Actroid is a type of android (humanoid robot) with strong visual human-likeness developed by Osaka University and manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd. (the animatronics division of Sanrio). It was first unveiled at the 2003 International Robot Exhibition in Tokyo, Japan. Several different versions of the product have been produced since then. In most cases, the robot's appearance has been modeled after an average young woman of Japanese descent.
The Actroid woman is a pioneer example of a real machine similar to imagined machines called by the science fiction terms android or gynoid, so far used only for fictional robots. It can mimic such lifelike functions as blinking, speaking, and breathing. The "Repliee" models are interactive robots with the ability to recognize and process speech and respond in kind.
Internal sensors allow Actroid models to react with a natural appearance by way of air actuators placed at many points of articulation in the upper body. Early models had 42 points of articulation, later models have 47. So far, movement in the lower body is limited. The operation of the robot's sensory system in tandem with its air powered movements make it quick enough to react to or fend off intrusive motions, such as a slap or a poke. Artificial intelligence gives it the ability to react in a different way to more gentle kinds of touch, such as a pat on the arm.
The Actroid can also imitate human-like behavior with slight shifts in position, head and eye movements and the appearance of breathing in its chest. Additionally, the robot can be "taught" to imitate human movements by facing a person who is wearing reflective dots at key points on their body. By tracking the dots with its visual system and computing limb and joint movements to match what it sees, this motion can then be "learned" by the robot and repeated.
The skin is composed of silicone and appears highly realistic. The compressed air that powers the robot's servo motors, and most of the computer hardware that operates the A.I., are external to the unit. This is a contributing factor to the robot's lack of locomotion capabilities. When displayed, the Actroid has always been either seated or standing with firm support from behind.
The interactive Actroids can also communicate on a rudimentary level with humans by speaking. Microphones within those Actroids record the speech of a human, and this sound is then filtered to remove background noise - including the sounds of the robot's own operation. Speech recognition software is then used to convert the audio stream into words and sentences, which can then be processed by the Actroid's A.I. A verbal response is then given through speakers external to the unit.
Further interactivity is achieved through non-verbal methods. When addressed, the interactive Actroids use a combination of "floor sensors and omnidirectional vision sensors" in order to maintain eye contact with the speaker. In addition, the robots can respond in limited ways to body language and tone of voice by changing their own facial expressions, stance and vocal inflection.
The original Repliee Q1 had a "sister" model, Repliee R1, which is modeled after a 5-year-old Japanese girl.
More advanced models were present at Expo 2005 in Aichi to help direct people to specific locations and events. Four unique faces were given to these robots. The ReplieeQ1-expo was modeled after a presenter for NHK news. To make the face of the Repliee Q2 model, the faces of several young Japanese women were scanned and the images combined into an average composite face.
The newer model Actroid-DER2 made a recent tour of U.S. cities. At NextFest 2006, the robot spoke English and was displayed in a standing position and dressed in a black vinyl bodysuit. A different Actroid-DER2 was also shown in Japan around the same time. This new robot has more realistic features and movements than its predecessor.
In July 2006, another appearance was given to the robot. This model was built to look like its male co-creator, roboticist Hiroshi Ishiguro, and named Geminoid HI-1. Controlled by a motion-capture interface, Geminoid HI-1 can imitate Ishiguro's body and facial movements, and it can reproduce his voice in sync with his motion and posture. Ishiguro hopes to develop the robot's human-like presence to such a degree that he could use it to teach classes remotely, lecturing from home while the Geminoid interacts with his classes at Osaka University.
In May 2011 a Danish Lector, Henrik Schärfe, revealed a robotic version of himself. Manufactured in Japan and called a Geminoid-DK, its actions are controlled remotely by a person operating a computer, but it is programmed with Schärfe's own unique body movements, such as shrugs and glances.
