Adams Glacier is situated on the northwest flank of Mount Adams, a 12,281-foot (3,743 m) stratovolcano in the U.S. state of Washington. Much of it becomes the source of Adams Creek, a tributary of the Cispus River. It is the largest glacier on Mount Adams, and the second largest in the contiguous United States, flowing down from the summit ice cap at over 12,000 feet (3,700 m) for over 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to a terminus near 7,000 feet (2,100 m).
Between 11,800 and 9,200 feet (3,600 and 2,800 m), the glacier flows through a steep icefall that provides challenging climbing through a maze of seracs. The first ascent of the glacier was by Fred Beckey, Dave Lind, and Robert Mulhall in July 1945.
Below 8,400 feet (2,600 m), the glacier spreads into a broad sheet with five separate tongues of ice extending out to termini between large moraines. On its easternmost tongue, it ends at a glacial tarn, or small ice-choked lake above High Camp.
The glacier has decreased in surface area by 47% between 1904 and 2006.
In 1901, when Mount Adams was being mapped and its glaciers named by Harry Fielding Reid, Reid's companion and guide, Claude Ewing Rusk, wanted to name the glacier Reid Glacier in honor of Reid; however, Reid insisted that it should be named something else because he thought it improper to place his own name on the map that he was making and the Mazamas were trying to name a glacier on Mount Hood after him. This eventually persuaded Rusk and he conceded to name the glacier Adams Glacier.
Adams Glacier from the northwest
|Area||3.68 km2 (1.42 sq mi) in 2006|
|Length||2.5 miles (4.0 km)|
Adams Glacier may refer to:
Adams Glacier (Mount Adams), Washington, US
Adams Glacier (Wilkes Land), Antarctica
Adams Glacier (Victoria Land), AntarcticaList of dams in the Columbia River watershed
There are more than 60 dams in the Columbia River watershed in the United States and Canada. Tributaries of the Columbia River and their dammed tributaries, as well as the main stem itself, each have their own list below. The dams are listed in the order as they are found from source to terminus. Many of the dams in the Columbia River watershed were not created for the specific purposes of water storage or flood protection. Instead, the primary purpose of many of these dams is to produce hydroelectricity. As can be seen in the lists, these dams provide many tens of gigawatts of power.
Major dam construction began in the early 20th century and picked up the pace after the Columbia River Treaty in the 1960s, by the mid 1980s all the big dams were finished. Including just the dams listed below, there are 60 dams in the watershed, with 14 on the Columbia, 20 on the Snake, seven on the Kootenay, seven on the Pend Oreille / Clark, two on the Flathead, eight on the Yakima, and two on the Owyhee. Averaging a major dam every 72 miles (116 km), the rivers in the Columbia watershed combine to generate over 36,000 megawatts of power, with the majority coming on the main stem. Grand Coulee Dam is the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the United States, generating 6,809 megawatts, over one-sixth of all power in the basin.
In addition to providing ample power for the people of the Pacific Northwest, the reservoirs created by the dams have created numerous recreational opportunities, including fishing, boating, and windsurfing. Furthermore, by creating a constant flow and consistent depth along the river channel, the series of locks and dams have allowed for Lewiston, Idaho, to become the furthest inland seaport on the west coast of the United States. Despite the numerous benefits to humans that the dams have provided, a number of environmental consequences have manifested as a result of the dams, including a negative impact on salmonid populations of the basin.The organization of the following lists begins with the Columbia River dams and is followed by dams on its tributaries (in order of length) and their respective watersheds. Additionally, the table of contents below is indented to indicate tributary status of each river.