Adad-nirari II

Adad-nirari II (reigned from 911[1] to 891 BC) is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period.

Adad-Nirari II
King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Reign912–891 BC
PredecessorAshur-dan II (Middle Assyrian Empire)
SuccessorTukulti-Ninurta II
Died891 BC
IssueTukulti-Ninurta II
FatherAshur-dan II

Biography

Assyria in reign of Adad-nirari II
Economic recovery in the reign of Adad-nirari II

Adad-nirari II's father was Ashur-dan II, whom he succeeded after a minor dynastic struggle. It is probable that the accession encouraged revolts amongst Assyria's nominal vassals.

He firmly subjugated the areas previously under only nominal Assyrian vassalage, conquering and deporting troublesome Arameans following a battle at the junction of the Khabur and Euphrates in 910 BC. After subduing Neo-Hittite and Hurrian populations in the north, Adad-nirari II then twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala River and the towns of Hīt and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia in the same year. He made further gains over Babylonia under Nabu-shuma-ukin I later in his reign. He also campaigned to the west, subjugating the Aramean cities of Kadmuh and Nisibin. Along with vast amounts of treasure collected, he also secured the Kabur river region.[2] His reign was a period of returning prosperity to the Middle East region following expansion of Phoenician and Aramaean trade routes, linking Anatolia, Egypt under the Libyan 22nd Dynasty, Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean.

Adad-nirari II's son was named Tukulti-Ninurta II who continued to wage war against Assyria's enemies.[2]

Because of the existence of full eponym lists from Adad-nirari II's reign down to the middle of the reign of Ashurbanipal in the 7th century BC, year one of his reign in 911 BC is perhaps the first event in ancient Near Eastern history which can be dated to an exact year, although the Assyrian King List is generally considered to be quite accurate for several centuries before Adad-nirari's reign, and scholars generally agree on a single set of dates back to Ashur-resh-ishi I in the late 12th century BC.

References

  1. ^ Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP. p. 74.
  2. ^ a b Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. New York: Osprey. p. 6.
Preceded by
Ashur-dan II
King of Assyria
911–891 BC
Succeeded by
Tukulti-Ninurta II
890s BC

This article concerns the period 899 BC – 890 BC.

Adad-nirari

Adad-nirari or Adad-narari may refer to one of the following ancient Near Eastern kings.

Adad-nirari I of Assyria

Adad-nirari II of Assyria

Adad-nirari III of Assyria

Adad-Nirari of Qatna

Adad-Nirari of Nuhašše

Ashur-dan II

Ashur-Dan II (Aššur-dān) (934–912 BC), son of Tiglath Pileser II, was the earliest king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He was best known for recapturing previously held Assyrian territory and restoring Assyria to its natural borders, from Tur Abdin (southeast Turkey) to the foothills beyond Arbel (Iraq). The reclaimed territory through his conquest was fortified with horses, ploughs, and grain stores. His military and economic expansions benefited four subsequent generations of kings that replicated his model.

Ashur-nadin-ahhe I

Ashur-nadin-ahhe I was the king of Assyria from 1435 BC to 1420 BC. He took power after the death of his father, Ashur-rabi I. During his reign, Assyria became a sporadic vassal of Mitanni. After a 15-year rule, he was overthrown by his brother Enlil-Nasir II.A letter survives from him congratulating Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III on his victories in Palestine and Syria.

Ashur-nirari II

Aššur-nērārī II, inscribed maš-šur-ERIM.GABA (=DÁḪ), "(the god) Aššur is my help," was the king of Assyria, the 68th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist, ca. 1424–1418 BC or 1414–1408 BC depending on a later uncertainty in the chronology, at the tail end of the Old Assyrian period. The small city state of Aššur was a vassal state of the Mitanni empire at this time and still recovering from their sacking of the city under Šauštatar.

Ashur-rabi I

Ashur-rabi I was the King of Assyria from 1453 BC to 1435 BC. The son of the former king Enlil-nasir I, he seized the throne after a successful coup against Ashur-shaduni, who had been the king for only one month.

Asinum

Asinum was an Assyrian king during the 18th century BC, and a grandson of Shamshi-Adad I. He was driven out by vice-regent Puzur-Sin because he was of Amorite extraction; not included in the standard King List, but attested in Puzur-Sin's inscription.

Gidara

Gidara (West Semitic for wall) was an ancient city in northern Mesopotamia. It was located at the upper course of the Khabur river north of Guzana.

At the beginning of the 10th century BC the city was under Assyrian control. When Aramaic tribes moved into northern Mesopotamia, one of them, called Temanites by the Assyrians, managed to snatch the city from Assyrian control under the reign of Tiglath-Pileser II (966-935). The Aramaeans called their city Raqamatu. The Assyrian king Adad-nirari II (911-891) led campaign into the Khabur valley and captured the city after a siege in 898. The city was plundered and its Aramaic ruler Muquru and his family were deported to Assyria.

