Adam Müller

Adam Heinrich Müller (30 June 1779 – 17 January 1829; after 1827 Ritter von Nitterdorf) was a German publicist, literary critic, political economist, theorist of the state and forerunner of economic romanticism.

Adam Müller
Adam Müller in his youth
Adam Müller in his youth
BornAdam Heinrich Müller
30 June 1779
Berlin, Brandenburg
Died17 January 1829 (aged 49)
Vienna, Austria
OccupationCritic, theorist, economist
GenreEconomic romanticism
Counter-Enlightenment
Notable worksElemente der Staatskunst

Biography

Early life

Müller was born in Berlin. It was intended that he should study Protestant theology, but from 1798 he devoted himself in Göttingen to the study of law, philosophy, and natural science. He was a student of Gustav Hugo. Returning to Berlin, he was persuaded by his friend Friedrich von Gentz to take up political science. He had early formed a close intimacy with Gentz, his elder by 15 years; and this connection exercised an important influence both on his material circumstances and his mental development in after life. The two men differed widely in character and in their fundamental principles, but agreed, at least in their later period, in their practical political aims, and the friendship was only terminated by death.

Müller worked for some time as referendary in the Kurmärkische Kammer in Berlin. Müller's relations with the Junker party and his co-operation with them in their opposition to Hardenberg's reforms made any public employment in Prussia impossible for him. He travelled in Sweden and Denmark, spent about two years in Poland, and then went to Vienna, where he was converted to the Catholic faith on 30 April 1805.[1] Through Gentz he became acquainted with Metternich, to whom he was useful in the preparation of state papers.

Career

From 1806 to 1809, he lived at Dresden occupied in the political education of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and lecturer on German literature, dramatic art, and political science. In 1808 he edited with Heinrich von Kleist the periodical Phoebus.[1] In 1809, he returned to Berlin, and in 1811 to Vienna, where he lived in the house of Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Este and became the friend of Clemens Maria Hofbauer.

In 1813, he entered the Austrian service, and was appointed imperial commissioner and major of the rifle corps in Tyrol. He took part in the wars for liberty, and later on, as counsellor of the government, in the reorganization of the country. In 1815 he was called to Vienna, and went to Paris with the imperial staff.

On the conclusion of peace, he became Austrian consul-general for Saxony at Leipzig, and agent for Anhalt and Schwarzburg. He edited here the periodicals Deutscher Staatsanzeiger (1816–1818) and Unparteiischer Literatur- und Kirchenkorrespondent. He attended the ministerial conferences at Carlsbad and Vienna (1819–1820), where, being one of the principal literary instruments of the reaction, he took part in framing the Carlsbad resolutions. In 1826, at the instance of Prince von Metternich, he was ennobled as Ritter von Nittersdorf, was recalled to Vienna (1827), appointed imperial counsellor, and employed in the service of the chancellery. He died in Vienna in 1829, aged 49.

Positions and theories

Adam Heinrich Müller
Adam Heinrich Müller c. 1810

Müller was distinguished as a writer not only on politics and economics, but on literature and aesthetics. His chief work is the Elemente der Staatskunst (Elements of Statecraft), originating in lectures delivered before Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and an assembly of politicians and diplomats at Dresden in the winter, 1808-09. It treats in six books of the state, of right, of the spirit of legislation in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, of money and national wealth, of the economical factors of the state and trade, of the relation between the state and religion. Müller endeavoured to comprehend the connexion between political and social science, and, while using the historical method, to base them upon philosophy and religion. (Cf. the preface to the first volume of the Elemente, where he treats exhaustively the differences between his work and Montesquieu's De l'esprit des lois; cf. also the sixth book of this work, and the above-mentioned work of 1820.) With Edmund Burke, Friedrich von Gentz, Joseph de Maistre, and Karl Ludwig von Haller, he must be reckoned among the chief opponents of revolutionary ideas in politics.

