Action film

Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of challenges that typically include violence, extended fighting, physical feats, and frantic chases. Action films tend to feature a resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a villain, or a pursuit which usually concludes in victory for the hero (though a small number of films in this genre have ended in victory for the villain instead). Advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required the efforts of professional stunt crews in the past. However, reactions to action films containing significant amounts of CGI have been mixed, as films that use computer animations to create unrealistic, highly unbelievable events are often met with criticism.[1] While action has long been a recurring component in films, the "action film" genre began to develop in the 1970s along with the increase of stunts and special effects. Common action scenes in films are generally, but not limited to, car chases, fighting and gunplay or shootouts.

This genre is closely associated with the thriller and adventure genres, and they may also contain elements of drama and spy fiction.[2]

History

Early action films

Some historians consider The Great Train Robbery (1903) to be the first action film.[3][4] During the 1920s and 1930s, action-based films were often "swashbuckling" adventure films in which actors, such as Douglas Fairbanks, wielded swords in period pieces or Westerns. Indian action films in this era were known as stunt films.[5]

The 1940s and 1950s saw "action" in a new form through war and cowboy movies. Alfred Hitchcock ushered in the spy-adventure genre while also establishing the use of action-oriented "set pieces" like the famous crop-duster scene and the Mount Rushmore finale in North by Northwest (1959). The film, along with a war-adventure called The Guns of Navarone (1961), inspired producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman to invest in their own spy-adventure, based on the novels of Ian Fleming.

The long-running success of the James Bond films or series (which dominated the action films of the 1960s) introduced a staple of the modern-day action film: the resourceful hero. Such larger-than-life characters were a veritable "one-man army"; able to dispatch villainous masterminds after cutting through their disposable henchmen in increasingly creative ways. Such heroes are ready with one-liners, puns, and dry quips. The Bond films also used fast cutting, car chases, fist fights, a variety of weapons and gadgets, and elaborate action sequences.

Producer-Director John Sturges' 1963 film The Great Escape, featuring Allied prisoners of war attempting to escape a German POW camp during World War II, and featuring future icons of the action genre including Steve McQueen and Charles Bronson, is an example of an action film prototype.

1970s

During the 1970s, gritty detective stories and urban crime dramas began to evolve and fuse themselves with the new "action" style, leading to a string of maverick police officer films, such as Bullitt (1968), The French Connection (1971) and The Seven-Ups (1973). Dirty Harry (1971) essentially lifted its star, Clint Eastwood, out of his cowboy typecasting, and framed him as the archetypal hero of the urban action film. In many countries, restrictions on language, adult content, and violence had loosened up, and these elements became more widespread.

In the 1970s, martial-arts films from Hong Kong became popular with Western audiences and inspired big budget films such as Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon (1973). Chuck Norris blended martial arts with 'cops and robbers' in films such as Good Guys Wear Black (1978) and A Force of One (1979).

From Japan, Sonny Chiba starred in his first martial arts movie in 1973 called the Karate Kiba. His breakthrough international hit was The Street Fighter series (1974), which established him as the reigning Japanese martial arts actor in international cinema. He also played the role of Mas Oyama in Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, and Karate for Life (1975–1977). Chiba's action films were not only bounded by martial arts, but also action thriller (Doberman Cop and Golgo 13: Assignment Kowloon - both from 1977), jidaigeki (Shogun's Samurai - 1978, Samurai Reincarnation - 1981), and science fiction (G.I. Samurai - 1979).

1980s

In the 1980s, Hollywood produced many big budget action blockbusters with actors such as Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lorenzo Lamas, Michael Dudikoff, Charles Bronson and Bruce Willis.[6][7] Steven Spielberg and George Lucas paid their homage to the Bond-inspired style with Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981).[8] In 1982, veteran actor Nick Nolte and rising comedian Eddie Murphy broke box office records with the action-comedy 48 Hrs., credited as the first "buddy-cop" movie.[9] That same year, Sylvester Stallone starred in First Blood, the first installment in the Rambo film series which made the character John Rambo a pop culture icon.

1984 saw the beginning of the Terminator franchise starring Linda Hamilton and Arnold Schwarzenegger. This story provides one of the grittiest roles for a woman in action and Hamilton was required to put in extensive effort to develop a strong physique.[10]

1987's Lethal Weapon starring Mel Gibson, Danny Glover, and Darlene Love was another significant action film hit of the decade, and another "buddy-cop" genre classic, launching a franchise that spawned 3 sequels.

The 1988 film, Die Hard, was particularly influential on the development of the action genre. In the film, Bruce Willis plays a New York police detective who inadvertently becomes embroiled in a terrorist take-over of a Los Angeles office building high-rise.[11] The use of a maverick, resourceful lone hero has always been a common thread from James Bond to John Rambo, but John McClane in Die Hard is much more of an 'everyday' person whom circumstance turns into a reluctant hero.[12] The film set a pattern for a host of imitators, like Under Siege (1992) and Sudden Death, which used the same formula in a different setting.

By the end of the 1980s, the influence of the successful action film could be felt in almost every genre.[13]

1990s

Like the Western genre, spy-movies, as well as urban-action films, were starting to parody themselves, and with the growing revolution in CGI (computer generated imagery), the "real-world" settings began to give way to increasingly fantastic environments.[14] This new era of action films often had budgets unlike any in the history of motion pictures.[15] The success of the many Dirty Harry and James Bond sequels had proven that a single successful action film could lead to a continuing action franchise. Thus, the 1980s and 1990s saw a rise in both budgets and the number of sequels a film could generally have.[16] This led to an increasing number of filmmakers to create new technologies that would allow them to beat the competition and take audiences to new heights.[17] The success of Tim Burton's Batman (1989) led to a string of financially successful sequels. Within a single decade, they proved the viability of a novel subgenre of action film: the comic-book movie.[18]

Action films also became important in the direct-to-video market. The Chicago Tribune reported in 1994 that[19]

The direct-to-video action movie is easy to spot on store shelves because it usually has "Dead," "Death," "Future" or "Blood" in its title. The cover of the video box habitually features a rugged man snuggling some sort of semi-automatic weapon amid a backdrop of high-tech destruction.