Hadad (disambiguation)

Hadad may refer to:

Hadad, an ancient Semitic god

Adad, hist Akkadian counterpart

Hadad (surname)

Hadad (Bible), several biblical characters

Hadad ben Bedad, an early king of Edom

Hadad the Edomite, a member of the royal house of Edom, who escaped the massacre under Joab and fled to EgyptAssyrian kings

Adad-nirari I

Adad-nirari II

Adad-nirari IIIPlaces

Hodod Commune, Satu Mare County, Romania

Harharu

Harharu (Akkadian: 𒄯𒄩𒊒, translit. Ḫar-ḫa-ru) was an early Assyrian king. He was listed as the fifth among the “seventeen kings who lived in tents” within the Mesopotamian Chronicles. Harharu was preceded by Suhlamu, and succeeded by Mandaru. Next to nothing is otherwise known about Harharu's reign.

Kapara

King Kapara (also Gabara) of Guzana (Tell Halaf) was the ruler of Bit Bahiani, a small Hittite kingdom, in the 10th or 9th century BC (Albright 1956 estimates ca. 950-875 BC). He built Bit-hilani, a monumental palace in Neo-Hittite style discovered by Max von Oppenheim in 1911, with a rich decoration of statues and relief orthostats.

In 894 BC, the Assyrian king Adad-nirari II recorded the site in his archives as a tributary Aramaean city-state. In 808 BC the city and its surrounding area was reduced to a province of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Khojaly–Gadabay culture

The Khodzhaly-Kedabek culture (also Khojaly-Gadabay and variants (Azerbaijani: Xocalı-Gədəbəy mədəniyyəti, Russian ходжалы-кедабекская культура), also known as the Gandzha-Karabakh culture (ганджа-карабахская культура) is an archaeological culture of the Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age (roughly 13th to 7th centuries BC) in the Karabakh region of Transcaucasia. The eponymous sites are at Khojaly, Gadabay and Ganja in Azerbaijan.

It was excavated by Soviet archaeologists beginning in the 1920s.It was described by Boris Piotrovsky and other archaeologists specializing in the prehistory of Transcaucasia during the 1930s to 1970s.

Findings from Khojaly burial grounds discovered in 1895 by E. Resler. Hermitage Museum

Mandaru

Mandaru (Akkadian: 𒎙𒁕𒊒, translit. Man-da-ru) was an early Assyrian king. He is listed as the sixth among the “seventeen kings who lived in tents” within the Mesopotamian Chronicles. Mandaru was preceded by Harharu, and succeeded by Imsu. Next to nothing is otherwise known about Mandaru's reign.

Mut-Ashkur

Mut-Ashkur was the king of Assyria from 1730 BC to 1720 BC. He was the son and successor of Ishme-Dagan. His father arranged for him to marry the daughter of the Hurrian king Zaziya.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time. The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires, and was, according to many historians, the first real empire in history. The Assyrians were the first to be armed with iron weapons, and their troops employed advanced, effective military tactics.Following the conquests of Adad-nirari II in the late 10th century BC, Assyria emerged as the most powerful state in the known world at the time, coming to dominate the Ancient Near East, East Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Caucasus, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, eclipsing and conquering rivals such as Babylonia, Elam, Persia, Urartu, Lydia, the Medes, Phrygians, Cimmerians, Israel, Judah, Phoenicia, Chaldea, Canaan, the Kushite Empire, the Arabs, and Egypt.The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Old Assyrian Empire (c. 2025–1378 BC), and the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–934 BC) of the Late Bronze Age. During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside Akkadian.Upon the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria proper. In 616 BC, Cyaxares king of the Medes and Persians made alliances with Nabopolassar ruler of the Babylonians and Chaldeans, and also the Scythians and Cimmerians against Assyria. At the Fall of Harran (609 BC) the Babylonians and Medes defeated an Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria largely ceased to exist as an independent state. A failed attempt to reconquer Harran ended the Assyrian Empire. Although the empire fell, Assyrian history continued; there are still Assyrians living in Iran, Iraq, and elsewhere, in the present day.

Shalmaneser IV

Shalmaneser IV was king of Assyria (783–773 BC). He succeeded his father Adad-nirari III, and was succeeded by his brother Ashur-dan III. Very little information about his reign has survived.

According to the eponym canon, he led several campaigns against Urartu. His rulership was severely limited by the growing influence of high dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was then commander-in-chief of the army.

Shamshi-Adad III

Shamshi-Adad III was the King of Assyria from 1545 BC to 1529 BC. He was the son of Ishme-Dagan II.

Tukulti-Ninurta

Tukulti-Ninurta may refer to:

Tukulti-Ninurta I (1243-1207 BC), King of Assyria

Tukulti-Ninurta II (891-884 BC), King of Assyria, son of Adad-nirari II

Ninurta-apal-Ekur (c. 1192-1180 BC), King of Assyria as an usurper, and descendant of Adad-nirari I

Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur, King of Assyria in 1133 BC. Son of Ashur-dan I

Tukulti-Ninurta Epic, Assyrian epic about Kashtiliash IV and Tukulti-Ninurta I

Ninurta, in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, a solar deity

Tukulti-Ninurta II

Tukulti-Ninurta II was King of Assyria from 891 BC to 884 BC. He was the second king of the Neo Assyrian Empire.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.