Adalard of Corbie

Saint Adalard of Corbie (Latin: Adalhardus Corbeiensis; c. 751, Huise – 2 January 827)[1] was son of Bernard the son of Charles Martel and half-brother of Pepin; Charlemagne was his cousin.

Saint Adalard
Born751
Huise
Died2 January 827
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Canonized1024 by Pope John XIX
PatronagePatron of many churches and towns in France and along the lower Rhine

Biography

Adalard received a good education in the Palatine School at the Court of Charlemagne in Aachen, and while still very young was made Count of the Palace. At the age of twenty he entered the monastery at Corbie in Picardy, a monastery that had been founded by queen Bathild, in 662.[1] In order to be more secluded, he went to Monte Cassino, but was ordered by Charlemagne to return to Corbie, where he was elected abbot. At the same time Charlemagne made him prime minister to his son Pepin, King of Italy, in the Carolingian Empire.[2] As a high court administrator attended some meetings that discussed military planning. His De ordine palatinii discusses in some detail a well-developed intelligence system by the end of Pepin's reign.[3] At his death in Milan in 810, Pepin appointed Adalard tutor to his son Bernard of Italy, then but twelve years of age.

When, in 817, Bernard, son of Pepin, aspired to the imperial crown, emperor Louis the Pious suspected Adalard of being in sympathy with Bernard and banished him to Hermoutier, the modern Noirmoutier, on the island of the same name. Adalard's brother Wala was obliged to become a monk at Corbie.[4] After seven years Louis saw his mistake and made Adalard one of his chief advisers.[2]

Several hospitals were erected by him. In 822 Adalard and his brother Wala founded Corvey Abbey ("New Corbie") in Westphalia.Corwey was an imperial abbey; its territory extending from the bishopric of Paderborn to the duchy of Brunswick. Its abbot was one of the eleven abbots, who sat with twenty-one bishops in the imperial diet at Regensburg.[1]

Adalard was returning from Corvey to old Corbie, when he fell sick three days before Christmas: he died about three in the afternoon, on January 1 in the year 827, at the age of seventy-three.

Veneration

Adalard is honoured as patron saint of many churches and towns in France and along the lower Rhine.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Butler, Alban. "St. Adalard, or Adelard, Abbot and Confessor", The Lives of the Saints, vol. I, 1866
  2. ^ a b c Ott, Michael. "St. Adalard." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 9 Mar. 2014
  3. ^ Bachrach, Bernard S., Early Carolingian Warfare, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011 ISBN 9780812221442
  4. ^ McKitterick, Rosamond. (1983). The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49005-7

Literature

  • Brigitte Kasten: Adalhard von Corbie. Die Biographie eines karolingischen Politikers und Klostervorstehers. Studia hmanoria, Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1985, ISBN 978-3-7700-0803-2.
751

Year 751 (DCCLI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 751 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

827

Year 827 (DCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games.

Carolingians descended from Charles Martel

This is a partial list of male descendants from Charles Martel (686–741) for fifteen generations.

Charles Martel (c. 688 or 686, 680–741), Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, had six sons (3 illegitimate);

1. Carloman (between 706 and 716-754) , Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia, had one son;

A. Drogo (b. before 741), Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia;

2. Pepin (or Pippin) the Younger (known under the mistranslation Pepin the Short) (c.714–768), King of the Franks (f. 754), had three sons;

A. Charlemagne (Charles I the Great) (748–814), King of the Franks (f. 768), King of Italy (f. 774), Holy Roman Emperor (f. 800), had nine sons (4 illegitimate);

I. Pepin(or Pippin) the Hunchback (770–811), illegitimate son, died without issue;

II. Charles the Younger (772/73–811), King of the Franks (f. 800), died without issue;Herbertians or Lombard branch or Vermandois branch;

III. Pepin I (or Pippin) born Carloman (777–810), King of Italy (f.781), had one illegitimate son;

a. Bernard I (797–818), King of Italy (f. 810), had one son;

i. Pepin (b. 815-after 850) Count of Vermandois (after 834), Lord of Senlis, Péronne, and Saint Quentin, had three sons;

1. Bernard II (in French) (c.844– after 893), Count of Laon had one son;

2. Pepin III (846–893), Count of Senlis and Valois, had one son;

3. Herbert I (850-907), Count of Vermandois (f.896), Meaux, and Soissons, abbot of Saint Quentin, had one son;

A. Herbert II (884–943), Count of Vermandois, Meaux and Soissons, and abbot of St. Medard, and Soissons, had six sons;

I. Otto (or Eudes) of Vermandois-Vexin (910–946), Count of Amiens, died without issue;

II. Herbert III 'the Old' (911–993), Count of Omois, Meaux and Troyes, and abbot of St. Medard, Soissons, died without issue