The plots are virtually interchangeable: Tough cop tracks down brutal serial killer; tough FBI or DEA agent battles South American drug kingpins; tough CIA agent takes on Middle Eastern terrorists; tough cyborg cop squares off with sadistic cyborg villain in the 25th Century. In short, bargain-basement Schwarzenegger.

2000s

While action films continued to flourish as the medium-budget genre movie, it also fused with tent-pole pictures in other genres.[20] For example, 2009's Star Trek had several science fiction tropes and concepts like time travel through a black hole. However, most of the film was structured around action sequences, many of them quite conventional (hand-to-hand, shooting). While the original Star Wars featured some of this kind of fighting, there was just as much emphasis on star-ship chases and dogfights in outer space. The newer films featured more lightsaber duels, sometimes more intense and acrobatic than the originals. Some fan films also have similar duel scenes like those the prequel trilogy. It was action with a science fiction twist. The trend with films such as The Matrix and The Dark Knight series, is that hand-to-hand fighting and Asian martial-arts techniques are now widely used in science fiction and superhero movies.

Sylvester Stallone's The Expendables used nostalgia for a perceived golden age of action films by casting 1980s action stars alongside new actors in the genre such as Jason Statham.[21]

In The Fast and the Furious series, the action film staple of the car chase is the central plot driver as it had been in Smokey and the Bandit films in the 1970s.

2010s

The cross-over of action with science fiction and superhero films continues with many Marvel Comics characters and settings being used for big budget films.

Hong Kong action cinema

Currently, action films requiring extensive stunt work and special effects tend to be expensive. As such, they are regarded as mostly a large-studio genre in Hollywood, although this is not the case in Hong Kong action cinema, where action films are often modern variations of martial arts films. Because of their roots and lower budgets, Hong Kong action films typically center on physical acrobatics, martial arts fight scenes, stylized gun-play, and dangerous stunt work performed by leading stunt actors. On the other hand, American action films typically feature big explosions, car chases, stunt doubles and CGI special effects.

Hong Kong action cinema was at its peak from the 1970s to 1990s, when its action movies were experimenting with and popularizing various new techniques that would eventually be adopted by Hollywood action movies. This began in the early 1970s with the martial arts movies of Bruce Lee, which led to a wave of Bruceploitation movies that eventually gave way to the comedy kung fu films of Jackie Chan by the end of the decade. During the 1980s, Hong Kong action cinema re-invented itself with various new movies. These included the modern martial arts action movies featuring physical acrobatics and dangerous stunt work of Jackie Chan and his stunt team, as well as Yuen Biao and Sammo Hung; the wire fu and wuxia films of Jet Li, Donnie Yen, Yuen Woo-Ping and Tsui Hark; the gun fu, heroic bloodshed and Triad films of Chow Yun-Fat, Ringo Lam and John Woo; and the girls with guns films of Michelle Yeoh and Moon Lee.

Subgenres

Action adventure

A subgenre of the adventure film genre as well. Typically, these films take place in exotic locations and frequently involve the hero travelling to several locations around the world. There are a lot of films with this combined genre. Examples include the Indiana Jones franchise, and most superhero films are action adventure, too.

Action comedy

A subgenre involving action and humour.[22] The subgenre became a popular trend in the 1980s, when actors who were known for their background in comedy, such as Eddie Murphy, began to take roles in action films.[23] Comedy films such as Dumb & Dumber and Big Momma's House, that contain action-laden sub-plots, are not considered part of this combined genre. Action scenes have a more integral role in action comedies.[22] A common strata of action comedy is the buddy cop film, including 48 Hrs. (1982), Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Lethal Weapon (1987), Midnight Run (1988), Bad Boys (1995), Rush Hour (1998), The Rundown (2003), Hot Fuzz (2007), The Nice Guys (2016), and the animated Zootopia (2016).[22][24] Another common strata of action comedy is the martial arts comedy, which became popular in Hong Kong action cinema since the 1980s, with Jackie Chan being the most famous example,[25][26] along with Sammo Hung and Stephen Chow.

Action drama

A subgenre involving action and drama. These films often combine action sequences with serious themes and character insight. Examples include Man on Fire, Top Gun, Patriots Day, The Last Castle, Lingaa[27] and Jai Simha.[28]

Action horror

A subgenre combining the intrusion of an evil force, event, or supernatural personage of horror movies with the gunfights and frenetic chases of the action genre. Themes or elements often prevalent in typical action-horror films include gore, demons, vicious animals, vampires and most commonly zombies. This category can also take elements from the fantasy genre. Examples include Aliens, Army of Darkness, Resident Evil, Ghost Rider,They Live, Planet Terror, Predator, Undead, I Saw the Devil, Train to Busan, Doomsday, Underworld,[29] Constantine, Swamp Thing, Priest, The Crow, Dawn of the Dead, Deep Rising, From Dusk till Dawn, Blade,Legion, and End of Days.[30]