A precedent for this type of humanoid robot is in the Audio-Animatronics exhibit "Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln" presented at the State of Illinois Pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair created by WED Enterprises and appearing again soon thereafter at Disneyland. The device used pneumatics and hydraulics for movement and silicone based skin. The Lincoln figure could rise from his chair and gesture while speaking.
|2003 November||"Actroid" is unveiled at the International Robot Exhibition.|
|2004 January||Model "Actroid-ReplieeQ1" developed at Osaka University.|
|2004 December||"Actroid-ReplieeQ1-expo" developed for Expo 2005 in Aichi.|
|2005 March||"Actroid-expo" models shown at the 2005 Expo; three at help booths, another on stage as an emcee.|
|2005 June||"Actroid-DER" (Dramatic Entertainment Robot) rental-only model introduced.|
|2005 July||Ishiguro research team develops the "Actroid-ReplieeQ2" at Osaka University.|
|2006 July||"Geminoid-HI-1" produced in the image of Hiroshi Ishiguro.|
|2006 October||"Actroid-DER2" units available.|
|2008 October||Release of the "Actroid-DER3" units.|
|2009 November||Release of the "Actroid Sara".|
|2011 October||"Actroid-F" is released as both a male and female model.|
ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) is a humanoid robot created by Honda in 2000. It is currently displayed in the Miraikan museum in Tokyo, Japan.Android (robot)
An android is a robot or other artificial being designed to resemble a human, and often made from a flesh-like material. Historically, androids were completely within the domain of science fiction and frequently seen in film and television, but recent advances in robot technology now allow the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots.Android science
Android science is an interdisciplinary framework for studying human interaction and cognition based on the premise that a very humanlike robot (that is, an android) can elicit human-directed social responses in human beings. The android's ability to elicit human-directed social responses enables researchers to employ an android in experiments with human participants as an apparatus that can be controlled more precisely than a human actor.While mechanical-looking robots may be able to elicit social responses to some extent, a robot that looks and acts like a human being is in a better position to stand in for a human actor in social, psychological, cognitive, or neuroscientific experiments. This gives experiments with androids a level of ecological validity with respect to human interaction found lacking in experiments with mechanical-looking robots.An experimental setting for human-android interaction also provides a testing ground for models concerning how cognitive or neural processing influence human interaction, because models can be implemented in the android and tested in interaction with human participants. In android science, cognitive science and engineering are understood as enjoying a synergistic relationship in which the results from a deepening understanding of human interaction and the development of increasingly humanlike androids feed into each other.Some researchers broadly construe android science to include all the effects of engineered human likeness, such as the impact of humanlike robots on society or the study of the relationship between anthropomorphism and human perception. The latter relates to an observation made by Masahiro Mori that human beings are more sensitive to deviations from humanlike behavior or appearance in near-human forms. Mori refers to this phenomenon as the uncanny valley. In android science this heightened sensitivity is seen as a diagnostic tool for enhancing the human likeness of an android.Daybreak (Battlestar Galactica)
"Daybreak" is the three-part series finale of the reimagined science fiction television series Battlestar Galactica, and are the 74th (labeled "Daybreak, Part 1" on the DVD) and 75th (labeled "Daybreak, Parts 2 & 3" on the DVD) episodes overall. The episodes aired on the U.S. Sci Fi Channel and SPACE in Canada respectively on March 13 and March 20, 2009. The second part ("Daybreak, Parts 2 & 3") is double-length. The episodes were written by Ronald D. Moore, and directed by Michael Rymer. The Season 4.5 DVD and Blu-ray releases for Region 1 feature an extended version of the finale, which not only combines all three parts as a single episode, but also integrates it with new scenes not seen in the aired version of either part. The survivor count shown in the title sequence for Part 1 is 39,516. The survivor count shown in the title sequence for Part 2 is 39,406. At the end of Part 2, Admiral Adama announces the survivor population at approximately 38,000.
