Adam's apple

The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.

Adam's apple
Gray1195
Front view of the Adam's apple (laryngeal prominence)
Details
Precursor4th and 6th pharyngeal arches
Identifiers
LatinProminentia laryngea
TAA06.2.02.003
FMA55304
Anatomical terminology

Structure

The structure of the Adam's apple forms a bump under the skin. It is typically larger in adult males, in whom it is usually clearly visible and palpable. In females, the bump is much less visible and is hardly perceived on the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage.[1]

Sex difference

An Adam's apple is usually a feature of adult males, because its size in males tends to increase considerably during puberty. However, some women also have an Adam's apple.[2]

Its development is considered a secondary sexual characteristic of males that appears as a result of hormonal activity. Its level of development varies among individuals and the widening of that area in the larynx can occur very suddenly and quickly.

Function

The Adam's apple, in conjunction with the thyroid cartilage which forms it, helps protect the walls and the frontal part of the larynx, including the vocal cords (which are located directly behind it).

Another function of the Adam's apple is related to the deepening of the voice. During adolescence, the thyroid cartilage grows together with the larynx. Consequently, the laryngeal prominence grows in size mainly in men. Together, a larger soundboard is made up in phonation apparatus and, as a result, the man gets a deeper voice note.[3][4]

Society and culture

Cosmetic surgery to reshape the Adam's apple is called chondrolaryngoplasty (thyroid cartilage reduction). The surgery is effective, such that complications tend to be few and, if present, transient.[5]

Etymology

Myneck
An example of male laryngeal prominence

There are two main theories as to the origin of the term "Adam's apple". The "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable" and the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary point at an ancient belief that a piece of forbidden fruit was embedded in the throat of Adam, who according to the Abrahamic religions was the first man.[6] However, neither the Bible nor other Judeo-Christian or Islamic writings mention such a story. In fact, the biblical story does not even specify the type of fruit that Adam ate.[7]

Linguist Alexander Gode claimed that the Latin phrase to designate the laryngeal prominence was very probably translated incorrectly from the beginning. The phrase in Latin was "pomum Adami" (literally: 'Adam's apple'). This, in turn, came from the Hebrew "tappuach ha adam" meaning "apple of man". The confusion lies in the fact that in Hebrew language the proper name "Adam" (אדם) literally means "man", while the Hebrew word "apple" means "swollen", thus in combination: the swelling of a man.[8][9] Proponents of this version contend that the subsequent phrases in Latin and other Romance languages represent a mistranslation from the start.[10]

The medical term "prominentia laryngea" (laryngeal prominence) was introduced by the Basle Nomina Anatomica in 1895.[11]

In the American South, goozle is used colloquially to describe the Adam's apple, likely derived from guzzle.[12][13][14][15]