Action thriller

Featuring guns, cool explosions, and amazing set pieces, this movie type first developed in the 1970s in such films as Dirty Harry and The French Connection, and became the exemplar of the Hollywood mega-blockbuster in the 1980s in such works as Die Hard and Lethal Weapon. These films often feature a race against the clock, lots of violence, and a clear—often flamboyantly evil—antagonist. Though they may involve elements of crime or mystery films, those aspects take a back seat to the action. Other significant works include Hard Boiled, True Romance, Point Break, The Warriors, Bullitt, The Seven-Ups, Cobra, and Rambo: First Blood Part II and Taken.[31] The story takes place in limited location; a single building, plane, or vessel - which is seized or under threat by enemy agents, but are opposed by a single hero who fights an extended battle within the location using stealth and cunning to attempt to defeat them.[32] The Die Hard subgenre has become popular in Hollywood because of its crowd appeal and the relative simplicity of building sets for such a constrained piece. Examples include Under Siege (terrorists take over a ship), Broken Arrow (terrorists hijack a nuclear weapon from a B-2 bomber), Snakes on a Plane (poisonous snakes take over a passenger plane), Speed (terrorist takes over a bus), Under Siege 2: Dark Territory, and Derailed (hostages are trapped on trains and buses), Sudden Death (terrorists take over an Ice Hockey stadium), Passenger 57, Executive Decision, and Air Force One (hostages are trapped on a plane), Con Air (criminals take over a transport plane), and Half Past Dead and The Rock (criminals or terrorists take over a prison). Paul Blart: Mall Cop is a recent spoof of this trend (as Die Hard in a mall).

Buddy and Buddy cop

A subgenre that became incredibly popular in the 80's with films such as 48 Hrs., Lethal Weapon, and Beverly Hills Cop. They typically involve two mismatched heroes, who are almost always police officers, whose relationship evolves as they advance the plot. This genre saw a minor resurgence in the 2000s with films like Rush Hour, Bad Boys, The Nice Guys, and On Probation.

Action crime

A hybrid of the action film and crime film, crime action films feature action set-pieces such as shootouts, explosions and car chases within a criminal setting. While criminality is typically featured in any action film, these films specifically feature protagonists who are mostly cops/criminals, and a heist, illegal trade, investigation or crime-busting is often the focus of the story. Examples include New Jack City, Collateral, Training Day, Street Kings, Dark Blue, End of Watch, Sabotage, Believer, Asura: The City of Madness, Master, Heat and American Made.

Disaster film

Having elements of thriller and sometimes science fiction films, the main conflict of this genre is some sort of natural or artificial disaster, such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanoes, pandemics, etc. Examples include Independence Day, Daylight, Earthquake, Geostorm, 2012,[33] The Day After Tomorrow,[34] Poseidon, The Towering Inferno, Dante's Peak, Deep Impact, Volcano, The Core, Armageddon, Twister, and San Andreas.

Martial arts

A subgenre of the action film, martial arts films contain numerous hand-to-hand combats between characters. They are usually the films' primary appeal and entertainment value and are often the method of storytelling, character expression, and development. Martial arts films contain many characters who are martial artists. These roles are often played by actors who are real martial artists. If not, actors usually fervently train in preparation for their roles. Another method of going around this issue is that the action director may rely more on stylized action or filmmaking tricks. Examples include Hong Kong action films such as Police Story, Kung Fu Hustle, Fearless, Fist of Legend, Drunken Master, Enter the Dragon, Shanghai Noon, Iron Monkey, Flash Point, and Shaolin Soccer, as well as The Karate Kid, A Force of One, Ninja Assassin, Ong-Bak, The Octagon, Kill Bill, Lone Wolf McQuade, Mortal Kombat, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, The Raid: Redemption, Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, Doberman Cop, Golgo 13: Assignment Kowloon, Big Trouble in Little China, Charlie's Angels, and The Street Fighter series.[35] A variant of the genre is Wuxia, a stylized action fantasy period genre typically set in Ancient Asia where skill in the martial arts can enable fantastic abilities like flying and magic like abilities.

Science fiction action

Sharing many of the conventions of a science fiction film, science fiction action films emphasize gun-play, space battles, invented weaponry, and other sci-fi elements weaved into action film premises. Examples include G.I. Samurai, Terminator 2, The Matrix, Total Recall, Minority Report, The Island, Star Wars, the Men in Black franchise, Aliens, I Robot, Transformers, The Hunger Games, Equilibrium, District 9, Serenity, Akira, Paycheck, Predator, RoboCop, Avatar, Mad Max 2, Divergent, They Live, Escape from New York, Demolition Man,Virtuosity and The Fifth Element.[36]

Spy film

In which the hero is generally a government agent who must take violent action against agents of a rival government or (in recent years) terrorists. They often revolve around spies who are involved in investigating various events, often on a global scale. This subgenre deals with the subject of fictional espionage, either in a realistic way (such as the adaptations of John Le Carré) or as a basis for fantasy (such as James Bond). It is a significant aspect of British cinema,[37] with leading British directors, such as Alfred Hitchcock and Carol Reed, making notable contributions and many films set in the British Secret Service. The subgenre showcases a combination of exciting escapism, heavy action, stylized fights, technological thrills, and exotic locales.[38] Not all spy films fall in the action genre, only those showcasing heavy action such as frequent shootouts and car chases fall in action, spy films with lesser action would be in the thriller genre (see the spy entry in the subgenres of thriller film).[39] Action films of this subgenre include Casino Royale, the Mission: Impossible franchise, Ronin, True Lies, Salt, From Paris with Love, The International, Patriot Games, xXx, Colombiana, Miss Congeniality, and Jason Bourne in The Bourne series.[40]

Superhero film

Usually having elements of science fiction and fantasy, they focus on the actions of one or more superheroes, who usually possess superhuman abilities and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films are almost always action-oriented and the first film of a particular character often includes a focus on the origin of the special powers, including the first fight against the character's most famous supervillain archenemy. Some superheroes are often from Marvel and DC, or they can be made-up. Examples include Batman Begins, Iron Man, Green Lantern, Spider-Man, The Avengers, X-Men, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, Daredevil, Hulk, Wonder Woman, Kick-Ass, Superman Returns, and Justice League.[41]

Notable individuals

Actors

Sylvester Stallone
Actor Sylvester Stallone starred as a troubled Vietnam war vet who becomes a "one man army" in the popular Rambo action films.

