Acre War

The Acre War, known in Brazil as Acrean Revolution ("Revolução Acreana" in Portuguese) and in Spanish as La Guerra del Acre ("The War of the Acre") was a border conflict between Bolivia and the First Brazilian Republic over the Acre Region, which was rich in rubber and gold deposits. The conflict had two phases between 1899 and 1903 and ended with a Brazilian victory and the subsequent Treaty of Petrópolis, which ceded Acre to Brazil. The outcome also affected territories disputed with Peru.

Acre War
RioBranco MemorialAcreano

Memorial of the centenary of the Acrean Revolution in Rio Branco, capital of Acre
Date1899–1903
Location
Result Brazilian victory; Treaty of Petrópolis
Belligerents
Bolivia Bolivia
Support:
United States United States
Acre (state) Republic of Acre
Support:
Brazil Brazil
Commanders and leaders
Bolivia José Manuel Pando
Bolivia Federico Román
Bolivia Nicolás Suárez Callaú
Bolivia Bruno Racua
Acre (state) Luis Gálvez Rodríguez de Arias
Acre (state) José Plácido de Castro
Brazil Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales
Brazil Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves
Strength
Bolivian Army
Columna Porvenir (militia)
Brazilian tappers
Civil militia
Support:
Brazilian Army
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

Causes

The region of Acre possessed rich gold deposits and an abundance of timber, principally rubber trees. From the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century, rubber trees were crucial to the automobile and transport industry, as synthetic rubber for the manufacture of tires and other objects was not discovered until around World War II. It is because of this that the war is also referred to as the Rubber War (Guerra del Caucho), as one of the motives that drove Jefferson José Torres, Governor of Amazonas (Brazilian state), was a rubber export tax.

Antecedents

Bolivia antes de la guerra del Acre
Map showing the Bolivian territory in 1899, before Acrean Revolution.

The border between Brazil and Bolivia was delimited by the Treaty of Ayacucho. The province of Acre, a territory of about five times the size of Belgium, belonged to Bolivia. Embedded in the heart of South America, Acre aroused little interest for its inaccessibility and apparent lack of commercial value. Its population was composed of a small number of Indians without national identity and a handful of Brazilians and Bolivians.

When the price of rubber rose significantly in the late 19th century about 18,000 adventurers and settlers, most from Brazil, went to Acre to exploit the rubber trees. Practically there were no roads, so that the main means of transport were some river steamers, canoes and rafts.

First "Republic of Acre"

Emblem of the Republic of Acre
Seal the former Republic of Acre.

On January 2, 1899, Bolivia set up a customs office in Puerto Alonso (today Porto Acre), which upset the Brazilian settlers, who wanted to oust the Bolivian authorities. A lawyer, Dr. José de Carvalho, led a revolt against the Bolivians on April 30.

Coronel Ismael Montes, Ministro da Guerra da Bolívia e Comandante da 1ª Expedição ao Acre
Colonel Ismael Montes, Bolivia's Minister of War and commander of the 1st Expedition to Acre.

Pressured by José de Carvalho, Bolivians were forced to leave the region. To prevent their return the governor of Amazonas, José Cardoso Ramalho Junior, organized a team to enter Acre; commanded by Spaniard Luis Gálvez Rodríguez de Arias, who served as a Bolivian consul in Belém. Gálvez left Manaus on June 4, 1899 and came to the Bolivian town of Puerto Alonso, which had its name changed to Porto Acre, where he proclaimed the Republic of Acre on July 14, 1899, discreetly supported by willing amazonense officialdom, imposing his authority on the lands that the Treaty of Ayacucho (1867) had entrusted to Bolivia. Bolivia responded by sending a force of 500 men. Before his arrival, Galvez was taken prisoner by Antonio de Sousa Braga, who declared himself president of Acre. Shortly afterwards, however, he ceded power to Gálvez. On March 15, 1900, a Brazilian war flotilla reached Puerto Alonso, arrested Galvez and dissolved the Republic of Acre; as the Brazilian government, based on the Treaty of Ayacucho, considered Acre as Bolivian territory.