The episodes portray the Galactica launching a rescue mission to retrieve Hera Agathon from the "colony", a heavily armed and defended Cylon base located near a black hole. They manage to rescue Hera, and in the end, the fleet finds a new planet to settle on, which they come to call Earth (revealed to be our Earth). The final episodes gave Battlestar Galactica the strongest ratings since its second season, though they received mixed reviews.EveR
EveR is a series of female androids developed by a team of South Korean scientists from the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology in Korea University of Science and Technology. The project is headed by Baek Moon-hong (Korean: 백문홍) and was unveiled to the public at the Kyoyuk MunHwa HoeKwan hotel in Seoul on May 4, 2003. The EveR name is derived from the combination of the Biblical "Eve" and the r from robot.Gynoid
A gynoid, or fembot, is a feminine humanoid robot. Gynoids appear widely in science fiction film and art. As more realistic humanoid robot design becomes technologically possible, they are also emerging in real-life robot design.HRP-4C
The HRP-4C, nicknamed Miim, is a feminine-looking humanoid robot created by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), a Japanese research facility.
Miim measures 158 centimetres (5 feet, 2 inches) tall and weighs 43 kilos (95 pounds) including a battery pack. She has a realistic head and face, and the figure of an average young Japanese female (based on the 1997–1998 Japanese body dimension database). She can move like a human, utilizing 30 body motors and another eight dedicated to facial expressions. Miim can also respond to speech using speech recognition software, and is capable of recognizing ambient sounds. Miim can also sing, using the vocal synthesizer Vocaloid.The software that operates the robot is developed on the basis of Open Robotics Platform (OpenRTP), including OpenRTM-aist and OpenHRP3.An initial public demonstration was held on March 16, 2009, with another held at Tokyo's Digital Content Expo in 2010 to showcase recent upgrades that allow HRP-4C to mimic human facial and head movements, as well as execute dance steps. 2011 upgrades to Miim's human-like walking ability were shown in a video released by AIST, and have been called "super-realistic".Applications for the HRP-4C may include the entertainment industry, and a human simulator for evaluation of devices.HUBO
HUBO (Korean: 휴보; designated KHR-3) is a walking humanoid robot, head mounted on a life-size walking bipedal frame, developed by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and released on January 6, 2005. According to Hubo's creator Prof Jun-Ho Oh and his Plenary Session at ICRA 2012 entitled Development Outline of the Humanoid Robot: HUBO II the name Hubo is simply a name, not an abbreviation.
Hubo has voice recognition and synthesis faculties, as well as sophisticated vision in which its two eyes move independently of one another.Hiroshi Ishiguro
Hiroshi Ishiguro (石黒浩 Ishiguro Hiroshi) is director of the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory, part of the Department of Systems Innovation in the Graduate School of Engineering Science at Osaka University, Japan. A notable development of the laboratory is the Actroid, a humanoid robot with lifelike appearance and visible behaviour such as facial movements.Humanoid robot
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.Ibn Sina Robot
The Ibn Sina Robot is the world's first android robot with Arabic language conversational abilities. Created by roboticists Nikolaos Mavridis and Hanson Robotics founder David Hanson at United Arab Emirates University's Interactive Robots and Media Lab, Ibn Sina was named after the famous 11th century polymath (Avicenna). The robot is capable of facial expressions, hand gestures, Arabic language dialogue, face detection and face recognition. It is part of a novel Interactive Theatre installation, within a circular room with a diameter of 13 meters, containing a stage, a projection screen, and sensors. Experimentation regarding multiple forms of tele-participation in the theatre is taking place; such as live interactions between physically present robots and humans with avatars in online virtual worlds, and remote control of robots through brain-computer interfacing.
The robot was demonstrated in the GITEX 2009 exhibition in Dubai, where it interacted with more than one thousand visitors, and has been featured in world media numerous times such as the UAE National, BBC, Agence France Press (AFP), Al Jazeera and others.International Robot Exhibition
The International Robot Exhibition (IREX) is the largest robot trade fair in the world. It is an event that has been staged once every two years in Tokyo, Japan since 1973 and is organized by the Japan Robot Association (JARA) and the company Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, Ltd. It is a place for companies from Japan and around the world to exhibit the latest in robot technology.Japanese robotics
There are many variations of Japanese robotics. Some different types of robots are: Humanoid Entertainment Robots, Androids, Animal (four-legged) Robots, Social Robots, Guard Robots, and many more. There are also a variety of characteristics for these robots.