Actors from the 1950s and 1960s, such as John Wayne, Steve McQueen, and Lee Marvin, passed the torch in the 1970s to actors such as Bruce Lee, Tom Laughlin, Charles Bronson, Chuck Norris, Clint Eastwood, and Sonny Chiba. In the 1980s, Mel Gibson and Danny Glover had a popular string of "buddy cop" films in the Lethal Weapon franchise. Beginning in the mid-1980s, actors such as ex-bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone wielded automatic weapons in a number of action films. Stern-faced martial artists Steven Seagal and Jean-Claude Van Damme made a number of films. Bruce Willis played a Western-inspired hero in the popular Die Hard series of action films.[42]

In the 1990s and 2000s, Asian actors Chow Yun-fat, Jet Li, and Jackie Chan appeared in a number of different types of Hollywood action films, and American actors Wesley Snipes and Vin Diesel both had many roles.

While Keanu Reeves and Harrison Ford both had major roles in action science fiction films (The Matrix and Blade Runner, respectively), they later branched out into a number of other action genres, such as action-adventure films. American actor Matt Damon, who was nominated for an Academy Award for his sensitive portrayal of a math genius working as a janitor in Good Will Hunting, later morphed into an action hero with the car-chase-and-gunfire-filled Jason Bourne franchise. Same thing happened to star Tom Cruise, who turned into a mature action star with the Mission: Impossible serie, Jack Reacher, and other films. Leonardo DiCaprio is another good example of it, but without a film franchise as the previous. European action actors such as Belgian Jean-Claude Van Damme (Bloodsport, Hard Target, Timecop), French Jean Reno (Ronin and Mission: Impossible), Swedish Dolph Lundgren (Showdown in Little Tokyo, Universal Soldier, The Expendables), Irish Colin Farrell (SWAT, Daredevil, Miami Vice), and English Jason Statham (The Transporter, The Expendables, Crank) appeared in a number of action films in the 1990s and 2000s.

Female characters and actors

Female actors with major, active roles in action films include Brie Larson, Elizabeth Olsen Michelle Yeoh, Lucy Liu, Cynthia Rothrock, Michelle Rodriguez, Milla Jovovich, Kate Beckinsale, Angelina Jolie, Scarlett Johansson, Uma Thurman, Sandra Bullock, Zoe Saldana, Sigourney Weaver, Linda Hamilton, Sanaa Lathan, Geena Davis, Halle Berry, Emily Blunt, Zhang Ziyi, Maggie Q, Keira Knightley, Charlize Theron, Demi Moore, Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore, Jennifer Lawrence, Annette O'Toole, Jennifer Connelly, Brigitte Nielsen, Carrie-Anne Moss, Lori Petty, Jessica Alba, and Jamie Lee Curtis. After a successful career in stunts, Zoë Bell has recently crossed over to become an action star in her own right and Ronda Rousey and Gina Carano have both come from a mixed martial arts background to action roles.

Increasing numbers of films starring women as the action heroes are being produced. These are celebrated by Artemis Women In Action Film Festival which honours women who work as actors, stuntwomen, and directors in action films. Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media works to document the onscreen time and representation in women in all film types with a view to improving the equality of work for actresses. Analysis of the lines spoken in action films shows many recent films in this genre are dominated by male dialogue.[43] Analysis of the lines in 2016's biggest blockbusters show that despite much hype about the lead female in Rogue One, and the female characters in Suicide Squad and Captain America: Civil War, these characters still had limited share of dialogue.[44]

Some male actors appear to champion the cause of women in action films. Tom Cruise has been applauded for his asexual onscreen relationships with recent female co-stars,[45] Cobie Smulders in Jack Reacher: Never Go Back and Emily Blunt in Edge of Tomorrow. Tom Cruise has been honoured with an Artemis Action Rebel Award for his work in championing strong female heroes in film.[46]

Directors

Notable action film directors from the 1960s and 1970s include Sam Peckinpah, whose 1969 Western The Wild Bunch was controversial for its bloody violence and nihilist tone.[47] Influential and popular directors from the 1980s to 2000s include James Cameron (for the first two Terminator films, Aliens, True Lies); Andrew Davis (Code of Silence, Above the Law, Under Siege, The Fugitive); John Woo (Hong Kong action films such as Hard Boiled and US-made English-language films such as Hard Target, Broken Arrow and Face/Off); John McTiernan (the first and third Die Hard films, Predator, The Last Action Hero); Ridley Scott (Black Rain, Black Hawk Down); The Wachowskis (The Matrix trilogy), Andrzej Bartkowiak (Romeo Must Die, Exit Wounds, Cradle 2 the Grave, Street Fighter: The Legend of Chun-Li), Robert Rodriguez (Mexico trilogy, From Dusk till Dawn, Machete), and Michael Bay (the first two Bad Boys films, The Rock, Transformers pentalogy); Louis Leterrier (the first two Transporter films, Unleashed). For a longer list, see the List of action film directors article.

