Act of Parliament

An act of parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).[1] Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is commonly known by its Irish name, Oireachtas. It is also comparable to an Act of Congress in the United States.[2]

Bills

A draft Act of Parliament is known as a bill.

In territories with a Westminster system, most bills that have any possibility of becoming law are introduced into parliament by the government. This will usually happen following the publication of a "white paper", setting out the issues and the way in which the proposed new law is intended to deal with them. A bill may also be introduced into parliament without formal government backing; this is known as a private member's bill.

In territories with a multicameral parliament, most bills may be first introduced in any chamber. However, certain types of legislation are required, either by constitutional convention or by law, to be introduced into a specific chamber. For example, bills imposing a tax, or involving public expenditure, are introduced into the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, Canada's House of Commons, Lok Sabha of India and Ireland's Dáil as a matter of law. Conversely, bills proposed by the Law Commission and consolidation bills traditionally start in the House of Lords.

Once introduced, a bill must go through a number of stages before it can become law. In theory, this allows the bill's provisions to be debated in detail, and for amendments to the original bill to also be introduced, debated, and agreed to.

In bicameral parliaments, a bill that has been approved by the chamber into which it was introduced then sends the bill to the other chamber. Broadly speaking, each chamber must separately agree to the same version of the bill. Finally, the approved bill receives assent; in most territories this is merely a formality, and is often a function exercised by the head of state.

In some countries, such as in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal, the term for a bill differs depending on whether it is initiated by the government (when it is known as a "project"), or by the Parliament (a "proposition", i.e., a private member's bill).

Procedure

Australia

In Australia, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First reading: This stage is a mere formality, it involves the reading of the title of the proposed bill and distribution of the bill to members of parliament
  2. Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote. Again, the second reading of a Government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is then considered in detail
  3. Consideration in detail: This usually takes place on the floor of the House. Generally, committees sit on the floor of the House and consider the bill in detail.
  4. Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Very rarely do debates occur during this stage.
  5. Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Representatives; to the House of Representatives, if it is a Senate bill), which may amend it. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are posted back to the original House for a further stage. The State of Queensland's Parliament is unicameral and skips this and the rest of the stages.
  6. Consideration of Senate/Representatives amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu, or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend money bills, though it can "request" the House to make amendments. A bill may pass backwards and forwards several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost.
  7. Disagreement between the Houses: Often, when a bill cannot be passed in the same form by both Houses, it is "laid aside", i.e. abandoned. There is also a special constitutional procedure allowing the passage of the bill without the separate agreement of both houses. If the House twice passes the same bill, and the Senate twice fails to pass that bill (either through rejection or through the passage of unacceptable amendments), then the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses of Parliament simultaneously and call an election for the entire Parliament. This is called a double dissolution. After the election, if the House again passes the bill, but the deadlock between the Houses persists, then the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of both Houses, where a final decision will be taken on the bill. Although the House and the Senate sit as a single body, bills passed at a joint sitting are treated as if they had been passed by each chamber separately. The procedure only applies if the bill originated in the House of Representatives. Six double dissolutions have occurred, though a joint sitting was only held once, in 1974.
  8. The bill is sent to the viceroy (the Governor-General for the Commonwealth; the Governor for a State; the Administrator for a Territory) for the royal assent. Certain bills must be reserved by the viceroy for the Queen's personal assent. Acts in the Australian Capital Territory do not require this step.