III. Robert (?-968) , Count of Meaux (f.943) and Troyes (f.956), had one son;

a. Herbert II 'the Younger', Count of Troyes, Meaux, and Omois (950–995) had one son;

i. Stephen, Count of Troyes, Meaux, Vitry and Omois (d. 1020) died without male issue;

IV. Adalbert I 'the Pious' (916–988) , Count of Vermandois (f. 943) had four sons;

a. Herbert IV (953–1015), Count of Vermandois, had three sons;

i. Adalbert II (c.980–1015), Count of Vermandois, died without issue;

ii. Landulf, Bishop of Noyon, died without issue;

iii. Otto (979–1045), Count of Vermandois, had three sons;

1. Herbert IV (1028–1080) Count of Vermandois, had one son and one daughter;

A. Odo 'the Insane' (?-after 1085), Lord of Saint-Simon, died without issue;

B. Adelaide (d. 1122), Countess of Vermandois and Valois (f.1080);

2. Eudes I (b. 1034), Lord of Ham;

3. Peter of Vermandois;

b. Eudes of Vermandois (in French)

c. Liudolfe (c. 957-986), Bishop of Noyon;

d. Guy Count of Soissons

V. Hugh of Vermandois (920-962) Archbishop of Rheims, died without issue;

IV. Louis I the Pious also called the Fair, and the Debonaire (778–840), King of Aquitaine (f. 781), King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor (f. 814), had five sons (one illegitimate);Lotharingian branch

a. Lothair I (795–855) Emperor (f.840) had 4 sons;

i. Louis II the Young (825–875), King of Italy (f.844), Emperor (f.850) died without male issue;

ii. Lothair II (835–869), King of Lotharingia had one son (illegitimate);

1. Hugh (855–895), Duke of Alsace, died without issue;

iii. Charles (845–863), Lord of Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy, died without issue

iv. Carloman (853-?)Aquitainian branch

b. Pepin I (797–838), King of Aquitaine (f.814) had 2 sons;

i. Pepin (823–864), died without issue;

ii. Charles (825/30–863), Archbishop of Mainz, died without issue;German branch

c. Ludwig (Louis) II the German (806–876, King of the East Franks (f.843), King of East Lotharingia as Louis I, had 3 sons;

i. Carloman (830–880), King of the Bavaria (876-879), King of Italy (877-879), had one son (illegitimate);

1. Arnulf (850–899), King of East Francia (f.887), disputed King of Italy(f.894), Emperor (f.896), had 3 sons;

A. Ludwig IV (Louis) the Child (893–911), King of The East Franks (f.900), King of Lotharingia as Louis III (f.900), died without issue;

B. Zwentibold (870/71–900), King of Lotharingia (f.895), died without issue;

C. Ratold of Italy (889–929) died without issue

ii. Ludwig III (Louis ) the Younger (835–882), King of the East Franks, and King of East Lotharingia as Louis II (f.876), King of Lotharingia (f.879) had 1 son;

1. Louis (877 - 879) died in infancy

iii. Charles II the Fat (839–888), King of the West Franks (f.843), had one son (illegitimate);

1. Bernard (c.871-891/2), illegitimate, died without issue;French branch

d. Charles II the Bald (823–877), King of the West Franks (f.843), King of Aquitaine (f. 848), KIng of Lotharingia (f. 870), Emperor Charles II (f. 875), KIng of Italy (f. 877) had 4 sons;

i. Louis II the Stammerer (846–879), King of Aquitaine (f. 867), King of the West Franks and King of West Lotharingia (f. 877) had 3 sons;

1. Louis III of France (863/65–882), King of the West Franks (f. 879), died without issue;

2. Carloman II of France (866/68–884), King of the West Franks (f. 882), died without issue

3. Charles III the Simple (posthumously 879–929), King of the West Franks (898-922), King of Lotharingia (911-922), had four sons (3 illegitimate);

A. Louis IV 'from overseas' (920–954), King of the Franks, had five sons;

I. Lothair (941–986), King of the Franks (f.954), had four sons;

a. Louis V (966/7–987), King of the Franks (f.986) died without issue

b. Otto (?-before 986)

c. Arnulf (d. 1021), illegitimate, Archbishop of Reims, died without issue

d. Richard (?after 991), illegitimate;