Producers

  • Avi Lerner (born 13 October 1947) is a film producer, primarily of American action movies.
  • Boaz Davidson (Hebrew: בועז דוידזון, born 8 November 1943) is an Israeli film director, producer, and screenwriter. He was born in Tel Aviv, Israel and studied film in London.
  • Bob Weinstein (born October 18, 1954) is an American film producer. He is the founder and head of Dimension Films, former co-chairman of Miramax Films, and current head, with his brother Harvey Weinstein, of The Weinstein Company.
  • Don Simpson (October 29, 1943 – January 19, 1996) was an American film producer, screenwriter, and actor. Simpson, along with his producing partner Jerry Bruckheimer, produced such hit films as Flashdance (1983), Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Top Gun (1986), and The Rock (1996). Their films would go on to earn $3 billion.
  • Harvey Weinstein (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer and film studio executive. He is best known as co-founder of Miramax Films. He and his brother Bob have been co-chairmen of The Weinstein Company, their film production company, since 2005. He won an Academy Award for producing Shakespeare in Love and garnered seven Tony Awards for producing a variety of winning plays and musicals including The Producers, Billy Elliot the Musical, and August: Osage County.
  • Jerry Bruckheimer (born September 21, 1945) is an American film and television producer. He is known as the producer with many machine guns in his films and has achieved great success in the genres of action, drama, and science fiction. His best-known television series are CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Without a Trace, Cold Case, and The Amazing Race. Some of his best-known films include Beverly Hills Cop, Flashdance, Top Gun, The Rock, Con Air, Armageddon, Bad Boys, Enemy of the State, Black Hawk Down, Pearl Harbor, Pirates of the Caribbean, and the National Treasure franchise. He also serves as a Director at ZeniMax Media.
  • Jerry Weintraub (born September 26, 1937 – July 6, 2015) is an American film producer and former chairman and CEO of United Artists. He lived in Palm Desert, California.
  • Joel Silver (born July 14, 1952) is an American film producer, known for action films like Lethal Weapon and Die Hard. He is owner of Silver Pictures and co-founder of Dark Castle Entertainment.
  • Kathryn Bigelow (b. 27 November 1951) is considered a queen of female action directors having directed Point Break, Zero Dark Thirty, Strange Days and the Hurt Locker.
  • Menahem Golan (born May 31, 1929 – August 8, 2014) (Hebrew: מנחם גולן) is an Israeli director and producer. He has produced movies for stars such as Sean Connery, Sylvester Stallone, Chuck Norris, Jean-Claude Van Damme, and Charles Bronson, and was known for a period as a producer of comic book-style movies like Masters of the Universe, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Captain America, and his aborted attempt to bring Spider-Man to the silver screen. Using the pen name of Joseph Goldman, Golan has also written and "polished" film scripts. He was co-owner of Golan-Globus with his cousin Yoram Globus. Golan produced about 200 films, directed 44, and won 8 times the Violin David Awards and The Israel Prize in Cinema.
  • Yoram Globus (born 21 October 1941), is an Israeli film producer who is famous for his association with Cannon Films Inc., a company he ran with his cousin Menahem Golan.
  • The Wachowskis—Lana Wachowski (born June 21, 1965) and Lilly Wachowski (born December 29, 1967), known together professionally as the Wachowskis, are Polish-American film directors, screenwriters, and producers.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Action Top rated Most Viewed - AllMovie". Allrovi.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  2. ^ Rainer, Peter (June 27, 1993). "FILM COMMENT : Endangered Species : The American action-fantasy epic is in danger of becoming terminally musclebound and knuckle-headed". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
  3. ^ "The Great Train Robbery". Rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  4. ^ "What's the First Action Movie Ever Made? | The Action Elite". theactionelite.com. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  5. ^ Valicha, Kishore (1999). The Moving Image: A Study of Indian Cinema. Orient Blackswan. p. 123.
  6. ^ Broeske, Pat H. (January 10, 1993). "FILM; Wanted: New Action Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  7. ^ "New Hunks Move Over, Arnold. A New Bread Of Tough-talking Hero Is Ready To Take On The Bad Guys - And For Less Money". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  8. ^ Sager, Dane. "What The Film!? - RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK". Under The Gun Review. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  9. ^ "48 Hrs. (1982) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  10. ^ "The transformation of Linda Hamilton". www.terminatorfiles.com. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  11. ^ "Die Hard". Rotten Tomatoes.
  12. ^ Shone, Tom (19 July 2013). "How Die Hard set the stage for 25 years of action films". Guardian.
  13. ^ Greydanus, Steven D. "Die Hard (1988) | Decent Films - SDG Reviews". Decent Films. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  14. ^ VREESWIJK, Simon. "A History of CGI in Movies". Stikky Media. Archived from the original on 2013-05-04. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
  15. ^ "Film History of the 1990s". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  16. ^ Robbins, Shawn. "Analysis: Why Action Franchises Really Do 'Die Hard'". Box Office: The Business of Movies. Archived from the original on 2013-05-08.
  17. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane. "What's the next technology that will change the way you watch movies?". io9. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  18. ^ Bowes, Danny. "Big Screen Batman: Batman (1989)". Tor.com.
  19. ^ Alvarez, Max J. (1994-12-30). "Big Names Look For Bright Lights In Videoland". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2018-07-22.
  20. ^ Binder, Jack. "Summer 2012 Studio Tentpole Film Budget List". Film Budget Inc. Blog. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16.
  21. ^ Webster, Andy (January 18, 2013). "Action Star With Savoir-Faire and a Killer Kick". New York Times.
  22. ^ a b c Sarno, Gregory G. (2005). "Chapter 1: Elements of Action Comedy". Lights! Camera! Action!: Crafting an Action Script. iUniverse. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-595-36057-4. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
  23. ^ "Subgenre - Action Comedy | AllMovie". AllMovie. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  24. ^ "Action >> Action Comedy". Allmovie. Macrovision Inc. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  25. ^ "Jackie Chan's 9 Principles of Action Comedy". No Film School. 2 December 2014.
  26. ^ Stokes, Lisa Odham; Hoover, Michael (1999). City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. Verso Books. p. 122. ISBN 9781859842034.
  27. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/features/cinema/cinema-reviews/lingaa-why-cant-a-rajini-movie-be-a-better-movie/article6686290.ece
  28. ^ https://www.ibtimes.co.in/jai-simha-movie-review-rating-by-audience-live-updates-balakrishna-ks-ravi-kumar-nayanthara-756624
  29. ^ "Underworld (2003) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. 2003-09-19. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  30. ^ "Horror Films". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  31. ^ "Subgenre - Action Thriller - AllMovie". AllMovie.
  32. ^ Broeske, Pat H.; Wells, Jeffrey (December 1, 1995). "The 'Hard' Stuff". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
  33. ^ "2012 - Cast, Reviews, Summary, and Awards - AllRovi". Allmovie.com. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2011-08-03.
  34. ^ "The Day After Tomorrow - Cast, Reviews, Summary, and Awards - AllRovi". Allmovie.com. 2004-05-28. Retrieved 2011-08-03.
  35. ^ "Street Fighter (1994) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  36. ^ "The Fifth Element (1997) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. 1997-05-07. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  37. ^ "The Spying Game: British Cinema and the Secret State", 2009 Cambridge Film Festival, pp54-57 of the festival brochure. Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Geoffrey Macnab, "Spy movies - The guys who came in from the cold"". The Independent. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  39. ^ "Thriller and Suspense Films". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  40. ^ "The Bourne Ultimatum (2007) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. 2007-08-03. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  41. ^ "Superman: The Movie (1978) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
  42. ^ Broeske, Pat H. (January 10, 1993). "FILM; Wanted: New Action Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
  43. ^ http://polygraph.cool/films/
  44. ^ "Women only said 27% of the words in 2016's biggest movies". 12 January 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  45. ^ "The best place for women in action movies is next to Tom Cruise". SBS Movies. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  46. ^ "Tom Cruise - Artemis Women In Action Film Festival". Artemis Women In Action Film Festival. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  47. ^ "Sam Peckinpah". IMDb. Retrieved 2017-09-06.

