Adélie Land

Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica. It stretches from a coastline area along the Great Southern Ocean inland all the way to the South Pole. France administrates it as one of five districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since 1955 and apply the Antarctic Treaty System rules since 1961. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. France has had a permanent station in Adélie Land since April 9, 1950. The current Dumont d'Urville Station has a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer.

Adélie Land

Terre Adélie
Flag of Adélie Land
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
Location of Adélie Land
Official languagesFrench
Government
• President
Emmanuel Macron
• Administrator
Cécile Pozzo di Borgo[1]
• Head of District
François Grosvalet[2]
French overseas territory
• Discovered et claimed by France
January 20th, 1840
• Administrated from French Madagascar
1924
Area
• Total
432,000 km2 (167,000 sq mi)
Population
• Estimate
c. 33 (winter)
< 80 (summer)
CurrencyEuro (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+10
Calling code+262 262 00 2
Internet TLD.tf

Geography

Adélie Land lies between 136° E (near Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12′S 136°11′E / 66.200°S 136.183°E) and 142° E (near Point Alden at 66°48′S 142°02′E / 66.800°S 142.033°E), with a shore length of about 350 kilometres (220 mi) and with its inland part extending as a sector of a circle about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) toward the South Pole. Adélie Land has borders with the Australian Antarctic Territory both on the east and on the west, namely on Clarie Land (part of Wilkes Land) in the west, and George V Land in the east. Its total land area, mostly covered with glaciers, is estimated to be 432,000 square kilometres (167,000 sq mi).

History

The coast of Adélie Land was discovered in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville (1790–1842) who named it after his wife, Adèle.[3] This is the basis of the French claim to this Antarctic land.

Atlas pittoresque pl 169

Discovery by Jules Dumont d'Urville, 1840

Roquemaurel Roches Terre Adélie MHNT MIN 2013 0 1-5

Rocks brought back by the expedition in 1840 MHNT

Research stations

Dumont d'Urville Station

Since January 12, 1956, a manned French research base has been located year-round at 66°40′S 140°01′E / 66.667°S 140.017°E, the Dumont d'Urville Station, with a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer.

Port Martin

The first French station, Port Martin, was built April 9, 1950, at 66°49′04″S 141°23′39″E / 66.81778°S 141.39417°E, but it was destroyed by a fire during the night of January 22–23, 1952. Port Martin housed a winter population of 11 in 1950–51 and 17 in 1951–52.[4]

Charcot Station

Charcot Station (69°22′30″S 139°01′00″E / 69.375°S 139.016667°E) was a French inland base located on the Antarctic ice sheet at 320 kilometres (200 mi) from the coast and from Dumont d'Urville Station, at an elevation of about 2,400 metres (7,900 ft). The station, built for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58, paid homage to Jean-Baptiste Charcot), and was occupied from January 1957 through 1960 housing alone three men.

The base was composed of a main body of 24 square metres (the "barrack") which consisted of semicylindrical sections of sheet metal assembled end to end. This form was planned to best withstand the snow pressure accumulated on it. Horizontal galleries were connected to house scientific measurement devices, while a vertical air conduit opened a few metres above the snow level provided ventilation.

Cap Prud'Homme Camp

Cap Prud'Homme (66°41′28″S 139°53′44″E / 66.691104°S 139.895677°E) is an Italian-French camp, opened in 1994, located on the coast of the Antarctic ice sheet, in Adélie Land, about 5 km from Petrel Island, where the French Dumont d'Urville Station is. All the supplies and equipment for the Italian-French Concordia Station are transported by a combined convoy of up to 7 Caterpillar tractors from Cap Prud'Homme , with Kassbohrer trailblazers and a team of up to 9 people; each convoy transports an average of 150 tons of payload.[5]

In popular culture

The Dumont d'Urville research station was the filming location of the documentary March of the Penguins (2005).[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Official nomination
  2. ^ List of chefs de district
  3. ^ Dunmore, John (2007). From Venus to Antarctica: The Life of Dumont D'Urville. Auckland: Exisle Publ. p. 209. ISBN 9780908988716.
  4. ^ "Fire destroys station in Antarctica, French expedition's loss". The Times. January 26, 1952.
  5. ^ "Cap Prud'Homme". Italiantartide. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  6. ^ "The Emperor's Close-Up". National Geographic's Adventure. National Geographic Society. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.

