Adab (Islam)

Adab (Arabic: أدب‎) in the context of behavior, refers to prescribed Islamic etiquette: "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness".[1] While interpretation of the scope and particulars of Adab may vary among different cultures, common among these interpretations is regard for personal standing through the observation of certain codes of behavior.[2] To exhibit Adab would be to show "proper discrimination of correct order, behavior, and taste."[2]

Islam has rules of etiquette and an ethical code involving every aspect of life. Muslims refer to Adab as good manners, courtesy, respect, and appropriateness, covering acts such as entering or exiting a washroom, posture when sitting, and cleansing oneself.

Adab
Arabicأدب
RomanizationAdab
Literal meaningbehavior

Customs and behaviour

Practitioners of Islam are generally taught to follow some specific customs in their daily lives. Most of these customs can be traced back to Abrahamic traditions in pre-Islamic Arabian society.[3] Due to Muhammad's sanction or tacit approval of such practices, these customs are considered to be Sunnah (practices of Muhammad as part of the religion) by the Ummah (Muslim nation). It includes customs like:

  • Saying "Bismillah" (in the name of God) before eating and drinking.[4]
  • Using the right hand for drinking and eating.[5]
  • Saying "As-Salaam Alaikum" (peace be upon you) when meeting someone and answering with "Wa 'alaikumus salam" (and peace be upon you).[6]
  • Saying "Alhamdulillah" (all gratitude is for only God) when sneezing and responding with "Yarhamukallah" (God have mercy on you).[7]
  • Saying the "Adhan" (prayer call) in the right ear of a newborn and the Iqama in its left.
  • In the sphere of hygiene, it includes:
    • Clipping the moustache
    • Removing armpit hair regardless of gender
    • Cutting nails
    • Circumcising the male offspring[8][9]
    • Cleaning the nostrils, the mouth, and the teeth[10] and
    • Cleaning the body after urination and defecation[11]
  • Abstention from sexual relations during the menstrual cycle and the puerperal discharge,[Quran 2:222] and ceremonial bath after the menstrual cycle, and Janabah (seminal/ovular discharge or sexual intercourse).[Quran 4:43][Quran 5:6]
  • Burial rituals include funeral prayer[12] of bathed[13] and enshrouded body in coffin cloth[14] and burying it in a grave.[15]

The list above is far from comprehensive. As Islam sees itself as more of a way of life than a religion, Islamic adab is concerned with all areas of an individual's life, not merely the list mentioned above.

Examples of encouraging Adab

Hadith or (sayings of Mohammad)

Sunni hadith:

Abu 'Amr ash-Shaybani said, "The owner of this house (and he pointed at the house of 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud) said, "I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which action Allah loves best. He replied, 'Prayer at its proper time.' 'Then what?' I asked. He said, 'Then kindness to parents." I asked, 'Then what?' He replied, 'Then jihad in the Way of Allah.'" He added, "He told me about these things. If I had asked him to tell me more, he would have told me more." Kitab Al Adab Al Mufrad p.29 Qahwama.com

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Firmage, Edwin Brown and Weiss, Bernard G. and Welch, John W. Religion and Law. 1990, page 202-3
  2. ^ a b Ensel, Remco. Saints and Servants in Southern Morocco. 1999, page 180
  3. ^ Ghamidi (2001). "Sources of Islam" Archived 2013-06-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1513.
  5. ^ Sahih Muslim 2020.
  6. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 6234.
  7. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 6224.
  8. ^ Sahih Muslim 257.
  9. ^ Sahih Muslim 258.
  10. ^ Sahih Muslim 252.
  11. ^ Sunan Abi Dawood 45.
  12. ^ Ghamidi. "Various Types of the Prayer" Archived 2013-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 1254.
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim 943.
  15. ^ Ghamidi (2001). "Customs and Behavioral Laws" Archived 2013-09-23 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Bruce Privratsky, Muslim Turkistan, pgs. 98-99
Adab

Adab may refer to:

Adab (city), a city of ancient Sumer

Adab (gesture), a greeting gesture traditionally used by Muslims of South Asia

Adab (Islam), the category of Islamic law dealing with etiquette

Adab (literature), the classical Islamic literature of medieval Asia

`Adab, a village in Yemen

Misbaholdiwan Adab, a Kurdish poet

Manaqib-al-Jaleela

Manaqib-al-Jaleela is a book on Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) written by 20th century Islamic Scholar, Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi. This book deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam, according to the Hanafi school, spreading over 9 volumes. The book is written in Urdu.

Morality in Islam

Morality in Islam encompasses the concept of righteousness, good character, and the body of moral qualities and virtues prescribed in Islamic religious texts. The underlying idea of Islamic morality is that of love: love for God and love for God's creatures. The religious ideal is that mankind will behave morally and treat each other in the best possible manner in order to please God.Teachings on morality and moral conduct constitute a major part Islamic literature. The Quran and the Hadith – the central religious texts of Islam – serve as the primary source for these teachings. Both the Quran and the hadith often instruct Muslims to adopt a morally upright character. Showing kindness to people and charity to the poor and the helpless are the most emphasized moral virtues in the Quran. In particular, helping people their time of need, forgiving others' offenses, respecting parents and elders, fulfilling promises, being kind to people and to animals, being patient in adversity, maintaining justice, being honest, and controlling one's anger appear as major virtues in the Islamic concept of morality.

Sufism in India

Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years. The presence of Sufism has been a leading entity increasing the reaches of Islam throughout South Asia. Following the entrance of Islam in the early 8th century, Sufi mystic traditions became more visible during the 10th and 11th centuries of the Delhi Sultanate and after it to the rest of India. A conglomeration of four chronologically separate dynasties, the early Delhi Sultanate consisted of rulers from Turkic and Afghan lands. This Persian influence flooded South Asia with Islam, Sufi thought, syncretic values, literature, education, and entertainment that has created an enduring impact on the presence of Islam in India today. Sufi preachers, merchants and missionaries also settled in coastal Bengal and Gujarat through maritime voyages and trade.

Various leaders of Sufi orders, Tariqa, chartered the first organized activities to introduce localities to Islam through Sufism. Saint figures and mythical stories provided solace and inspiration to Hindu caste communities often in rural villages of India. The Sufi teachings of divine spirituality, cosmic harmony, love, and humanity resonated with the common people and still does so today. The following content will take a thematic approach to discuss a myriad of influences that helped spread Sufism and a mystical understanding of Islam, making India a contemporary epicenter for Sufi culture today.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.