II. Carloman (945-before 953) died in infancy

III. Louis (948-954) died in infancy

IV. Charles (953–993), Duke of Lower Lotharingia (f.977), had three sons;

a. Otto (970–1012), Duke of Lower Lotharingia (f.991), died without male issue

b. Louis (975/980–1023) died without issue, the last legitimate Carolingian

c. Charles (991or after-after 991) died in infancy

V. Henry (953-young) died in infancy

B. Arnulf, illegitimate;

C. Drogo, illegitimate;

D. Rorico (?-976), illegitimate, Archbishop of Reims;

ii. Charles the Child (847/48–866), King of Aquitaine, died without issue

iii. Lothar (848?–866) died without issue

iv. Carloman (849?–877/78), Abbot of Echternach, died without issue

v. Drogo (872/73-873/74), twin with Pepin, died in infancy;

vi. Pepin (872/73-873/74), twin with Drogo, died in infancy;

vii son (875-875), died in infancy;

viii Charles (876-877), died in infancy;end of French branch

e. Arnulf (ca.793/794-841), illegitimate, Count of Sens

V. Lothair (778–779/780) died in infancy

VI. Drogo or Dreux or Drogon (801–855) Archbishop of Metz, illegitimate, died without issue;

VII. Hugh (802/6–844), illegitimate, abbot of: Saint-Quentin (822/3), Lobbes (836), and Saint-Bertin (836), imperial archchancellor, died without issue;

VIII. Richbod (805–844), illegitimate, Abbott of Saint-Riquier, died without issue;

IX. Theodric (807-after 818), illegitimate, died without issue;

B. Carloman I (751–771), King of Franks, had 4 sons (2 iilegitimate);

I. Pepin (770-after 774) died without issue;

II. child, sex and name not known. (?-after 772) died without issue;

III. Charles, illegitimate;

IV. Carolman, illegitimate;

C. Pepin (759-761/762) died in infancy;

3. Grifo (726–753) died without issue;

4. Bernard (or Brenhard) (730–787) de Saint Quentin (d'Herstal), illegitimate, Abbot of St. Quentin, had two sons;

A. Saint Adalard of Corbie (751–827) Abbot of Corbie, steward of Louis the Pious, died without issue;

B. Wala (755–836) Abbot of Corbie, Abbot of Bobbio, died without issue;

C. Bernhar (776-after 821);

5. Heronimus, illegitimate;

6. Saint Remigius (or Remedius) (?-771), illegitimate, archbishop of Rouen, died without issue;

Corbie

Corbie is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

Corbie Abbey

Corbie Abbey is a former Benedictine monastery in Corbie, Picardy, France, dedicated to Saint Peter. It was founded by Balthild, the widow of Clovis II, who had monks sent from Luxeiul. The Abbey of Corbie became celebrated both for its library and the scriptorium.

Handbook of 809

The so-called Aachen Compilation of 809–812, also called (by Ramírez-Weaver in his 2008 dissertation) the Handbook of 809 is a Carolingian astronomical compendium, compiled by a group of astronomers who gathered at the court of Charlemagne at Aachen in the year 809.

Charged with assessing the state of current knowledge about the heavens, they drew from classical sources such as the Historia naturalis by Pliny and the Greek tradition based on the Phaenomena by Aratus of Soli.

But the aim of the Carolingian review of astronomy was to Christianize this "pagan" scientific tradition, using a strategy which attempted to keep as much material as possible of the ancient authors while taking care to alter some details which had given cause for concern in early medieval Christian doctrine.

An influential contributor was Adalard of Corbie, Charlemagne's cousin. He brought with him the texts Excerptum de astrologia and De ordine ac positione stellarum in signis, which were incorporated into the Handbook.

De ordine ac positione stellarum in signis is a catalogue of 42 constellations (out of the total of 48 listed by Ptolemy). Excerptum de astrologia is an abstract of the Aratus latinus, itself a translation of Aratus' Phaenomena. The Aratus latinus was a product of the 8th century, possibly further revised at Adalard's monastery of Corbie in the late 8th century (Revised Aratus).

The earliest surviving manuscripts date to only a few years after the Aachen synod of 809–812.

The oldest is kept in Paris, as Nouv. acq. lat. 1614, made in Tours in c. 825. Another early copy of the handbook survives in the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid, as Ms. 3307. This copy was made in Metz and dates to c. 840.

Other Carolingian manuscripts survive in Vienna (Cod. Vindob. 387), Munich (Clm 210), Berlin (Ms Phill. 1832) and the Vatican (Vat. lat. 645, Reg. lat. 309).