In his work, Von der Notwendigkeit einer theologischen Grundlage der gesamten Staatswissenschaften (On the necessity of a comprehensive theological foundation for political science, 1820), Müller rejects, like Haller (Restauration der Staatswissenschaften, 1816), the distinction between constitutional and civil law (common law), which rests entirely on the idea of the state's omnipotence. His ideal is medieval feudalism, on which the reorganization of modern political institutions should be modelled.

Romanticist

In the field of literature and aesthetics, Müller belongs to the Romantic school. He is a Romanticist even in his specialty, politics and political economy. As Eichendorff says in his Geschichte der poetischen Literatur Deutschlands (new ed., by W. Kosch, Kempten, 1906, p. 352), Müller "mapped out a domain of his own, the application of Romanticism to the social and political conditions of life." Carl Schmitt presented the view that "it is impossible to judge Müller's theory of the state as anything but a matter of aesthetics and style."[2] Müller himself declares: "The reconciliation of science and art and of their noblest ideas with serious political life was the purpose of my larger works" (Vermischte Schriften, I, p. iii).

Economics

His position in political economy is defined by his strong opposition to Adam Smith's system of materialistic-liberal (so-called classical) political economy, or the so-called industry system. He censures Smith as presenting a one-sidedly material and individualistic conception of society, and as being too exclusively English in his views. Müller is thus also an adversary of free trade. In contrast with the economical individualism of Adam Smith, he emphasizes the ethical element in national economy, the duty of the state toward the individual, and the religious basis which is also necessary in this field. Müller's importance in the history of political economy is acknowledged even by the opponents of his religious and political point of view. His reaction against Adam Smith, says Roscher (Geschichte der National-Ökonomik, p. 763), "is not blind or hostile, but is important, and often truly helpful." Some of his ideas, freed from much of their alloy, are reproduced in the writings of the historical school of German economists.

The reactionary and feudalistic thought in Müller's writings, which agreed so little with the spirit of the times, prevented his political ideas from exerting a more notable and lasting influence on his age, while their religious character prevented them from being justly appreciated. However, Müller's teachings had long-term effects in that they were taken up again by 20th century theorists of corporatism and the corporate state, for example Othmar Spann (Der wahre Staat. Vorlesungen über Abbruch und Neubau der Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1921).

Writings

Müller was a man of great and versatile talents, an excellent orator, and a suggestive writer. Several of his works were based upon his own lectures; the most important (besides the above-mentioned periodicals) are:

  • Die Lehre vom Gegensatz (Berlin, 1804)
  • Vorlesungen über die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur (Dresden, 1806, 2nd ed., 1807)
  • Von der Idee der Schönheit (lectures; Berlin, 1809)
  • Die Elemente der Staatskunst (lectures; 3 parts, Berlin, 1809)
  • Über König Friedrich II. und die Natur, Würde und Bestimmung der preußischen Monarchie (lectures; Berlin, 1810)
  • Die Theorie der Staatshaushaltung und ihre Forschritte in Deutschland und England seit Adam Smith (2 vols., Vienna, 1812)
  • Vermischte Schriften über Staat, Philosophie und Kunst (2 vols., Vienna, 1812; 2nd ed., 1817)
  • Versuch einer neuen Theorie des Geldes, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Großbritannien (Leipzig, 1816)
  • Zwölf Reden über die Beredsamkeit und deren Verfall in Deutschland (Leipzig, 1817)
  • Die Fortschritte der nationalökonomischen Wissenschaft in England (Leipzig, 1817)
  • Von der Notwendigkeit einer theologischen Grundlage der gesamten Staatswissenschaften und der Staatswirtschaft insbesondere (Leipzig, 1820; new ed., Vienna, 1898)
  • Die Gewerbe-Polizei in Beziehung auf den Landbau (Leipzig, 1824)
  • Vorschlag zu einem historischen Ferien-Cursus (Vienna, 1829)