Additional images

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Laryngeal prominence

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Laryngeal prominence

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Laryngeal prominence

See also

References

  1. ^ "Laringe". Sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  2. ^ "Prominentia laryngea Medical Term Medical Dictionary". Medicine Online. Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ P. J. Bentley (1980), "Endocrine Pharmacology: Physiological Basis and Therapeutic Applications", CUP Archive, pág 240
  4. ^ "Pubertad, nuestras diferencias". Esmas.com. Archived from the original on 2004-09-08. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  5. ^ Wolfort FG, Dejerine ES, Ramos DJ, Parry RG (1990). "Chondrolaryngoplasty for appearance". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86 (3): 464–9, discussion 470. doi:10.1097/00006534-199009000-00012. PMID 2385664.
  6. ^ E. Cobham Brewer (1810–1897). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. "Adam's Apple"
  7. ^ George Crabb (1823), "Universal technological dictionary", Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, "Pomum Ada'mi"
  8. ^ William S. Haubrich (2003), "Medical Meanings: A Glossary of Word Origins", ACP Press, pág 5.
  9. ^ "Adam's apple". Medicine.academic.ru. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  10. ^ Robert B. Taylor (2008), "White Coat Tales: Medicine's Heroes, Heritage and Misadventures", Springer, pág 82.
  11. ^ Axel Karenberg, Amor, Äskulap & Co.: klassische Mythologie in der Sprache der modernen Medizin, Schattauer, Stuttgart 2006, S. 128-129.
  12. ^ Morris, Evan (November 2008). "Goozle « The Word Detective". The Word Detective. Retrieved 22 December 2014. If we follow 'goozle' back a bit further, we come to an interesting intersection with a far more common word, 'guzzle.'
  13. ^ Roy Blount Jr. (29 September 2009). Alphabet Juice: The Energies, Gists, and Spirits of Letters, Words, and Combinations Thereof; Their Roots, Bones, Innards, Piths, Pips, and Secret Parts, Tinctures, Tonics, and Essences; With Examples of Their Usage Foul and Savory. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4299-6042-7. The Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English defines google (or goozle) as 'the throat, Adam's apple.'
  14. ^ Roy Wilder (1 September 1998). You All Spoken Here. University of Georgia Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8203-2029-8. Adam's apple; goozle; the projection formed by the thyroid cartilage in the neck.
  15. ^ "Goozle". Directory of American Regional English. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved 22 December 2014. gullet, windpipe, or Adam’s apple. [Varr of guzzle 1] chiefly Sth, S Midl

External links

Adam's Apple (album)

Adam's Apple is the tenth album by post-bop jazz artist Wayne Shorter. Released in 1967, it included the first recording of his composition "Footprints", later recorded by the Miles Davis Quintet on the album Miles Smiles. The CD release includes the bonus track "The Collector", written by Herbie Hancock.

Adam's Apple (film)

Adam's Apple is a 1928 British silent comedy film directed by Tim Whelan and starring Monty Banks, Lena Halliday and Judy Kelly. An American on his honeymoon in Paris, organises the kidnapping of his interfering mother-in-law. It was made by British International Pictures at their Elstree Studios.

Adam's Apple (horse)

Adam's Apple (foaled 1924) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse best known for winning a British Classic, the 2000 Guineas Stakes.

Adam's apple (disambiguation)

An adam's apple, or a laryngeal prominence, is a protrusion in the front of the throat.

Adam's apple may also refer to:

Adam's Apple (film), a 1928 British comedy film

Adam's Apples, a 2005 Danish film

Adam's Apple (album), a 1966 album by Wayne Shorter

Adam's Apple (horse), a British Thoroughbred racehorse

Adam's Apple (song), a 1975 song by Aerosmith

Adams Apples, a Ghanaian film series, directed by Shirley Frimpong Manso

Adam's apple, a variety of Lumia (citrus)

Appletini

An Apple martini (Appletini for short) is a cocktail containing vodka and one or more of apple juice, apple cider, apple liqueur, or apple brandy.

This drink, originally called an Adam's Apple Martini because the bartender who created it was named Adam, was created in 1996 at Lola's West Hollywood restaurant.

Chondrolaryngoplasty

Chondrolaryngoplasty (commonly called tracheal shave) is a surgical procedure in which the thyroid cartilage is reduced in size by shaving down the cartilage through an incision in the throat, generally to aid those who are uncomfortable with the girth of their Adam's apple.

Chondroplasty

Chondroplasty refers to surgery of the cartilage, the most common being corrective surgery of the cartilage of the knee.

Surgery known as thyroid chondroplasty (or trachea shave) is used to reduce the visibility of the Adam's Apple in transgender women.

Facial feminization surgery

Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a set of cosmetic surgical procedures that alter typically male facial features to bring them closer in shape and size to typical female facial features. FFS can include various bony and soft tissue procedures such as brow lift, rhinoplasty, cheek implantation, and lip augmentation.

Faces contain secondary sex characteristics that make male and female faces readily distinguishable, including the shape of the forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, chin, and jawline; the features in the upper third of the face seem to be the most important, but subtle changes in the lips can have a strong effect.

