Acrylate polymer

Acrylate polymers belong to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics. They are noted for their transparency, resistance to breakage, and elasticity. They are also commonly known as acrylics or polyacrylates. Acrylate polymer is commonly used in cosmetics such as nail polish as an adhesive.[1]

Monomers

Acrylic acid
Acrylic acid
Methyl-methacrylate-skeletal
Methylmethacrylate
Acrylonitrile-2D-skeletal
Acrylonitrile

Acrylate monomers, used to form acrylate polymers, are based on the structure of acrylic acid, which consists of a vinyl group and a carboxylic acid ester terminus or a nitrile.[2][3] Other typical acrylate monomers are derivatives of acrylic acid, such as methyl methacrylate in which one vinyl hydrogen and the carboxylic acid hydrogen are both replaced by methyl groups, and acrylonitrile in which the carboxylic acid group is replaced by the related nitrile group.

Other examples of acrylate monomers are:

Acrylic elastomers

Acrylic elastomer is a general term for a type of synthetic rubber whose main component is acrylic acid alkylester (ethyl or butyl ester).[5] Acrylic elastomer has characteristics of heat and oil resistance.

It is divided into old type and new type: Old types include ACM (copolymer of acrylic acid ester and 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether) containing chlorine and ANM (copolymer of acrylic acid ester and acrylonitrile) without chloride. Other than the slightly better water resistance of ANM, there are no physical differences; even processability is poor for both types. Since prices are also high, demand is not so high vis-à-vis the characteristics. On the other hand, the new type of acrylic rubber does not contain any chlorine despite its unclear chemical composition. Processability has been improved; most of the tackiness to rolls, as well as staining problems related to mold have been solved.

Major characteristics of acrylic rubber include heat resistance and oil resistance; it can endure a temperature of 170–180 ℃ under dry heat or in oil. Since it does not have a double bond, acrylic rubber also boasts of good weatherability and ozone resistance.

Its cold resistance is not that good, however. The saturation point is −15 ℃ for the old type and −28...−30 ℃ for the new type. In terms of vulcanization, the standard method for the old type is amine vulcanization. To minimize permanent deformation, the old type requires curing for 24 hours at a temperature of 150 ℃. On the other hand, for the new type, the press curing time and follow-up vulcanization time are significantly reduced by combining metal soap and sulfur. It has no special characteristics. The rebound resilience and abrasion resistance of the new type are poor, and even its electrical characteristics are considerably poor compared with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and butyl rubber.

The materials are used mainly for oil seals and packagings related to automobiles.

Other acrylic polymers

See also

References

  1. ^ Erich Penzel (2000). Polyacrylates. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_157.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Takashi Ohara, Takahisa Sato, Noboru Shimizu, Günter Prescher, Helmut Schwind, Otto Weiberg, Klaus Marten, Helmut Greim (2002). "Acrylic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_161.pub2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ http://pslc.ws/macrog/acrylate.htm
  4. ^ Manfred Stickler, Thoma Rhein (2000). "Polymethacrylates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_473.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2010-05-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2013/06/cyanoacrylate-superglue-adhesive-glue-podcast
Acrylate

Acrylates are the salts, esters, and conjugate bases of acrylic acid and its derivatives. The acrylate ion is the anion CH2=CHCOO−. Often acrylate refers to esters of acrylic acid, the most common member being methyl acrylate. Acrylates contain vinyl groups directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. These monomers are of interest because they are bifunctional: the vinyl group is susceptible to polymerization and the carboxylate group carries myriad functionality. Modified acrylates are also numerous, include methacrylates (CH2=C(CH3)CO2R) and cyanoacrylates (CH2=C(CN)CO2R).

Acrylic acid

Acrylic acid (IUPAC: propenoic acid) is an organic compound with the formula CH2=CHCOOH. It is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a carboxylic acid terminus. This colorless liquid has a characteristic acrid or tart smell. It is miscible with water, alcohols, ethers, and chloroform. More than a million tons are produced annually.

Chemistry of pressure-sensitive adhesives

The chemistry of pressure-sensitive adhesives describes the chemical science associated with pressure-sensitive adhesives. PSA tapes and labels have become an important part of everyday life. These rely on adhesive material affixed to a backing such as paper or plastic film. Because of the inherent tackiness of the adhesive material and low surface energy, these tapes can be placed onto a variety of substrates when light pressure is applied, including paper, wood, metals, and ceramics. The design of tapes requires a balance of the need for long service life and adaptation to a variety of environmental and human effects, including temperature, UV exposure, mechanical wear, contamination of the substrate surface, and adhesive degradation.