Canada

In Canada, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First reading: This stage is a mere formality.
  2. Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote. Again, the second reading of a government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, then it progresses to the committee stage.
  3. Committee stage: This usually takes place in a standing committee of the Commons or Senate.
    • Standing committee: The standing committee is a permanent one; each committee deals with bills in specific subject areas. Canada's standing committees are similar to the UK's select committees.
    • Special committee: A committee established for a particular purpose, be it the examination of a bill or a particular issue.
    • Legislative committee: Similar to a special committee in that it is established for the consideration of a particular bill. The chairmanship is determined by the Speaker, rather than elected by the members of the committee. Not used in the Senate.
    • Committee of the Whole: The whole house sits as a committee in the House of Commons or Senate. Most often used to consider appropriation bills, but can be used to consider any bill.
      The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. Significant amendments may be made at committee stage. In some cases, whole groups of clauses are inserted or removed. However, if the Government holds a majority, almost all the amendments which are agreed to in committee will have been tabled by the Government to correct deficiencies in the bill or to enact changes to policy made since the bill was introduced (or, in some cases, to import material which was not ready when the bill was presented).
  4. Report stage: this takes place on the floor of the appropriate chamber, and allows the House or Senate to approve amendments made in committee, or to propose new ones.
  5. Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended.
  6. Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Senate bill), where it will face a virtually identical process. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are sent back to the original House for a further stage.
  7. Consideration of Senate/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost.
  8. Disagreement between the Houses: There is no specific procedure under which the Senate's disagreement can be overruled by the Commons. The Senate's rejection is absolute.

The debate on each stage is actually debate on a specific motion. For the first reading, there is no debate. For the second reading, the motion is "That this bill be now read a second time and be referred to [name of committee]" and for third reading "That this bill be now read a third time and pass." In the Committee stage, each clause is called and motions for amendments to these clauses, or that the clause stand part of the bill are made. In the Report stage, the debate is on the motions for specific amendments.

Once a bill has passed both Houses in an identical form, it receives final, formal examination by the Governor General, who gives it the royal assent. Although the Governor General can refuse to assent a bill or reserve the bill for the Queen at this stage, this power has never been exercised.[3]

Bills being reviewed by Parliament are assigned numbers: 2 to 200 for government bills, 201 to 1000 for private member's bills, and 1001 up for private bills. They are preceded by C- if they originate in the House of Commons, or S- if they originate in the Senate. For example, Bill C-250 was a private member's bill introduced in the House. Bills C-1 and S-1 are pro forma bills, and are introduced at the beginning of each session in order to assert the right of each Chamber to manage its own affairs. They are introduced and read a first time, and then are dropped from the Order Paper.

India

In the Parliament of India, every bill passes through following stages before it becomes an Act of Parliament of India:[4]

  1. First reading - introduction stage: Any member, or member-in-charge of the bill seeks the leave of the house to introduce a bill. If the bill is an important one, the minister may make a brief speech, stating its main features.
  2. Second reading - discussion stage: This stage consists of detailed consideration of the bill and proposed amendments.
  3. Third reading - voting stage: This stage is confined only to arguments either in support of the bill or for its rejection as a whole, without referring to its details. After the bill is passed, it is sent to the other house.
  4. Bill in the other house (Rajya Sabha): After a bill, other than a money bill, is transmitted to the other house, it goes through all the stages in that house as that in the first house. But if the bill passed by one house is amended by the other house, it goes back to the originating house.
  5. President's approval: When a bill is passed by both the houses, it is sent to the President for his approval. The President can assent or withhold his assent to a bill or he can return a bill, other than a money bill. If the President gives his assent, the bill is published in The Gazette of India[5] and becomes an Act from the date of his assent. If he withholds his assent, the bill is dropped, which is known as pocket veto. The pocket veto is not written in the constitution and has only been exercised once by President Zail Singh: in 1986, over the postal act where the government wanted to open postal letters without warrant. If the president returns it for reconsideration, the Parliament must do so, but if it is passed again and returned to him, he must give his assent to it.[6]

Ireland

In the Irish Parliament, the Oireachtas, bills pass through the following stages:[7] Bills may be initiated in either the Dáil or the Seanad, and must pass both houses.

