were of the last two batters he faced: George Altman and John Stephenson.

The perfect game was the first regular season perfect game since Charlie Robertson's perfect game in 1922 (Don Larsen had pitched a perfect game in between, in the 1956 World Series), as well as the first in modern-day National League history (two perfect games had been pitched in 1880). It was also the first no-hitter by a Phillies pitcher since Johnny Lush no-hit the Brooklyn Superbas on May 1, 1906.

Bunning, who no-hit the Boston Red Sox while with the Detroit Tigers in 1958, joined Cy Young as the only pitchers to throw no-hitters in both the National and American Leagues; he has since been joined by Nolan Ryan, Hideo Nomo and Randy Johnson. The perfect game also made Bunning the third pitcher, after Young and Addie Joss, to throw a perfect game and an additional no-hitter; Sandy Koufax, Johnson, Mark Buehrle and Roy Halladay have since joined him (the latter of these pitchers pitched his additional no-hitter in the 2010 National League Division Series after pitching his perfect game earlier in the season).

As the perfect game developed, Bunning defied the baseball superstition that no one should talk about a no-hitter in progress, speaking to his teammates about the perfect game to keep himself relaxed and loosen up his teammates. Bunning had abided by the tradition during a near-no hitter a few weeks before, determining afterwards that keeping quiet didn’t help.Gus Triandos, Bunning's catcher, had also caught Hoyt Wilhelm's no-hitter on September 20, 1958 while with the Baltimore Orioles, becoming the first catcher to catch no-hitters in both leagues.

List of Cleveland Indians Opening Day starting pitchers

The Cleveland Indians are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Cleveland, Ohio. They play in the American League Central division. The first game of the new baseball season is played on Opening Day, and being named the starter that day is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. Since joining the league in 1901, the Indians have used 58 different Opening Day starting pitchers which includes the Opening Day starting pitchers from the Bluebirds and the Naps. They have a record of 58 wins and 54 losses in their Opening Day games.The Indians have played in three different home ball parks, League Park from 1901 through 1946, Cleveland Stadium from 1932 to 1993, and Progressive Field since 1994. From 1934 through 1946 some games were played at League Park and some at Cleveland Stadium. They had a record of 11 wins and 4 losses in Opening Day games at League Park, 9 wins and 13 losses at Cleveland Stadium and 2 wins and 4 losses at Progressive Field, for a total home record in Opening Day games of 22 wins and 21 losses. Their record in Opening Day away games is 35 wins and 35 losses.Bob Feller has the most Opening Day starts for the Indians, with seven. Stan Coveleski had six Opening Day starts for the Indians, Bob Lemon and CC Sabathia each had five Opening Day starts, and Addie Joss, Willie Mitchell, Gaylord Perry and Charles Nagy each had four. Several Baseball Hall of Famers have made Opening Day starts for the Indians, including Feller, Coveleski, Lemon, Joss, Gaylord Perry, Dennis Eckersley and Early Wynn. Brothers Jim Perry and Gaylord Perry each made Opening Day starts for the Indians. Jim Perry started on Opening Day in 1961 and Gaylord Perry made Opening Day starts in 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975.The Indians have played in the World Series six times. They won in 1920 and 1948, and lost in 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016. Coveleski was the Opening Day starting pitcher in 1920, Feller in 1948, Wynn in 1954, Dennis Martínez in 1995, Nagy in 1997, and Corey Kluber. The Indians are five and one in Opening Day games in those seasons, with the only loss coming in 2016. The Indians and the Toronto Blue Jays currently hold the record for the longest Opening Day game in Major League history. They set that record on Opening Day 2012, when the game lasted 16 innings. This broke the previous record of 15 innings between the Indians and the Detroit Tigers in 1960.

List of Cleveland Indians no-hitters

The Cleveland Indians are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Cleveland, Ohio. They play in the American League Central division. Also known in their early years as the "Cleveland Blues" (1901), "Cleveland Broncos" (1902), and "Cleveland Naps" (1903–14), pitchers for the Indians have thrown 14 no-hitters in franchise history. A no-hitter is officially recognized by Major League Baseball only "when a pitcher (or pitchers) allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings. In a no-hit game, a batter may reach base via a walk, an error, a hit by pitch, a passed ball or wild pitch on strike three, or catcher's interference." No-hitters of less than nine complete innings were previously recognized by the league as official; however, several rule alterations in 1991 changed the rule to its current form. No-hitters are rare, but only one team in Major League Baseball has never had a pitcher accomplish the feat. Two perfect games, a special subcategory of no-hitter, have been thrown in Indians history. As defined by Major League Baseball, "in a perfect game, no batter reaches any base during the course of the game." These feats were achieved by Addie Joss on October 2, 1908 and by Len Barker on May 15, 1981.