Japan employs over a quarter of a million industrial robot workers. In the next 15 years, Japan estimates that number to jump to over one million and they expect revenue for robotics to be near $70 billion by 2025.List of Japanese inventions and discoveries
This is a list of Japanese inventions and discoveries. The Japanese have made contributions across a number of scientific and technological domains. In particular, the country has played a crucial role in the digital revolution since the 20th century, with many modern revolutionary and widespread technologies in fields such as electronics and robotics introduced by Japanese inventors and entrepreneurs. Japanese popular culture, strongly shaped by its electronic technologies, commands considerable influence around the world.Meinü robot
A Meinü robot is a Chinese fembot that was reported on in Chinese news sources in 2006. In Mandarin, Měinǚ Jīqìrén 美女机器人 literally means "beautiful-woman robot" and is officially translated "beauty robot". The first Meinü was later named Miss Rong Cheng.The unit is capable of locomotion, using visual navigation to avoid obstacles, speech recognition, emotion recognition (whether audio or gestural is not stated), and speaking. It speaks English, Standard Chinese and Sichuanese Mandarin, and can recognize and respond to 1,000 words. It can tell jokes, sing songs, etc. It is intended for tour-guide applications, businesses and hotels, advertising, and possibly for TV-show hosting. Rong Cheng is 163 cm tall and weighs 60 kg.Rong Cheng was sent to the Sichuan Science and Technology Museum to be a receptionist or tour guide. The first copy build cost was approximately 300,000 yuan ($37,500), but the inventors expect this could be reduced to a third of that if 100 were to be produced. Only one year of research was required to produce it, which suggests it was built upon other projects.
It was worked on by 10 researchers from the Robot Research Center at the Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. ChinaDaily's English edition named the principal designer as Li Chengrong, whereas Reuters and Sina English said it was Yue Hongqiang.QRIO
QRIO ("Quest for cuRIOsity", originally named Sony Dream Robot or SDR) was a bipedal humanoid entertainment robot developed and marketed (but never sold) by Sony to follow up on the success of its AIBO entertainment robot. QRIO stood approximately 0.6 m (2 feet) tall and weighed 7.3 kg (16 pounds). QRIO's slogan was "Makes life fun, makes you happy!"
On January 26, 2006, on the same day as it announced its discontinuation of AIBO and other products, Sony announced that it would stop development of QRIO. Before it was cancelled, QRIO was reported to be going through numerous development, testing and scalability phases, with the intent of becoming commercially available within three or four years.Robot fetishism
Robot fetishism (also ASFR or technosexuality) is a fetishistic attraction to humanoid robots; also to people acting like robots or people dressed in robot costumes. A less common fantasy involves transformation into a robot. In these ways it is similar to agalmatophilia, which involves attraction to or transformation into statues or mannequins.Robot fetishism can be viewed as a form of erotic anthropomorphism. When transformation or roleplaying is involved it can be thought of as a form of erotic objectification.Sanrio
Sanrio Co., Ltd. (株式会社サンリオ, Kabushikigaisha Sanrio) is a Japanese company that designs, licenses and produces products focusing on the kawaii (cute) segment of Japanese popular culture. Their products include stationery, school supplies, gifts and accessories that are sold worldwide and at specialty brand retail stores in Japan. Sanrio's best-known character is Hello Kitty, a little anthropomorphic cat girl, one of the most successful marketing brands in the world.Besides selling character goods, Sanrio takes part in movie production and publishing. They own the rights to both the Peanuts and Mr. Men characters in Japan. Their animatronics branch, called Kokoro Company, Ltd. ("Kokoro" being Japanese for "heart"), is best known for the Actroid android. They participate in the fast food industry, running a franchise of KFC in Saitama.TOPIO
TOPIO ("TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot") is a bipedal humanoid robot designed to play table tennis against a human being. It has been developed since 2005 by TOSY, a robotics firm in Vietnam. It was publicly demonstrated at the Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) on November 28, 2007. TOPIO 3.0 (the latest version of TOPIO) stands approximately 1.88 m (6' 2") tall and weighs 120 kg (264 lb). Every TOPIO uses an advanced artificial intelligence system to learn and continuously improve its skill level while playing.
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