  1. First stage - Private members must seek the permission of the house to introduce a bill. Government bills do not require approval and are therefore introduced at the second stage.
  2. Second stage – this involves a discussion of the general principle of the bill. It is introduced by the sponsoring minister (or in the case of a private member's bill, by the member) and is followed by contributions from the floor of the house. Finally the debate is brought to a conclusion by voting on the proposal “that the bill now be read a second time”.
  3. Third stage, commonly referred to as the Committee Stage. This involves section by section scrutiny of the bill and any amendments which have been tabled. In the Dáil this usually takes place in a committee room and will involve examination by one of the select committees. In the Seanad, this stage takes place in the chamber. The Seanad may only make recommendations rather than amendments, in the case of a money bill.
  4. Fourth stage, commonly referred to as the Report Stage. At this point, a version of the bill incorporating any changes made at the Committee Stage is printed for consideration. In both houses, this stage is taken on the floor of the chamber. Amendments may be considered at this stage but must arise from matters discussed or changes made at the Committee Stage.
  5. Fifth stage: in practice this is a formality, taken with the fourth stage and referred to as the ‘Report and Final Stage’.
  6. Passage in the other house: the same stages are repeated in the other house and the bill is then deemed to have been passed, except that any bill initiated in the Dáil and amended by the Seanad must return to the Dáil for final consideration.
  7. Signature: once the bill has passed both houses it is sent to the President for signature. The signed copy is the enrolled in the Office of the Supreme Court.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the bill passes through the following stages:

  1. First reading: MPs debate and vote on the bill. If a bill is approved, it passes on to the committee stage.
  2. Select committee stage: The bill is considered by a Select Committee, which scrutinises the bill in detail and hears public submissions on the matter. The Committee may recommend amendments to the bill.
  3. Second reading: The general principles of the bill are debated, and a vote is held. If the bill is approved, it is put before a Committee of the House.
  4. Committee of the House: The bill is debated and voted on, clause by clause, by the whole House sitting as a committee.
  5. Third reading: Summarising arguments are made, and a final vote is taken. If the bill is approved, it is passed to the Governor-General for royal assent. New Zealand has no upper house, and so no approval is necessary.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom Parliament

Legislative procedure uk
A graphic representation of the legislative procedure in the United Kingdom.

A draft piece of legislation is called a bill, when this is passed by Parliament it becomes an Act and part of statute law. There are two types of bill and Act, public and private. Public Acts apply to the whole of the UK or a number of its constituent countries — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Private Acts are local and personal in their effect, giving special powers to bodies such as local authorities or making exceptions to the law in particular geographic areas.[8]

In the United Kingdom Parliament, each bill passes through the following stages:

  1. Pre-legislative scrutiny: Not undertaken for all bills; usually a joint committee of both houses will review a bill and vote on amendments that the government can either accept or reject. The report from this stage can be influential in later stages as rejected recommendations from the committee are revived to be voted on.
  2. First reading: This is a formality; no vote occurs. The Bill is presented and ordered to be printed and, in the case of private members' bills, a date is set for second reading.
  3. Second reading: A debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote.
  4. Committee stage: This usually takes place in a public bill committee[9] in the Commons and on the Floor of the House in the Lords. The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it.
  5. Consideration (or report) stage: this takes place on the floor of the House, and is a further opportunity to amend the bill. Unlike committee stage, the House need not consider every clause of the bill, only those to which amendments have been tabled.
  6. Third reading: a debate on the final text of the bill, as amended in the House of Lords. Further amendments may be tabled at this stage.
  7. Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Lords, if it originated in the Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Lords bill), which may amend it.
  8. Consideration of Lords/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House.
  9. Royal assent: the bill is passed with any amendments and becomes an act of parliament.