Deborah Chung

Deborah Duen Ling Chung (professionally known as D.D.L. Chung, Chinese: 鍾端玲 or 黛博拉 • D • L • 钟; born 1952) is an American scientist and university professor.

Glycidyl methacrylate

Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an ester of methacrylic acid and glycidol, it is a common monomer used in the creation of epoxy resins. While typical home epoxies contain diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), glycidyl methacrylate is instead used to provide epoxy functionalization to polyolefins and other acrylate resins. Glycidyl methacrylate is produced by several companies worldwide, including Dow Chemical.

Microprinting

Microprinting is the production of recognizable patterns or characters in a printed medium at a scale that requires magnification to read with the naked eye. To the unaided eye, the text may appear as a solid line. Attempts to reproduce by methods of photocopy, image scanning, or pantograph typically translate as a dotted or solid line, unless the reproduction method can identify and recreate patterns to such scale. Microprint is predominantly used as an anti-counterfeiting technique, due to its inability to be easily reproduced by digital methods.

While microphotography precedes microprint, microprint was significantly influenced by Albert Boni in 1934 when he was inspired by his friend, writer and editor Manuel Komroff, who was showing his experimentations related to the enlarging of photographs. It occurred to Boni that if he could reduce rather than enlarge photographs, this technology might enable publication companies and libraries to access much greater quantities of data at a minimum cost of material and storage space. Over the following decade, Boni worked to develop microprint, a micro-opaque process in which pages were photographed using 35mm microfilm and printed on cards using offset lithography. (U.S. Patent 2,260,551A, U.S. Patent 2,260,552A) This process proved to produce a 6" by 9" index card that stored 100 pages of text from the normal sized publications he was reproducing. Boni began the Readex Microprint company to produce and license this technology. He also published an article A Guide to the Literature of Photography and Related Subjects (1943), which appeared in a supplemental 18th issue of the Photo-Lab Index.

Optical fiber cable

An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of cable are used for different applications, for example long distance telecommunication, or providing a high-speed data connection between different parts of a building.

Poly(methyl acrylate)

Poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) is a hydrophobic synthetic acrylate polymer.

PMA, though softer than polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), is tough, leathery, and flexible.It has a low glass-transition temperature about 10°C (12.5°C in case of PMA38).High-energy radiation leads to cross linking in PMA. However in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a compound similar to PMA, degradation occurs instead.It is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

PMA is water-sensitive and unlike PMMA, is not stable against alkalies.It is used as macroinitiator to initiate the copolymerisation of HEMA and DMAEMA.

Also used in leather finishing and textiles.

Two-dimensional polymer

A two-dimensional polymer (2DP) is a sheet-like monomolecular macromolecule consisting of laterally connected repeat units with end groups along all edges. This recent definition of 2DP is based on Hermann Staudinger's polymer concept from the 1920s. According to this, covalent long chain molecules ("Makromoleküle") do exist and are composed of a sequence of linearly connected repeat units and end groups at both termini.

Moving from one dimension to two offers access to surface morphologies such as increased surface area, porous membranes, and possibly in-plane pi orbital-conjugation for enhanced electronic properties. They are distinct from other families of polymers because 2D polymers can be isolated as multilayer crystals or as individual sheets.The term 2D polymer has also been used more broadly to include linear polymerizations performed at interfaces, layered non-covalent assemblies, or to irregularly cross-linked polymers confined to surfaces or layered films. 2D polymers can be organized based on these methods of linking (monomer interaction): covalently linked monomers, coordination polymers and supramolecular polymers.

Topologically, 2DPs may thus be understood as structures made up from regularly tessellated regular polygons (the repeat units). Figure 1 displays the key features of a linear and a 2DP according to this definition. For usage of the term "2D polymer" in a wider sense, see "History".

Vinyl polymer

Vinyl polymers are a group of polymers derived from vinyl monomers of the type CH2=CHR. Their backbone is an extended alkane chain ...-CH2-CHR-CH2-CHR-..). In popular usage, "vinyl" refers only to polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

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