Huise

Huise is a village on a hill within the municipality of Zingem, part of the province of Oost-Vlaanderen in Belgium.

Imperial Abbey of Corvey

The Imperial Abbey of Corvey or Princely Abbey of Corvey (German: Stift Corvey or Fürstabtei Corvey) was a Benedictine abbey on the River Weser, 2 km northeast of Höxter, now in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was one of the Imperial abbeys of the Holy Roman Empire from the late Middle Ages until 1792 when the abbey was dissolved and Corvey converted into a prince-bishopric. It was in turn secularized in 1803 and absorbed into the newly created Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda. In 2014, the former abbey was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

January 1

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

January 2 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 1 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - January 3

All fixed commemorations below are observed on January 15 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For January 2nd, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on December 20.

July 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

July 14 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 16

All fixed commemorations below are celebrated on July 28 by Old Calendar.For July 15th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on July 2.

List of Catholic saints

This is an incomplete list of people and angels whom the Catholic Church has canonized as saints. According to Catholic theology, all saints enjoy the beatific vision; it is impossible therefore for any list to enumerate them all. Many of the saints listed here are to be found in the General Roman Calendar, while others may also be found in the Roman Martyrology; still others are particular to local places and their recognition does not extend to the larger worldwide church.

Candidates go through the following steps on the way to being declared saints.

Saints acknowledged by the Eastern Orthodox and other churches are listed in Category:Christian saints by century and/or Category:Christian saints by nationality.

This list of Catholic saints is ordered chronologically by date of death.

List of canonizations

On 22 January 1588, with the Apostolic Constitution Immensa Aeterni Dei, Pope Sixtus V created the Sacred Congregation of Rites to regulate divine worship and to deal with the causes of saints.

Ministerialis

Ministerialis (plural ministeriales; a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally "servitor" or "agent", in a broad range of senses) were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility. In the Holy Roman Empire, in the High Middle Ages, the word and its German translations, Ministeriale(n) and Dienstmann, came to describe those unfree nobles who made up a large majority of what could be described as the German knighthood during that time. What began as an irregular arrangement of workers with a wide variety of duties and restrictions rose in status and wealth to become the power brokers of an empire.

The ministeriales were not legally free people, but held social rank. Legally, their liege lord determined whom they could or could not marry, and they were not able to transfer their lords' properties to heirs or spouses. They were, however, considered members of the nobility since that was a social designation, not a legal one. Ministeriales were trained knights, held military responsibilities and surrounded themselves with the trappings of knighthood, and so were accepted as noblemen.

Both women and men held the ministerial status, and the laws on ministeriales made no distinction between the sexes in how they were treated.

Paschasius Radbertus

Saint Paschasius Radbertus (785–865) was a Carolingian theologian and the abbot of Corbie, a monastery in Picardy founded in 657 or 660 by the queen regent Bathilde with a founding community of monks from Luxeuil Abbey. His most well-known and influential work is an exposition on the nature of the Eucharist written around 831, entitled De Corpore et Sanguine Domini.

He was canonized in 1073 by Pope Gregory VII. His feast day is April 26.

His works are edited in Patrologia Latina vol. 120 (1852).

Royal household under the Merovingians and Carolingians

The royal household of the early kings of the Franks is the subject of considerable discussion and remains controversial. This discussion is aimed at identifying the major categories of participants in the administration and those who made the major historical impacts. Every king of the Franks from Clovis I to Charles the Bald had a large cadre of advisors and bureaucrats that helped implement their regime. These supporters of the crown are frequently unknown, but often are ancestors of the later rulers of France. This is not intended to be a complete list of those supporting the kings but to serve as a guide for further study. A general discussion of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties can be found in the associated main articles. See also Government of the Carolingian Empire.

Mayors of the Palace. Under the Merovingian kings, the mayor of the palace (maiores palatii or “great man of the palace") was the manager of the household of the Frankish king. The office existed from the sixth century, and during the seventh it evolved into the power behind the throne. Some of the more significant mayors were:

Pepin of Landen, mayor under Dagobert I and Sigebert III

Grimoald the Elder, son of the previous

Pepin of Heristal

Charles Martel, son of the previous and father of the first of the Carolingian kings Pepin the Short, father of Charlemagne.See main article Mayors of the Palace.