Scottish Parliament

In the Scottish Parliament,[10] bills pass through the following stages:

  1. Introduction: The Bill is introduced to the Parliament together with its accompanying documents — Explanatory Notes, a Policy Memorandum setting out the policy underlying the Bill and a Financial Memorandum setting out the costs and savings associated with it. Statements from the Presiding Officer and the member in charge of the Bill are also lodged, indicating whether the Bill is within the legislative competence of the Parliament.
  2. Stage one: The Bill is considered by one or more of the subject Committees of the Parliament, which normally take evidence from the bill's promoter and other interested parties before reporting to the Parliament on the principles of the Bill. Other Committees, notably the Finance and Subordinate Legislation Committees, may also feed in at this stage. The report from the Committee is followed by a debate in the full Parliament.
  3. Stage two: The Bill returns to the subject Committee where it is subject to line-by-line scrutiny and amendment. This is similar to the Committee Stage in the UK Parliament.
  4. Stage three: The Bill as amended by the Committee returns to the full Parliament. There is a further opportunity for amendment, followed by a debate on the whole Bill, at the end of which the Parliament decides whether to pass the Bill.
  5. Royal assent: After the Bill has been passed, the Presiding Officer submits it to Her Majesty for royal assent. However he cannot do so until a 4-week period has elapsed during which the Law Officers of the Scottish Government or UK Government can refer the Bill to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom for a ruling on whether the Bill is within the powers of the Parliament.

There are special procedures for emergency bills, member's bills (similar to private member's bills in the UK Parliament), committee bills, and private bills.

Singapore

In Singapore, the bill passes through these certain stages before becoming into an Act of Parliament.

  1. First Reading: The bill is introduced to the government, usually by the members of parliament. The unicameral parliament will then discuss the bill, followed by a vote. Voting must be at least 1/2 aye for non-controversial bills and 2/3 aye for controversial ones. If the bill passes the vote it will proceed to the second reading.
  2. Second Reading: In this stage, the bill is further discussed and put to a second vote. If more than half of the votes are aye the bill proceeds to the select committee.
  3. Select Committee: The select committee consists of people not only from the parliaments, but also the people who could be affected by the bill is passed into law. This is to ensure equality and that the bill is fair for all. If the Bill is in favor, it will proceed to the third reading.
  4. Third Reading: After the select committee has discussed and are in favor of the bill, they will put it to a vote. At this juncture, if the votes are more than 1/2 aye, it will be sent to the President of Singapore, currently Halimah Yacob. This is known as President Assent.
  5. President Assent: The president must give permission in order for the bill to be passed. If (s)he approves it, it will become a statute passed down by the members of parliament which is called an Act of Parliament.

Titles and citation of Acts

Acts passed by the Parliament of England did not originally have titles, and could only be formally cited by reference to the parliamentary session in which they were passed, with each individual Act being identified by year and chapter number. Descriptive titles began to be added to the enrolled Acts by the official clerks, as a reference aid; over time, titles came to be included within the text of each bill. Since the mid-nineteenth century, it has also become common practice for Acts to have a short title, as a convenient alternative to the sometimes lengthy main titles. The Short Titles Act 1892, and its replacement the Short Titles Act 1896, gave short titles to many Acts which previously lacked them.

The numerical citation of Acts has also changed over time. The original method was based on the regnal year(s) in which the relevant parliament session met. This has been replaced in most territories by simple reference to the calendar year, with the first Act passed being chapter 1, and so on.

In the United Kingdom, legislation is referenced by year and chapter number. Each act is numbered consecutively based on the date they received royal assent. for example the 43rd act passed in 1980 would be 1980 Chapter 43. The full reference includes the title and would be The Magistrate's Court Act 1980 C. 43.