Further reading

External links

Thrillers

Action

Action may refer to:

Action (narrative), a literary mode

Action fiction, a type of genre fiction

Action game, a genre of video game

Aladdin (2019 film)

Aladdin is an upcoming American musical fantasy film directed by Guy Ritchie, from the screenplay co-written with John August, and produced by Walt Disney Pictures. It is a live action remake of Disney's 1992 animated film of the same name, which is in turn based on the eponymous Arabic folktale from One Thousand and One Nights. The film stars Mena Massoud in the titular role, alongside Will Smith, Naomi Scott, Marwan Kenzari, Navid Negahban, Nasim Pedrad, and Billy Magnussen.

In October 2016, Disney announced Ritchie would direct a live-action Aladdin remake. Smith was the first member of the cast to join, signing on to portray Genie in July 2017, and later that month Massoud and Scott were confirmed for the two lead roles. Principal photography began that September at Longcross Studios in Surrey, England, also filming in the Wadi Rum Desert in Jordan, and lasted until January 2018.

Aladdin is scheduled to be theatrically released in the United States on May 24, 2019.

Arthouse action film

The arthouse action genre is an emerging film genre in contemporary cinema that traces its roots back to Asian and European films. Various sources have recently begun referring to various films under this label.

Such recent titles include Hanna, Drive, Haywire, and Looper.

Batman in film

The fictional superhero Batman, who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics, has appeared in various films since his inception. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, the character first starred in two serial films in the 1940s: Batman and Batman and Robin. The character also appeared in the 1966 film Batman, which was a feature film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward, who also starred in the film. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of feature films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, and in 1995, Joel Schumacher directed Batman Forever with Val Kilmer as Batman. Schumacher also directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by both critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Unchained.Following the cancellation of two further film proposals, the franchise was rebooted in 2005 with Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale. Nolan returned to direct two further installments through the release of The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012, with Bale reprising his role in both films. Both sequels earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second film franchise to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Referred to as The Dark Knight Trilogy, the critical acclaim and commercial success of Nolan's films have been credited with restoring widespread popularity to the superhero, with the second installment considered one of the best superhero movies of all-time.

After Warner Bros. launched their own shared cinematic universe known as the DC Extended Universe in 2013, Ben Affleck was cast to portray Batman in the new expansive franchise, first appearing in 2016 with the Zack Snyder directed film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. The film would help begin a sequence of further DC Comics adaptations, including Justice League, a crossover film featuring other DC Comics characters, in 2017, and a stand-alone Batman film directed by Matt Reeves. Outside of the DCEU, Dante Pereira-Olson will appear as Bruce Wayne in the 2019 film Joker, directed by Todd Phillips.The series has grossed over $4.99 billion at the global box office, making it the eleventh highest-grossing film franchise of all time. Batman has also appeared in multiple animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman: The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U.S. $2,407,708,129 the Batman series is the fifth-highest-grossing film series in North America.

Brandon Lee

Brandon Bruce Lee (February 1, 1965 – March 31, 1993) was an American actor and martial artist. He was the first child of martial artist and actor Bruce Lee and teacher Linda Lee Cadwell (née Emery), the grandson of Cantonese opera singer Lee Hoi-chuen, and brother of Shannon Lee. Due to his father both a martial art expert and a major film star of this genre, early on he was taught Kung-Fu and had a desire to act. After his passing at the age of thirteen, Lee studied the craft of acting and pursued martial arts. By 1986 Lee starred in his first leading role in Ronny Yu' Hong Kong action film Legacy of Rage and joined David Carradine in ABC' Kung Fu: The Movie, where he received second billing.