Counselors to the King. After the ascendance of the mayors of the palace to the heads of government, future kings understandingly did not place so much power in their underlings, but still relied on senior councillors (or counselors), mostly from the clergy. Major players included:

Saint Fulrad, counselor to both Pepin the Short and Charlemagne

Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims, counselor to Louis the Pious

Adalard of Corbie, grandson of Charles Martel, played a key role in the rule of Louis the Pious

Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, principal advisor, friend, and chief propagandist for Charles the Bald.Lord Chancellor. The officer of state responsible for the judiciary and was responsible for seeing that royal decrees were enrolled and registered by the sundry parlements, the provincial appellate courts. Some significant lord chancellors include:

Saint Rémigius, Bishop of Reims and Apostle of the Franks

Saint Romanus of Rouen, Bishop of Rouen

Saint Ansbert, Bishop of Rouen

Saint Audoin, Bishop of Rouen

Saint Bonitus, Bishop of Auvergne

Robert II, ancestor of the Robertians

Fulrad, Abbot of St. Denis

Alcuin, Abbot of Tours

Fridgise, chancellor to Charlemagne, then to Louis the Pious

Adalard the Seneschal

Renaud de Vendôme, Bishop of Paris

Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II.See the main article Lord Chancellor of France.

Seneschal. The royal officer in charge of justice and control of the administration (in French, sénéchal). Some important seneschal were:

Hugobert (under Theoderic III and his son Childebert III)

Adalard the Seneschal (under Louis the Pious)See the main article Seneschal.

Administrator of the Fisc. Also known as the Master of the Coin. The fisc was the system applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes from which the royal household was meant to be supported. The only recorded Administrator of the Fisc is:

Engelram (under Charles the Bald), grandfather of Otto, Duke of Lorraine.Master of the Doorkeepers. There is no real record of this function in France, although it was prominent in Hungary. The only known people with this title are:

Count Engelram

Boso of ProvennceCount Palatine ( in Latin, comes palatines). The Merovingian kings employed a high official, the Count Palatine, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and, at a later date, discharged many of these himself. Some notable Counts palatine were:

Chrodobertus II

Robert I, Count of Hesbaye

Wigeric of Lotharingia.See the main articles Count Palatine and Elector of the Palatinate.

Grafio. It is not clear what the duties of this position were, nor have any grafio been any recorded other than in the charter of 28 February 693 of Clovis III.Domesticus. Again mentioned in the charter of Clovis III, known people with this title include:

Ansegisel, serving Sigebert III of Austrasia as duke and domesticus

Dodo, father of the mistress of Pepin of Herstal, murdered by the family of Lambert of Maastricht.Référendaire. Officers of the palace who made the report of the royal letters in the chancelleries in order to decide whether they should be signed and distributed. Some of the more significant Référendaire were:

Saint Rémigius, Bishop of Reims

Ansbert, Bishop of Rouen, in the court of Clothar II

Robert I, Bishop of Tours, in the courts of Dagobert I and Clovis II

Bonitus, Bishop of Auvergne, in the court of Sigebert III, King of Austrasia

Robert II, in the court of Chlothar III.See the main article Référendaire of France.

Grand Référendaire. Presumably, an officer responsible for multiple référendaire. The only known Grand Référendaire is:

Audoin, Bishop of Rouen, Grand Référendaire of Dagobert I and Clovis II.Magister Ostiariorum (Master of Porters). Directed the palace staff and controlled access to the king. The only known holder of this position is:

Boso of Provence (Louis the Stammerer).Chamberlain. In the late Middle Ages, the position of chamberlain (see Grand Chamberlain of France) was associated with the maintenance of the king’s chamber and his wardrobe. It is not clear that the early roles in this position were limited to this, as they were filled with powerful counts. Nevertheless, the following are known chamberlains from this period:

Reginar (Rainier) (Louis the Pious), executed for plotting with Bernard of Italy against the crown

Vivian (Charles the Bald)

Engelram (Charles the Bald), ousted by Richilde in favor of her brother Boso

Boso of Provence (Charles the Bald, Louis the Stammerer).Missi Domininici. A final category of members of the court are the Missi Domininici (the palace inspectors), who travelled to the far reaches of the kingdom to promulgate royal doctrine. See the Capitulary of Servais for a listing of the bishops, abbots and counts that supported Charles the Bald in his attempts to manage the outlands, as well as the Capitularies of Charlemagne, and the Capitularies of Charles the Bald.

Ancestors of Adalard of Corbie
Ansegisel
Pepin of Herstal
Begga
Charles Martel
either Childebrand or Plectrudis
Alpaida
Bernhard
Ruodhaid
Adalard of Corbie
Gundelindis

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