Until the 1980s, Acts of the Australian state of Victoria were numbered in a continuous sequence from 1857; thus the Age of Majority Act 1977 was No. 9075 of 1977.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Gillespie, Alisdair (18 April 2013). The English Legal System. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-0-19-965709-4.
  2. ^ "Legislation", International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Thomson Gale, 2008, retrieved 19 November 2016
  3. ^ Smith, Jennifer. Democracy and the Canadian House of Commons at the millennium, Canadian Public Administration, Jan 1, 1999, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Winter 1999), p. 398.
  4. ^ "HOW A BILL BECOMES AN ACT". parliamentofindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  5. ^ "Amendments to Sebi Act gets Presidential assent". PTI. 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013. It has now been published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part-II, Section-1, dated the 13th September 2013 as Act No. 22 of 2013
  6. ^ Gupta, V. P. (26 Aug 2002). "The President's role". Times of India. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  7. ^ "The Role of the Houses of the Oireachtas in the Scrutiny of Legislation" (PDF). Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  8. ^ p. 190, How Parliament Works, 6th edition, Robert Rogers and Rhodri Walters, Pearson Longman, 2006
  9. ^ Levy, Jessica, Public Bill Committees: An Assessment Scrutiny Sought; Scrutiny Gained, Parliamentary Affairs, Vol. 63, No. 3 (Jul 2010), p. 534.
  10. ^ Mitchell, James. The Narcissism of Small Differences: Scotland and Westminster, Parliamentary Affairs, Jan 1, 2010, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan 2010), p. 98.

Sources

General

External links

Act of Parliament (UK)

In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. As a result of the Glorious Revolution and the assertion of parliamentary sovereignty, any such Act is in theory supreme law that cannot be overturned by any body other than Parliament, although it has been recognised through the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union that Acts or parts of Acts which conflict with EU law can be disapplied.

An Act of Parliament can be enforced in all four of the UK constituent countries (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland); however as a result of devolution the majority of Acts that are now passed by Parliament apply either to England and Wales only, or England only; whilst generally Acts only relating to constitutional and reserved matters now apply to the whole of the United Kingdom.

A draft piece of legislation is called a Bill; when this is passed by Parliament and given Royal Assent, it becomes an Act and part of statute law.

Aircraft Act

The Aircraft Act, 1934 is an Act of Parliament in India.

Bernama

The Malaysian National News Agency (Malay: Pertubuhan Berita Nasional Malaysia), abbreviated BERNAMA, is a news agency of the government of Malaysia. It is an autonomous body placed under the Ministry of Communication and Multimedia. Bernama is an abbreviation of Berita Nasional Malaysia. Bernama also means named or titled in the Malay language. It was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1967 and started work on 20 May 1968. Being the Malaysian government's official news agency, Bernama's content and views are decidedly right-leaning and pro-government of the day.

Central University of Tamil Nadu

Central University of Tamil Nadu abbreviated CUTN was established by an Act of Parliament (No.25 of 20 March 2009). The University was inaugurated on 30 September 2009 by Kapil Sibal who laid the foundation stone. Prof. B.P.Sanjay, Former Director of Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC), and Professor in the Department of Mass Communication, University of Hyderabad was appointed as the first Vice Chancellor of the University. Presently CUTN is functioning in its permanent campus with an area of 740 acres. Dr. Aditya Prasad Dash, a distinguished scientist and academician is appointed as the second Vice Chancellor of the university.

Citation of United Kingdom legislation

This article explains the citation of United Kingdom legislation, including the systems used for legislation passed by devolved parliaments and assemblies, for secondary legislation, and for prerogative instruments. This subject is relatively complex both due to the different sources of legislation in the United Kingdom, and because of the different histories of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom.

Contempt of the sovereign

Contempt of the Sovereign (also called contempt of statute) was an ancient doctrine in English law dating from medieval times, and now obsolete. It referred to the notion that if somebody disobeyed an Act of Parliament, but the Act did not say what the penalty was or how the Act was to be enforced, then that person was guilty of a criminal offence under common law (although the crime itself was not called contempt). This doctrine was based on the idea that an Act of Parliament was an expression of the Sovereign's will, enacted with the "advice and consent" of Parliament. In modern legislation and jurisprudence it has become the rule that contravening a statute is not a crime unless the statute expressly says so in clear terms, and so the doctrine has long since lapsed. However the law does still exist, and the last time it was used was in 1840.Contempt of the Sovereign is not to be confused with lèse majesté.