A critical pamphlet, which was written in 1817 on the occasion of the Protestant jubilee of the Reformation and entitled, Etwas, das Goethe gesagt hat. Beleuchtet von Adam Müller. Leipzig, den 31 Oktober 1817, was printed but not published (reprinted in Vienna, 1910). Nevertheless, Traugott Krug's reply, entitled Etwas, das Herr Adam Müller gesagt hat über etwas, das Goethe gesagt hat, und noch etwas, das Luther gesagt hat (Leipzig, 1817), appeared in two editions.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Schmitt, Carl (2011). Political Romanticism. tr. Guy Oakes. Transaction. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9781412814720.
  2. ^ Schmitt, Carl (2011). Political Romanticism. tr. Guy Oakes. Transaction. p. 141. ISBN 9781412814720.

References

External links

Adam August Müller

Adam August Müller (16 August 1811 – 15 March 1844), a Danish history painter, was one of Eckersberg's favourite students. Generally unhealthy and dead at 32, his work is recognized as an important component in Danish art. His favourite subjects were historical and religious themes.

Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn

Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn (22 October 1852 in Guttenbrunn, Austria, today Zăbrani, Romania – 5 January 1923 in Vienna) was an Austrian author.

Adam Müller (disambiguation)

Adam Müller is a German publicist, literary critic, political economist and theorist.

Adam Müller or Mueller may refer to:

Adam August Müller, Danish history painter

Adam "Ademo Freeman" Mueller, cofounder of Cop Block

Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)

Assistens Cemetery (Danish: Assistens Kirkegård) in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Inaugurated in 1760, it was originally a burial site for the poor laid out to relieve the crowded graveyards inside the walled city, but during the Golden Age in the first half of the 19th century it became fashionable and many leading figures of the epoch, such as Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, and Christen Købke are all buried here.

Late in the 19th century, as Assistens Cemetery had itself become crowded, a number of new cemeteries were established around Copenhagen, including Vestre Cemetery, but up through the 20th century it has continued to attract notables. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew.

An assistenskirkegård (meaning "assistance cemetery") is originally a generic term in Danish, used to refer to cemeteries which were laid out to assist existing burial sites, usually those located in urban settings in connection with churches, and therefore a number of cemeteries by the same name are found around Denmark.

The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality; the other cemeteries are Vestre Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery, and Bispebjerg Cemetery.

August Friedrich Müller

August Friedrich Müller (15 December 1684 – 1 May 1761) was a German legal scholar and logician.

August Friedrich was born in Penig, the son of Johann Adam Müller and his wife Johanne Susanne, daughter of a pharmacist in Rochlitz, Johann Fromhold. Prefigured by his father, he attended school in 1697 and studied at the University of Leipzig from 1703. Here he completed a degree in early philosophical sciences; Andreas Rüdiger (1673–1731) was his most important teacher. On the side he studied law under Gottlieb Gerhard Titius (1661–1714).

In 1707 he received his degree of Magister in Leipzig, where he set up a school of philosophy. After a stay at the University of Erfurt, where on 8 October 1714 he received his doctorate in law, he returned to Leipzig, where he also lectured on law. A position was offered to him at the University of Halle but he became an associate professor of philosophy at the University of Leipzig in 1732, succeeding Christian Thomasius and his pupil, Andreas Rüdiger. He was Dean of Philosophy several times, first in 1736. He died in Leipzig, aged 76.

Bach composed the cantata Zerreißet, zersprenget, zertrümmert die Gruft, BWV 205 in 1725 for the name day of Müller and performed the piece on the evening of 3 August 1725 in front of the professor’s house at 2 Katharinenstraße in Leipzig.

Carl Gustaf von Brinkman

Karl Gustaf von Brinkman (25 February 1764 – 25 December 1847) was a Swedish and German classicist poet, writer and diplomat. Member of the Swedish Academy 1828–1847, Seat No. 3, ennobled and elevated to Baron, chamberlain.