Footprints (composition)

"Footprints" is a jazz standard composed by saxophonist Wayne Shorter, first appearing on his 1966 album Adam's Apple. Another well-known recorded version, also featuring Shorter, is on the 1966 Miles Davis album Miles Smiles. It has become a jazz standard.

Hal Gordon

Hal Gordon (1894–1946) was a British film actor. A character actor, he appeared in over 90 films in both comic and straight roles.

He started off as a lawyer's clerk but finding it dull he decided on the stage, making his music hall debut in 1912. He toured England and South Africa in pantomime and comedy before entering films in 1928, his first being Adam's Apple.

Jordan Deschamps-Braly

Jordan Christopher Deschamps-Braly (born 1979) is an American maxillofacial and craniofacial surgeon specializing in facial gender confirmation surgery for transgender people. He co-developed a procedure for building a new Adam's apple for trans men and is known for his work as a plastic surgeon for trans women.

KSI (entertainer)

Olajide William "JJ" Olatunji (born 19 June 1993), better known as KSI (shortened from his online alias KSIOlajideBT), is a British YouTube personality, internet celebrity, comedian, actor, rapper and white-collar boxer. After establishing himself on his YouTube channel, which, as of November 2018, has more than four billion video views and more than 19 million subscribers to make it the 65th most subscribed channel on YouTube, he has also become well known for his music. KSI released his debut extended play, Keep Up, in 2016, reaching number one on the UK R&B Albums Chart as well as charting in several other countries.

List of human anatomical features

The detailed list of human anatomical features.

Head

Eye

Ear

Nose

Nostril

Mouth

Lip

Philtrum

Jaw

Mandible

Gingiva

Tooth

Tongue

Throat

Adam's apple

Vertebral column

Arm

Elbow

Wrist

Hand

Fingers

Thumb

Nails

Skin

Hair

Chest (roughly Thorax)

Breast Mammalia

Abdomen (roughly Stomach)

Sex organs

Penis (male)

Scrotum (male)

Vulva (female)

Leg

Thigh

Knee

Kneecap

Shinbone

Calf

Ankle

Foot

Toes

Mount Mansfield

Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in Vermont with a summit that peaks at 4,395 feet (1,340 m) above sea level. The summit is located within the town of Underhill in Chittenden County; the ridgeline, including some secondary peaks, extends into the town of Stowe in Lamoille County, and the mountain's flanks also reach into the town of Cambridge.When viewed from the east or west, this mountain has the appearance of a (quite elongated) human profile, with distinct forehead, nose, lips, chin, and Adam's apple. These features are most distinct when viewed from the east; unlike most human faces, the chin is the highest point.Mount Mansfield is one of three spots in Vermont where true alpine tundra survives from the Ice Ages. A few acres exist on Camel's Hump and Mount Abraham nearby and to the south, but Mount Mansfield's summit still holds about 200 acres (81 ha).

Located in Mount Mansfield State Forest, the mountain is used for various recreational and commercial purposes. "The Nose" is home to transmitter towers for a number of regional radio and TV stations. There are many hiking trails, including the Long Trail, which traverses the main ridgeline. In addition, the east flank of the mountain is used by the Stowe Mountain Resort for winter skiing. A popular tourist activity is to take the toll road (about 4 miles (6.4 km), steep, mostly unpaved, with several hairpin turns) from the Stowe Base Lodge to "The Nose" and hike along the ridge to "The Chin."

Secondary sex characteristic

Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals. These are particularly evident in the sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits that distinguish the sexes of a species, but unlike the sex organs, are not directly part of the reproductive system. They are believed to be the product of sexual selection for traits which display fitness, giving an individual an advantage over its rivals in courtship and aggressive interactions. They are distinguished from the primary sex characteristics, the sex organs, which are directly necessary for sexual reproduction to occur.