Delegated legislation in the United Kingdom

Delegated legislation is law that is not passed by an Act of Parliament but by a government minister, a delegated person or an entity in the United Kingdom. Delegated legislation is used for a wide variety of purposes such as fixing the date on which an Act of Parliament will come into force; setting fees for a public service; or establishing the details of an Act of Parliament. Delegated legislation is dependent on its Parent Act which proscribes its parameters and procedures. Although a large volume of delegated legislation is written without close parliamentary scrutiny, there are Statutory Instruments to prevent its misuse.

Legislation

Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill, and may be broadly referred to as "legislation", while it remains under consideration to distinguish it from other business. Legislation can have many purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to outlaw, to provide (funds), to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict. It may be contrasted with a non-legislative act which is adopted by an executive or administrative body under the authority of a legislative act or for implementing a legislative act.Under the Westminster system, an item of primary legislation is known as an Act of Parliament after enactment.

Legislation is usually proposed by a member of the legislature (e.g. a member of Congress or Parliament), or by the executive, where upon it is debated by members of the legislature and is often amended before passage. Most large legislatures enact only a small fraction of the bills proposed in a given session. Whether a given bill will be proposed and is generally a matter of the legislative priorities of government.

Legislation is regarded as one of the three main functions of government, which are often distinguished under the doctrine of the separation of powers. Those who have the formal power to create legislation are known as legislators; a judicial branch of government will have the formal power to interpret legislation (see statutory interpretation); the executive branch of government can act only within the powers and limits set by the law.

Legislative council

A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation, colony, or subnational division such as a province or state; or, in the United States, a council within a legislature which supervises nonpartisan legislative support staff. A member of a legislative council is commonly referred to as an MLC.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–1719

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1707–1719. For Acts passed until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

Local and personal Acts of Parliament (United Kingdom)

Private Acts are laws in the United Kingdom which apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity. This contrasts with a public general Act of Parliament (statute) which applies to the nation state. Private Acts can afford relief from another law; grant a unique benefit or, grant powers not available under the general law; or, relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act.

There are two types of Private Act: Acts for the benefit of individuals (known as Personal Acts), and others Acts of local or limited application (known as Local Acts). Private Acts should not be confused with Private Member's Bills—which, in the Westminster system, are Bills for a public general Act of Parliament proposed by individual parliamentarians rather than the government.

About 11,000 private or personal Acts have been passed since 1539, and 26,500 local Acts have become law since 1797 (when local Acts were separated from public general acts).

Market Weighton Canal

The Market Weighton Canal ran 9.5 miles (15.3 km) from the Humber Estuary to its terminus near Market Weighton. It gained its Act of Parliament in 1772 and opened in 1782. The 3.5 miles (5.6 km) closest to Market Weighton was abandoned in 1900 and the right of navigation through Weighton lock was lost in 1971. However, as of 2002 the lock was passable and the canal usable up to the junction with the River Foulness where silt has made it impassable. Also there is no right of navigation under the M62 motorway bridge to the north of Newport.

Measure of the National Assembly for Wales

A Measure of the National Assembly for Wales (informally, an Assembly Measure) is primary legislation in Wales that is a category lower than an Act of Parliament. In the case of Contemporary Welsh Law, the difference with Acts is that the competence to pass Measures is subject to 'LCOs' or Legislative Competence Order, which transfers powers to the Assembly by amending Schedule 5 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.

It was a lower form of primary legislation as it did not contain a large bulk of powers compared to the power to make acts. In Wales each Assembly Measure had to be accompanied with a Matter which was transferred using the Legislative Competence Order (LCO) system. Each Assembly Measure, like an Act of Parliament, had to have made provision for a matter within the remit of the legislative competency of the Assembly.

Following a referendum held in 2011, the assembly gained powers to make primary legislation known as Acts of the Assembly. These powers came into force after the 2011 assembly elections and the assembly is no longer able to pass Measures. Existing measures will remain valid unless repealed by the assembly in the future.

Ministry of Labour and Social Security (Turkey)

The Ministry of Labour and Social Security (Turkish: Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı) is a former government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for labour and social security affairs in Turkey. The ministry was merged with the Ministry of Family and Social Policy in July 2018 to form the Ministry of Labour, Social Services and Family. The current Minister is Zehra Zümrüt Selçuk.