Karl Gustaf von Brinkman was born in Nacka, Sweden and was the son of Secretary Hans Gustaf von Brinkman and Countess Beata Kristina Leijon Manor. His education was from the beginning of strictly religious orientation, as his father intended him for a missionary work. He attended from 1782 to 1785, the Seminar of the Moravian Church in Barby, Germany. He became acquainted with Friedrich Schleiermacher, who devoted his later writings on religion. In 1787 he began to study at the University of Halle, and studied philosophy and law. In 1889 he went on an educational journey that led him to Wittenberg, Jena, Weimar, Leipzig and Berlin. Through his activities in 1791 in government service, he received the confidence of King Gustav III of Sweden. He then became Secretary of Legation in Berlin in 1792 and began his diplomatic career. In Berlin, he moved in the romantic salons, met William and Alexander von Humboldt, and was assistant at Friedrich Schiller's Musen-Almanach.

From 1798 until 1801 he was involved in diplomatic affairs in Paris and at this time frequented the house of Anne Louise Germaine de Staël. As ambassador in Berlin (1807), he made among other things the acquaintance of Johannes von Müller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich von Gentz, Adam Müller, with whom he had constant exchange of ideas. He accompanied the royal family on their flight to East Prussia. From 1808 until 1810 he was ambassador in London and became a deputy chancellor in Stockholm.

His diplomatic career changed abruptly when he lost the confidence of the royal court. In 1835 focused only on literature, which he published in Swedish. His extensive correspondence, which he greatly enjoyed, shows him as a witty interlocutor. In 1836, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Von Brinkman died in 1847 in Stockholm.

Conservatism in Germany

Conservatism in Germany has encompassed a wide range of theories and ideologies in the last three hundred years, but most historical conservative theories supported the monarchical/hierarchical political structure.

Emil Normann

Emil Wilhelm Normann (18 December 1798 – 21 June 1881) was a Danish painter and naval officer.

German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

The early period, roughly 1797 to 1802, is referred to as Frühromantik or Jena Romanticism. The philosophers and writers central to the movement were Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (1773–1798), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) (1772–1801).The early German romantics strove to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, by viewing the Middle Ages as a simpler period of integrated culture; however, the German romantics became aware of the tenuousness of the cultural unity they sought. Late-stage German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the daily world and the irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. In particular, the critic Heinrich Heine criticized the tendency of the early German romantics to look to the medieval past for a model of unity in art and society.

Guttenbrunn

Guttenbrunn may refer to:

Guttenbrunn, the German name for Zăbrani, a commune in Arad County, Romania

Index of modern philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in modern philosophy.

1649 in philosophy

1658 in philosophy

17th century philosophy

A Few Words on Non-Intervention

A General View of Positivism

A Letter Concerning Toleration

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

A System of Logic

A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

A Vindication of Natural Society

Adam Müller

Adam Smith

Adam Weishaupt

Age of Enlightenment

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alexander Pfänder

Aloys Hirt

American Enlightenment

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

Anarchism

Anarchism and anarcho-capitalism

Anarchism in Korea

Anarchism in Russia

Anarchism in Spain

Anarchism in Sweden

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in Turkey

Anarchism in Ukraine

Anarchism in Vietnam

Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas

Anarchist Manifesto

Anarchy

Anioł Dowgird

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury

Anti-statism

Antoine Arnauld

Anton Kržan

Arnold Geulincx

Arnold Toynbee

Art manifesto

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics

Auberon Herbert

Auguste Comte

Augustus De Morgan

Autonomism

Baroque

Benjamin Constant

Bernard Bolzano

Bête machine

Beyond Good and Evil

Black Panther Party

Blaise Pascal

Borden Parker Bowne

Bourgeoisie

Bronisław Trentowski

Cartesian doubt

Charles Batteux

Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu

Charles Fourier

Charles Graves (bishop)