External links

Coordinates: 75°00′S 139°00′E / 75.000°S 139.000°E

Adelie Land meteorite

Adelie Land is a meteorite discovered on December 5, 1912, in Antarctica by Francis Howard Bickerton (1889-1954), a member of Sir Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition. It was named after Adélie Land and it was the first meteorite found in Antarctica.Only one fragment of about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) was found. It was classified as L5 ordinary chondrite.

Astrolabe Glacier

Astrolabe Glacier is a glacier 7 kilometres (4 nmi) wide and 19 kilometres (10 nmi) long, flowing north-northeast from the continental ice and terminating at the coast in a prominent tongue at the east side of Geologie Archipelago. It was first sighted in 1840 by the French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville, although no glaciers were noted on d'Urville's chart of this coast but a formidable icy dike with perpendicular flanks of 37.7 m high according to the joined plate, corresponding to the glacier tongue. The glacier was photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in January 1947. It was charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1949–51, and named after d'Urville's flagship, the Astrolabe.

The Astrolabe Glacier Tongue (66°42′S 140°5′E) is a prominent glacier tongue about 6 kilometres (3 nmi) wide and 7 kilometres (4 nmi) long, extending northeast from Astrolabe Glacier.

Barré Glacier

Barré Glacier is a channel glacier about 5 nautical miles (9 km) wide and 5 nautical miles long, flowing north from the continental ice to the coast close east of Cape Pepin. It was delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Michel Barré, leader of the French Antarctic Expedition wintering party of 1951–52, whose party extended reconnaissance of the coastal features as far west as this glacier.

Bernard Island

Bernard Island is a rocky island 400 m long lying 500 m east of the Petrel Island in the Géologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was charted in 1951 by a French Antarctic Expedition and named by them for Claude Bernard, a noted French physiologist.

Bon Docteur Nunatak

Bon Docteur Nunatak, also known as Good Doctor Nunatak, is a small coastal nunatak, 28 metres (92 ft) high, standing at the west side of the Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, 400 m (1,300 ft) south of Rostand Island in the Geologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1952–53, and named for Dr Jean Cendron, the "good doctor", medical officer and biologist with the French Antarctic Expedition, 1951–52.

Carrel Island

Carrel Island, also known as Le Mauguen Island, is a small, rocky island 400 m long lying 200 m south of Petrel Island in the Géologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was charted in 1950 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them for Alexis Carrel, noted French surgeon and physiologist.

Commandant Charcot Glacier

Commandant Charcot Glacier (66°25′S 136°35′E) is a prominent glacier about 3 nautical miles (6 km) wide and 12 nautical miles (22 km) long, flowing north-northwest from the continental ice to its terminus at the head of Victor Bay. It was delineated from aerial photographs taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47. The French Antarctic Expedition, 1950–1952, under Mario Marret sledged west along the coast to Victor Bay, close east of this glacier, in December 1952, and it was named by them for the polar ship Commandant Charcot which transported French expeditions to this area, 1948–1952.

D'Urville Sea

D'Urville Sea is a sea of the Southern Ocean, north of the coast of Adélie Land, East Antarctica. It is named after the French explorer and officer Jules Dumont d'Urville.

Dumont d'Urville Station

The Dumont d'Urville Station (French: Base Dumont d'Urville) is a French scientific station in Antarctica on Île des Pétrels, archipelago of Pointe Géologie in Adélie Land. It is named after explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, whose expedition landed on Débarquement Rock in the Dumoulin Islands at the northeast end of the archipelago on January 21, 1840. It is operated by the "French Polar Institute Paul-Émile Victor", a joint operation of French public and para-public agencies.

Flags of Antarctica

Prior to 2002, Antarctica had no flag as the condominium that governs the continent had not yet formally selected one even though a particular design was in widespread use. The consultative members of the Antarctic Treaty System officially adopted a flag and emblem in 2002, which is now the official symbol of the continent. Several unofficial designs have also been proposed.