Initially, it was formed as the Office of Labour and Labourers within the Ministry of Economy upon Act of Parliament No. 2450, which came into force on May 27, 1934. As a governmental ministry, it was established on June 22, 1945 with the Act of Parliament No. 4763.

Private bill

A private bill is a proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity. This is unlike public bills which apply to everyone within their jurisdiction. Private law can afford relief from another law, grant a unique benefit or powers not available under the general law, or relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act. There are many examples of such private law in democratic countries, although its use has changed over time. A private bill is not to be confused with a private member's bill, which is a bill introduced by a "private member" of the legislature rather than by the ministry.

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development

The Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development (RGNIYD), Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, is an Institution of National Importance by the Act of Parliament No. 35/2012 under the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports, Government of India. The RGNIYD was set up in 1993 under the Societies Registration Act, XXVII of 1975.The RGNIYD offers academic programmes at postgraduate level in youth development, engages in research in youth development, and coordinates training programmes for state agencies and the officials of youth organisations. It is involved in extension and outreach initiatives across the country.

The institute functions as a think-tank of the Ministry and an organization of youth-related activities. As the apex institute at the national level, it works in cooperation within the NSS, NYKS and other youth organizations in the implementation of training programmes.

This institute also offers Post Graduate Degree programmes in the field of Gender Studies, Development Studies, Local Governance, Counselling Psychology, Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Social Work. It also offers PhD in various disciplines of Social Sciences.

Ross-shire

Ross-shire (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Rois) is a historic county in the Scottish Highlands. The county borders Sutherland, Cromartyshire (of which it contains many exclaves), Inverness-shire and an exclave of Nairnshire. It includes most of Ross as well as Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. Dingwall is the traditional county town. The area of Ross-shire was based on that of the historic province of Ross, but with the exclusion of the many exclaves that formed Cromartyshire.For shreival purposes the area was first separated from the authority of the sheriff of Inverness by Act of Parliament during the reign of James IV, the sheriff to sit at Tain or Dingwall. Sheriffs were seldom appointed, and further acts of 1649 and 1661 restated its separation from Inverness. The 1661 act also clarified the area encompassed, based on the pre-Reformation Diocese of Ross. Sir George Mackenzie's Ross-shire estates were transferred to Cromartyshire by a 1685 Act of Parliament (repealed 1686, re-enacted 1690).The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 provided that "the counties of Ross and Cromarty shall cease to be separate counties, and shall be united for all purposes whatsoever, under the name of the county of Ross and Cromarty." The two counties that became the single local government county of Ross and Cromarty, which continued to be used for local government purposes until 1975, although Ross-shire remained as the postal county for the mainland part of the local government county until 1996.

In 1975, Ross and Cromarty was itself replaced by the Highland region and the Western Isles, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. The region became a unitary council area in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.

There was a Ross-shire constituency of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801, and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. In 1832 it was merged with the Cromartyshire constituency to form the Ross and Cromarty constituency.

Societies Registration Act, 1860

The Societies Registration Act, 1860 is a legislation in India which allows the registration of entities generally involved in the benefit of society - education, health, employment etc.

The British Indian Empire, with a wish to encourage such activities and to promote the formal organisation of groups of like minded people, incorporated the Act 21 of 1860, in other words, The Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), which came into force on 21 May 1860. The Act continues until today and being an Act of Parliament, comes under the Right To Information Act, wherein the government is legally responsible to give any information requested by any citizen of India with respect to any society

State Legislative Assembly (India)

The State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha in Hindi language) is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative body. In 7 states it is the lower house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories are governed directly by the Union Government of India and have no legislative body.

Each Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim, Mizoram and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members. A State Legislative Assembly may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition.

Core subjects
Other subjects
Sources of law
Law making
Legal systems
Legal theory
Jurisprudence
Legal institutions

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.