Charles Sanders Peirce

Chemism

Christian Discourses

Christoph von Sigwart

Class consciousness

Classical Realism

Classicism

Cloudesley

Commodity fetishism

Communism

Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments

Cornelis Willem Opzoomer

Criticisms of electoralism

Critique of Judgement

Critique of Practical Reason

Critique of Pure Reason

Cultural hegemony

Dai Zhen

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler

David Hume

David Ricardo

David Strauss

Dharmarāja Adhvarin

Diafotismos

Dialectical materialism

Die Anarchisten

Direct action

Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit

Edifying Discourses in Diverse Spirits

Edward Abramowski

Edward Dembowski

Egoist anarchism

Either/Or

Émile Pouget

Ernst Mach

Ernst Schröder

Fear and Trembling

Feliks Jaroński

For Self-Examination

Francesco Saverio Merlino

Francis Bacon

Francis Hutcheson (philosopher)

Franciszek Krupiński

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Groos

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Theodor Vischer

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

General will

Geohumoral theory

Georg Friedrich Meier

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

George Berkeley

George Boole

Giorgio Vasari

Gottfried Leibniz

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Hannah Arendt

Harriet Taylor Mill

Hayashi Hōkō

Hayashi Razan

Hayashi Ryūkō

Hegelianism

Heimin Shimbun

Henri Bergson

Henry David Thoreau

Henry Home, Lord Kames

Herbert Spencer

Hirata Atsutane

Historical materialism

Hosoi Heishu

Hoter ben Shlomo

Howard Williams (humanitarian)

Hugo Grotius

Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose

Immanuel Kant

Individualist anarchism

Isaak Iselin

Itō Jinsai

Jakob Friedrich Fries

James Guillaume

Jan Wacław Machajski

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jena romantics

Jens Kraft

Jeremy Bentham

Jewish Communist Labour Party (Poalei Zion)

Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion)

Jewish Communist Union (Poalei Zion)

Johann Christian Lossius

Johann Friedrich Flatt

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Joachim Lange

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johannes Bredenburg

Johannes Phocylides Holwarda

John Austin (legal philosopher)

John Calvin

John Dewey

John Locke

John Stuart Mill

Józef Gołuchowski

Judah Leon Abravanel

Judge for Yourselves!

Justice as Fairness: A Restatement

Kaibara Ekken

Karl Heinrich Heydenreich

Karl Marx

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Ramler

Kitaro Nishida

Krastyo Krastev

Krystyn Lach Szyrma

Lazarus Geiger

Lectures on Aesthetics

Léon Dumont

Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever

Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient

Levi Hedge

Leviathan (book)

Lex, Rex

Libertarian Marxism

Libertarian socialism

List of communist ideologies

Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach

Ludwig Tieck

Luo Rufang

Man a Machine

Martin Luther

Marx's theory of alienation

Marx's theory of human nature

Marxist feminism

Marxist humanism

Marxist philosophy

Mary Wollstonecraft

Max Weber

Meditations on First Philosophy

Meinong's jungle

Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysics of Morals

Methodios Anthrakites

Michael Gottlieb Birckner

Michael Hissmann

Michał Wiszniewski

Michel Henry

Mikhail Bakunin

Miura Baien

Modern philosophy

Moses Mendelssohn

Motoori Norinaga

Muhammad Iqbal

Mulla Sadra

Muro Kyūsō

New England Transcendentalists

Nicholas Leonicus Thomaeus

Nicolas Malebranche

Nicolaus Hieronymus Gundling

Nietzsche's views on women

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nikolai Putyatin

Non-politics

Non-voting

Novum Organum

Observations on Man

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

Ogyū Sorai

On Liberty

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates

On the Genealogy of Morality

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Outline of anarchism

Paul Rée

Philosophical Fragments

Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom

Philosophy of Max Stirner

Philosophy of Spinoza

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre Cally

Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Nicole

Poale Zion

Political Justice

Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant

Port-Royal Logic

Practice in Christianity

Prefaces

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Proletariat

Property is theft!