Shortly after he returned to Kung Fu for the spin-off pilot named Kung Fu: The Next Generation (1987), one episode of TV show Ohara (1998) and starred in his second action film the low budget Laser Mission (1989). In the 1990s, he started to work with major Hollywood studios working on action oriented films. The first was with Warner Bros' buddy cop-action film Showdown in Little Tokyo (1991), directed by Mark L. Lester and co-starring Dolph Lundgren. This followed with the title role in Dwight H. Little' Rapid Fire (1992) produced by 20th Century Fox.

In 1992, he landed his breakthrough role as Eric Draven in Alex Proyas' The Crow, based on the comic book of the same name, which would be his final film. On March 31, 1993, only days away from completing the film, Lee died during surgery when injured on the set of The Crow after being shot by a faulty prop gun that fired the tip of a dummy round that was accidentally lodged in the chamber. The film was completed by re-writing the script, CGI, and stunt doubles, and released one year after Lee's death to critical and commercial success. It is now considered a cult classic.

Chloë Grace Moretz

Chloë Grace Moretz (; born February 10, 1997) is an American actress and model. She began acting at age six, with early roles in the supernatural horror film The Amityville Horror (2005), the drama series Desperate Housewives (2006–07), the supernatural horror film The Eye (2008), the drama film The Poker House (2008), the drama series Dirty Sexy Money (2007–08), the romantic comedy film 500 Days of Summer (2009) and the children's comedy film Diary of a Wimpy Kid (2010).Moretz' breakthrough came in 2010 with her critically acclaimed performances as Hit-Girl in the superhero film Kick-Ass and as a child vampire in the horror film Let Me In. She then starred in Martin Scorsese's historical adventure film Hugo (2011), Tim Burton's horror comedy film Dark Shadows (2012), the satirical sitcom 30 Rock (2011–13), reprised her role as Hit-Girl in Kick-Ass 2 (2013) and played Carrie White in the supernatural horror film Carrie (2013). In 2014, Moretz starred in the award-winning drama film Clouds of Sils Maria, the teen romantic drama If I Stay and the vigilante action film The Equalizer.

After starring in the mystery thriller film Dark Places (2015), the science fiction action film The 5th Wave (2016) and the comedy film Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising (2016), Moretz announced that she was "re-assessing" her roles and choices and was dropping out of several projects, including Universal Studios' live-action adaptation of The Little Mermaid. Moretz' subsequent roles have included the drama film The Miseducation of Cameron Post, the horror film Suspiria, and Neil Jordan's drama thriller film Greta, all in 2018. She will voice Snow White and Wednesday Addams in upcoming animated films. Moretz' stage work includes her starring role in the original off-Broadway production of The Library (2014) at The Public Theater in New York City.

Crime film

Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but also include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir.

David Leitch

David Leitch is an American filmmaker, stunt coordinator, second unit director, stuntman, actor and producer. He made his directorial debut on the 2014 action film John Wick with Chad Stahelski, though only Stahelski was credited. Leitch then directed the 2017 thriller film Atomic Blonde, starring Charlize Theron, and 2018's Deadpool 2, the sequel to the 2016 film. Recently, he directed Fast & Furious Presents: Hobbs & Shaw, a spin-off from The Fast and the Furious franchise.

Edgar Wright

Edgar Howard Wright (born 18 April 1974) is an English director, screenwriter and producer. He began making independent short films before making his first feature film A Fistful of Fingers (1995). Wright created and directed the comedy series Asylum in 1996, written with David Walliams. After directing several other television shows, Wright directed the sitcom Spaced (1999–2001), which aired for two series and starred frequent collaborators Simon Pegg and Nick Frost.

In 2004, Wright directed the first film in the Three Flavours Cornetto, "a romantic comedy with zombies" Shaun of the Dead, starring Pegg and Frost. The film was co-written with Pegg—as were the next two entries in the trilogy, Hot Fuzz (2007) and The World's End (2013), which Wright directed and also starred the pair. In 2010, Wright co-wrote, produced, and directed the comedy action film Scott Pilgrim vs. the World. Along with Joe Cornish and Steven Moffat, he co-wrote Steven Spielberg's The Adventures of Tintin (2011). Wright and Cornish co-wrote the screenplay for the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Ant-Man in 2015, which Wright intended to direct but abandoned, citing creative differences. His latest film, the action film Baby Driver, was released in 2017.

Wright has directed numerous music videos, including The Bluetones' "Keep the Home Fires Burning" (2000), The Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster's "Psychosis Safari" (2002), Mint Royale's "Blue Song" (2002), Pharrell Williams' "Gust of Wind" (2014), and Beck's "Colors" (2018).

Len Wiseman

Len Ryan Wiseman (born March 4, 1973) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. He is best known for his work on the Underworld series, Live Free or Die Hard, and the 2012 film Total Recall.

List of live-action film production companies

This is a list of film filmmaking, film distribution companies. A production company may specialize in producing their in-house films or own subsidiary development companies. Major production companies often distribute films from independent production companies. This list includes both active and no longer active (defunct) companies. Active production companies are either run by themselves or as a subsidiary.

Film studios also create television programs for broadcast syndication.

Live action

Live action is a form of cinematography or videography that uses photography instead of animation. Some works combine live action with animation. Live-action is used to define film, video games or similar visual media. Photorealistic animation, particularly modern computer animation, is sometimes erroneously described as “live-action” as in the case of some media reports about Disney's 2019 remake of The Lion King. According to the Cambridge English Dictionary, live action "[involves] real people or animals, not models, or images that are drawn, or produced by computer".