Bob Rhoads threw the first no-hitter in Indians history on September 18, 1908; the most recent no-hitter was thrown by Barker on May 15, 1981. No left-handed pitchers have thrown no-hitters in franchise history while all were by right-handers. Nine no-hitters were thrown at home and five on the road. They threw four in April, two in May, two in June, three in July, two in September, and one in October. The longest interval between no-hitters in franchise history was between the games pitched by Barker and incumbent pitcher, encompassing over 36 years from May 15, 1981 till present. Conversely, the shortest interval between no-hitters was between the games pitched by Rhoads and Joss, encompassing merely 14 days from September 18, 1908 till October 2, 1908. They no-hit the Chicago White Sox the most, which occurred thrice, which were no-hit by Joss (in 1908 and 1910) and Bob Feller (in 1940). There is one no-hitter which the team allowed at least a run, which was done by Rhoads in 1908. The most baserunners allowed in a no-hitter were by Feller (in 1940) and Don Black (in 1947), who each allowed six. Of the 14 no-hitters, five have been won by a score of 1–0, more common than any other results. The largest margin of victory in a no-hitter was a 9–0 win by Wes Ferrell in 1931. The smallest margin of victory was a 1–0 wins by Joss in 1908 and 1910, Feller in 1940 and 1946, and Dennis Eckersley in 1977; and 2–1 win by Rhoads in 1908.

The umpire is also an integral part of any no-hitter. The task of the umpire in a baseball game is to make any decision "which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted Ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a Ball, or whether a runner is safe or out… [the umpire's judgment on such matters] is final." Part of the duties of the umpire making calls at home plate includes defining the strike zone, which "is defined as that area over homeplate (sic) the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap." These calls define every baseball game and are therefore integral to the completion of any no-hitter. 11 different umpires presided over each of the franchise's 14 no-hitters.

The manager is another integral part of any no-hitter. The tasks of the manager is to determine the starting rotation as well as batting order and defensive lineup every game. Managers choosing the right pitcher and right defensive lineup at a right game at a right place at a right time would lead to a no-hitter. 11 different managers have led to the franchise's 14 no-hitters.

List of Major League Baseball career ERA leaders

In baseball statistics, earned run average (ERA) is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched (i.e. the traditional length of a game). It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors (including pitchers' defensive errors) are recorded as unearned runs and are not used to determine ERA.

This is a list of the top 100 players in career earned run average, who have thrown at least 1,000 innings.

Ed Walsh holds the MLB earned run average record with a 1.816. Addie Joss (1.887) and Jim Devlin (1.896) are the only other pitchers with a career earned run average under 2.000.

List of Major League Baseball career WHIP leaders

In baseball statistics, walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP) is a sabermetric measurement of the number of baserunners a pitcher has allowed per inning pitched. WHIP reflects a pitcher's propensity for allowing batters to reach base, therefore a lower WHIP indicates better performance. WHIP is calculated by adding the number of walks and hits allowed and dividing this sum by the number of innings pitched.

Below is the list of the top 100 Major League Baseball pitchers in Walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP) with at least 1,000 innings pitched.

Addie Joss is the all-time leader with a career WHIP of 0.9678. Ed Walsh (0.9996) is the only other player with a career WHIP under 1.0000.

The Toledo News-Bee

The Toledo News Bee is a defunct newspaper that served Toledo, Ohio and much of northwestern Ohio in the early part of the 20th century. It was formed from the 1903 merger of The Toledo News and The Toledo Bee, and was published until August 2, 1938, when it was purchased by The Toledo Blade for USD787,000. It was published by the Scripps-McRae group, which became later known as Scripps-Howard, from 1903, when it purchased the News, the Bee and The Toledo Times, until its demise.

Hall of Fame baseball player Addie Joss served as its Sunday sports editor and as a columnist. He proved so popular with readers that the paper's sales increased dramatically and a special phone line was installed in his office to allow readers to contact him directly.

Tom Connolly

Thomas Henry Connolly (December 31, 1870 – April 28, 1961) was an English-American umpire in Major League Baseball. He officiated in the National League from 1898 to 1900, followed by 31 years of service in the American League from 1901 to 1931. In over half a century as an American League umpire and supervisor, he established the high standards for which the circuit's arbiters became known, and solidified the reputation for integrity of umpires in the major leagues.

Woodland, Wisconsin

Woodland is a town in Sauk County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 783 at the 2000 census. The unincorporated community of Valton is located in the town. The town was named from the adjacent dense forests.

BBWAA Vote
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Ford C. Frick Award
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