Randall Swingler

Rate of exploitation

Reification (Marxism)

Relations of production

Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner

René Descartes

Repetition (Kierkegaard)

Revolutionary Left (disambiguation)

Richard Sault

Robert Leslie Ellis

Roger Fry

Rudolf Seydel

Rudolph Goclenius

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Schopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulate

Science of Logic

Scottish School of Common Sense

Sebastian Petrycy

Seo Gyeong-deok

Simion Bărnuțiu

Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet

Social ecology

Socialism

Søren Kierkegaard

Spinoza: Practical Philosophy

Stages on Life's Way

Statism and Anarchy

Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta

Structural Marxism

Sturm und Drang

Suzuki Shōsan

Tan Sitong

The Art of Being Right

The Blood of Others

The Book on Adler

The Communist Manifesto

The Concept of Anxiety

The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

The Foundations of Arithmetic

The Law of Peoples

The Methods of Ethics

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Phenomenology of Spirit

The Point of View of My Work as an Author

The Sickness Unto Death

The Soul of Man under Socialism

The Subjection of Women

Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Paine

Thomas Robert Malthus

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces

Three Critics of the Enlightenment

Toju Nakae

Tychism

Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven

Utilitarianism (book)

Vasily Jakovlevich Zinger

Victor d'Hupay

Voltaire

Walter Goodnow Everett

War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian Civilization

What Is Property?

Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder

Wilhelm Windelband

Wilhelm Wundt

William Blackstone

William Godwin

William Graham Sumner

William Manderstown

William Whewell

Works of Love

Writing Sampler

Yamaga Sokō

Yamazaki Ansai

Yi I

Index of sociopolitical thinkers

The following is an index of sociopolitical thinkers listed by the first name.

List of Pinguicula species

This article is a list of the butterworts, the species of the genus Pinguicula. For general information on butterworts, please see the main article on Pinguicula.The genus Pinguicula contains the 83 species of butterworts, belonging to the bladderwort family (Lentibulariaceae). It has a natural distribution across most of the Northern Hemisphere, though over half of the species are concentrated in Mexico and Central America. Siegfried Jost Casper systematically divided them into three subgenera with 15 sections. Subsequent phylogenetic research showed that many of these groupings are polyphyletic, but they are used below.

Müller (surname)

The German word Müller means "miller" (as a profession). It is the most common family surname in Germany, Switzerland, and the French départements of Bas-Rhin and Moselle (with the spelling Müller, Mueller or Muller) and is the fifth most common surname in Austria (see List of most common surnames in Europe). Other forms are "Miller" (mainly Southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland) and "Möller" (Northern and Central Germany and The Netherlands). Of the various family coats of arms that exist, many incorporate milling iconography, such as windmills or watermill wheels.

Othmar Spann

Othmar Spann (1 October 1878 – 8 July 1950) was a conservative Austrian philosopher, sociologist and economist whose radical anti-liberal and anti-Socialist views, based on early 19th century Romantic ideas expressed by Adam Müller et al. and popularized in his books and lecture courses, helped antagonise political factions in Austria during the interwar years.

St. Cecilia, or the Power of Music

"St. Cecilia, or the Power of Music" (German: Die heilige Cäcilie oder die Gewalt der Musik) is a short story by the German author Heinrich von Kleist. The story was written on October 27, 1810 as a gift for daughter of his friend Adam Müller, and was first published in November 1810 in Kleist's literary journal, the Berliner Abendblätter.

Vienna Volksoper

The Vienna Volksoper (Volksoper Wien or Vienna People's Opera) is a major opera house in Vienna, Austria. It puts on around three hundred performances of twenty-five German language productions during an annual season which runs from September through June.

Zăbrani

Zăbrani (German: Guttenbrunn; Hungarian: Temeshidegkút) is a commune in Arad County, Romania. It is situated in the eastern part of the Vingăi Plateau, in its contact zone with the Lipovei Hills. Its administrative territory stretches over 11778 hectares. It is composed of three villages: Chesinț (Lippakeszi), Neudorf (Temesújfalu) and Zăbrani (situated at 29 km from Arad).

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