Français Glacier

Français Glacier (66°33′S 138°15′E) is a glacier 4 nautical miles (7 km) wide and 12 nautical miles (22 km) long, flowing north-northeast from the continental ice to the Antarctic coast close west of Ravin Bay. Though no glaciers were noted on Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville's chart of this coast, the close correlation of his "Baie des Ravins" feature and narrative description with the indentation of the coast near the mouth of this glacier suggests first sighting of this feature by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1837–40. During December 1912 members of the Main Base Party of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) camped on the upland slopes close east of the glacier, but no reference was made to the glacier in the AAE reports, though a clear view and unpublished sketch were obtained of the distant coast to the northwest.

It was delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47. The French Antarctic Expedition under Mario Marret, 1952–53, sledged west on the sea ice to the ice cliffs close east of the glacier. It was named after the Français, the expedition ship of the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Dr. Jean-Baptiste Charcot.

Géologie Archipelago

The Géologie Archipelago, also known as the Geology Archipelago or Cape Geology Archipelago, is a small archipelago of rocky islands and rocks close to the north of Cape Géodésie and Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, extending from Helene Island on the west to the Dumoulin Islands on the east, in Adélie Land, Antarctica.

Lamarck Island (Antarctica)

Lamarck Island is a rocky island 250 m (820 ft) long, lying 300 m (980 ft) east of Petrel Island and 300 m (980 ft) north-east of Rostand Island in the Géologie Archipelago, off the Adélie Coast of Antarctica. It was charted in 1951 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the French naturalist.

Liotard Glacier

Liotard Glacier (66°37′S 139°30′E) is a channel glacier in Antarctica. It is about 3 nautical miles (6 km) wide and 6 nautical miles (11 km) long, and flows north-northeast from the continental ice, terminating in a small ice tongue about 4 nautical miles (7 km) west of Hélène Island. The glacier was delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Andre-Frank Liotard, the leader of the French Antarctic Expedition, 1949–51, whose group completed the initial survey of the coastal features as far westward as this glacier.

Marret Glacier

Marret Glacier (66°26′S 137°44′E) is a channel glacier about 4 nautical miles (7 km) wide and 4 nautical miles long, flowing northeast from the continental ice of Antarctica to the coast close east of Cape Robert. It was delineated from aerial photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Mario Marret, the leader of the French Antarctic Expedition, 1952–53, whose party extended reconnaissance of the coastal features to the west side of Victor Bay.

Petrel Island (Antarctica)

Petrel Island (French: Île des Pétrels) is a rocky island, 900 m long and 45 m in elevation, which lies north-west of Rostand Island and is the largest feature in the cluster of islands at the south-eastern end of Geologie Archipelago. It was photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1949–51, and so named by them because numerous snow petrel nests present. In January 1952, following destruction of the Port Martin base by fire, the French Antarctic Expedition under Marret, 1952–53, enlarged the hut on Petrel Island to serve as the new base site. The island is now the site of Dumont d'Urville Station.

Port Martin

Port Martin, or Port-Martin, is an abandoned French research base at Cape Margerie on the coast of Adélie Land, Antarctica, as well as the name of the adjacent anchorage.

Rostand Island

Rostand Island is a rocky island 400 m long and 200 m south-east of Petrel Island in the Geologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was charted in 1951 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them for Jean Rostand, noted French biologist.

It is the site of the rock dome Tour de Pise.

Zélée Glacier

Zélée Glacier (66°52′S 141°10′E) is a glacier about 6 kilometres (3 nmi) wide and 11 kilometres (6 nmi) long, flowing north-northwest from the continental ice along the west side of Lacroix Nunatak and terminating in a prominent tongue at the west side of Port Martin. Probably first sighted in 1840 by the French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville, although no glaciers were noted on d'Urville's chart of this coast. Photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946-47. Charted by the French Antarctic Expedition under Liotard, 1949–51, and named for the Zélée, corvette which accompanied d'Urville's flagship, the Astrolabe.

Associated with it is the Zélée Glacier Tongue (66°47′S 141°10′E), a glacier tongue about 4 kilometres (2 nmi) wide and 13 kilometres (7 nmi) long which extends seaward from Zélée Glacier. Delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, and named for the French corvette Zélée.

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