Secondary sex characteristics include manes of male lions and long feathers of male peacock, the tusks of male narwhals, enlarged proboscises in male elephant seals and proboscis monkeys, the bright facial and rump coloration of male mandrills, and horns in many goats and antelopes, and these are believed to be produced by a positive feedback loop known as the Fisherian runaway produced by the secondary characteristic in one sex and the desire for that characteristic in the other sex. Male birds and fish of many species have brighter coloration or other external ornaments. Differences in size between sexes are also considered secondary sexual characteristics.

In humans, visible secondary sex characteristics include pubic hair, enlarged breasts and widened hips of females, and facial hair and Adam's apple on males.

Sleeping Giant (Ontario)

The Sleeping Giant is a formation of mesas and sills on Sibley Peninsula which resembles a giant lying on its back when viewed from the west to north-northwest section of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. As one moves southward along the shoreline toward Squaw Bay the Sleeping Giant starts to separate into its various sections. Most distinctly in the view from the cliffs at Squaw Bay the Giant appears to have an Adam's Apple. The formation is part of Sleeping Giant Provincial Park. Its dramatic steep cliffs are among the highest in Ontario (250 m). The southernmost point is known as Thunder Cape, depicted by many early Canadian artists such as William Armstrong.

One Ojibway legend identifies the giant as Nanabijou, who was turned to stone when the secret location of a rich silver mine now known as Silver Islet was disclosed to white men.Sleeping Giant is the namesake and general setting of the 2015 Canadian film Sleeping Giant.

Toys in the Attic (album)

Toys in the Attic is the third studio album by American rock band Aerosmith, released April 8, 1975 by Columbia Records. Its first single release, "Sweet Emotion," was released a month later on May 19 and "Walk This Way" was released on August 28 in the same year. The album is the band's most commercially successful studio LP in the United States, with eight million copies sold, according to the RIAA.The album was ranked No. 229 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The album's title track and Run–D.M.C.'s version of "Walk This Way" are part of The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll list.

Vigil II

For the 1876 American horse of the same name, see Vigil (horse).Vigil (foaled 1920) was an American Thoroughbred racehorse best known for winning the 1923 Preakness Stakes in a performance the Los Angeles Times called "the most brilliant victory in the history of the Preakness."

Bred by Arthur B. Hancock, Vigil was a bay horse sired by the Hopeful Stakes winner Jim Gaffney. His dam, Vignola, was a great-granddaughter of the British mare Thoughtless, whose other descendants included the 2000 Guineas winner Adam's Apple. Vigil was purchased and raced by Walter J. Salmon, Sr. His trainer was future U.S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee, Thomas "T.J." Healey

Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants). It is also called "voicing". Speech sounds can be described as either voiceless (also called unvoiced) or voiced.

The term, however, is used to refer to two separate concepts:

Voicing can refer to the articulatory process in which the vocal folds vibrate, its primary use in phonetics to describe phones, which are particular speech sounds.

It can also refer to a classification of speech sounds that tend to be associated with vocal cord vibration but may not actually be voiced at the articulatory level. That is the term's primary use in phonology: to describe phonemes; while in phonetics its primary use is to describe phones.At the articulatory level, a voiced sound is one in which the vocal folds vibrate, and a voiceless sound is one in which they do not.

For example, voicing accounts for the difference between the pair of sounds associated with the English letters "s" and "z". The two sounds are transcribed as [s] and [z] to distinguish them from the English letters, which have several possible pronunciations, depending on the context. If one places the fingers on the voice box (i.e. the location of the Adam's apple in the upper throat), one can feel a vibration while zzzz is pronounced but not with ssss. (For a more detailed, technical explanation, see modal voice and phonation.) In most European languages, with a notable exception being Icelandic, vowels and other sonorants (consonants such as m, n, l, and r) are modally voiced.

When used to classify speech sounds, voiced and unvoiced are merely labels used to group phones and phonemes together for the purposes of classification.

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