Romance film

Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for broadcast in theaters and on TV that focus on passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic involvement of the main characters and the journey that their genuinely strong, true and pure romantic love takes them through dating, courtship or marriage. Romance films make the romantic love story or the search for strong and pure love and romance the main plot focus. Occasionally, romance lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms of discrimination, psychological restraints or family that threaten to break their union of love. As in all quite strong, deep, and close romantic relationships, tensions of day-to-day life, temptations (of infidelity), and differences in compatibility enter into the plots of romantic films.Romantic films often explore the essential themes of love at first sight, young with older love, unrequited romantic love, obsessive love, sentimental love, spiritual love, forbidden love/romance, platonic love, sexual and passionate love, sacrificial love, explosive and destructive love, and tragic love. Romantic films serve as great escapes and fantasies for viewers, especially if the two people finally overcome their difficulties, declare their love, and experience life "happily ever after", implied by a reunion and final kiss. In romantic television series, the development of such romantic relationships may play out over many episodes, and different characters may become intertwined in different romantic arcs.

Sonic the Hedgehog (film)

Sonic the Hedgehog is an upcoming 2019 live-action animated film based on the video game franchise of the same name published by Sega. It is directed by Jeff Fowler in his feature directorial debut and written by Patrick Casey, Josh Miller and Oren Uziel, from a story by Van Robichaux and Evan Susser. The film stars Ben Schwartz as Sonic the Hedgehog and Jim Carrey as Sonic's nemesis Dr. Robotnik, alongside James Marsden as Tom Wachowski, Tika Sumpter, Adam Pally, and Neal McDonough.

The film is an American–Japanese joint venture between Paramount Animation, Original Film, Sega, Blur Studio and Marza Animation Planet, and is set to be released on November 8, 2019 by Paramount Pictures.

The Jetsons

The Jetsons is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera, originally airing in primetime from September 23, 1962, to March 17, 1963, then later in syndication, with new episodes in 1985 to 1987 as part of The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera block. It was Hanna-Barbera's Space Age counterpart to The Flintstones.While the Flintstones lived in a world which was a comical version of the "stone age", with machines powered by birds and dinosaurs, the Jetsons live in a comical version of a century in the future, with elaborate robotic contraptions, aliens, holograms, and whimsical inventions. The original series comprised 24 episodes and aired on Sunday nights on ABC beginning September 23, 1962, with primetime reruns continuing through September 22, 1963. It debuted as the first program broadcast in color on ABC-TV. (Only a handful of ABC-TV stations were capable of broadcasting in color in the early 1960s.) In contrast, The Flintstones, while always produced in color, was broadcast in black-and-white for its first two seasons.Following its primetime run, the show aired on Saturday mornings for decades, starting on ABC for the 1963–64 season and then on CBS and NBC. New episodes were produced for syndication from 1985 to 1987. No further specials or episodes of the show were produced after 1989 due to the deaths of stars George O'Hanlon and Mel Blanc. The 1990 film Jetsons: The Movie served as the series finale to the television show. 27 years later, a new direct-to-video animated movie, The Jetsons & WWE: Robo-WrestleMania!, was released in 2017.

The Three Musketeers (1973 live-action film)

The Three Musketeers (also known as The Three Musketeers: The Queen's Diamonds) is a 1973 film based on The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. It was directed by Richard Lester and written by George MacDonald Fraser. It was originally proposed in the 1960s as a vehicle for The Beatles, whom Lester had directed in two other films.

The film adheres closely to the novel, and also injects a fair amount of humor. It was shot by David Watkin, with an eye for period detail. The fight scenes were choreographed by master swordsman William Hobbs.

Transformers

Transformers (Japanese: トランスフォーマー, Hepburn: Toransufōmā) is a Japanese–American media franchise, produced by Japanese toy company Takara Tomy and American toy company Hasbro. Initially a line of transforming mecha toys rebranded from Takara's Diaclone and Microman toylines, the franchise began in 1984 with the Transformers toy line, and centers on factions of self-configuring modular extraterrestrial robotic lifeforms (often the Autobots and the Decepticons) in an endless civil war for dominance or eventual peace. In its history, the Transformers robot superhero franchise has expanded to encompass comic books, animation, video games and films.

The term "Generation 1" covers both the animated television series The Transformers and the comic book series of the same name, which are further divided into Japanese and British spin-offs, respectively. Sequels followed, such as the Generation 2 comic book and Beast Wars TV series, which became its own mini-universe. Generation 1 characters underwent two reboots with Dreamwave in 2001 and IDW Publishing in 2005, also as a remastered series, with a third starting in 2019. There have been other incarnations of the story based on different toy lines during and after the 20th century. The first was the Robots in Disguise series, followed by three shows (Armada, Energon, and Cybertron) that constitute a single universe called the "Unicron Trilogy". A live-action film series started in 2007, again distinct from previous incarnations, while the Transformers: Animated series merged concepts from the G1 continuity, the 2007 live-action film and the "Unicron Trilogy". For most of the 2010s, in an attempt to mitigate the wave of reboots, the Aligned continuity was established. In 2018, Transformers: Cyberverse debuted, once again, distinct from the previous incarnations.

Although initially a separate and competing franchise started in 1983, Tonka's Gobots became the intellectual property of Hasbro after their buyout of Tonka in 1991. Subsequently, the universe depicted in the animated series Challenge of the GoBots and follow-up film GoBots: Battle of the Rock Lords was retroactively established as an alternate universe within the Transformers robot superhero franchise.

By style
By theme
By movement
or period
By demographic groups
By format,
technique,
approach,
or production
Lists of films by genre

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.