A further reason for Ramalho Junior's interest in Acres occupation was that Galvez had discovered the existence of a diplomatic agreement between Bolivia and the United States stating that there would be military support for Bolivia in the event of war with Brazil.

Second "Republic of Acre"

Vapor Solimões
Steam Solimões.

At that time, Bolivia organized a small military mission to occupy the region. Arriving in Porto Acre, it was prevented from continuing its movement by Brazilian rubber tappers.

In November 1900 there was another rebellion in order to take Acre from Bolivia and create an independent republic. Known as the "Expedition of Poets" or "Expedition Floriano Peixoto", this force, under the command of journalist Orlando Correa Lopes, was based on the river monitor Dovapor Solimões, equipped with the help of the governor of Amazonas province, Silvério José Néri. The Solimões operated on the Rio Purus and seized the vessel Alonso, which was renamed Ruy Barbosa. Carvalho Rodrigo became president of the newly declared Republic of Acre, whose forces had a light cannon, a machine gun and about 200 men. Around Christmas 1900, this force attacked Puerto Alonso and was defeated by the Bolivian military, resulting in the loss of a dozen men and the machine gun, eventually leading to the dissolution of the republic. On December 29, the Bolivian vessel Rio Afua strengthened the garrison of Puerto Alonso.

Although the two countries deny the agreement with the United States previously mentioned, on June 11, 1901 Bolivia signed a lease with a Bolivian Trading Company (also known as "Bolivian Syndicate of New York City", or simply "Bolivian Syndicate"), based in Jersey City, New Jersey. The company had some very influential shareholders, including the king of Belgium and relatives of William McKinley, then president of the United States. Bolivia had given the company almost total control over the Acre province to protect its sovereignty. Under the agreement, the group of U.S. and British capitalists would assume total control over the region, occupying and exploiting it for 30 years. At that time Bolivia was ruled by General Jose Manuel Pando. The number of Brazilians in the region grew, searching forest wealth, mainly in the northeast.

Brazil and Peru, which also claimed the territory, strongly disapproved of the lease act. Brazil withdrew the consul of Puerto Alonso and closed the tributaries of the Amazon River to trade with Bolivia. The international powers, who considered the basin as international waters, protested, leading Brazil to reduce the ban to war materials and release the Bolivian goods addressed to foreign nations.

Placido1
José Plácido de Castro (foto de Percy Fawcett, 1907).

At 26 years old, having fought in the Federalist Riograndense Revolution, the gaucho José Plácido de Castro came to Amazon. In 1902, rubber tappers made a deal with Castro. The military, believing that it could profit from the border struggle, offered Castro to train and command 2000 tappers to fight the Bolivians. At 5 o'clock in the morning of August 6, 1902 Castro led 33 riflemen in canoes on the Acre River. Castro quietly entered a wooden house in the city of Xapuri, in which the Bolivian quartermaster depot was based. Soon, Castro took possession of the site and imprisoned the Bolivian military personnel. The local people mistook the group as part of the celebrations of the Bolivian Independence Day.

On September 18, a Bolivian battalion of 180 men, led by Colonel Rosendo Rojas, surprised the forces of Castro, which now had about 70 men. The Brazilians, armed with Winchester rifles, low on ammunition and suffering from tropical diseases and desertions, lost twenty men and were defeated.

Castro then recruited another force, with about a thousand men. Part of that force besieged the city of Puerto Alonso on May 19, 1902. On October 14, the force captured some external fortifications and captured the Río Afua, which wrecked on the island during the fighting. The river vessel, renamed Independence, was used against its former owners. Despite the setback, the Bolivians obstinately kept Puerto Alonso.

Elsewhere, the Brazilian adventurers besieged Company, which capitulated on 15 October. Other battles, almost all won by the forces of Plácido occurred in Bom Destino, Santa Rosa and other coastal cities. On January 15, 1903, the Brazilian force attacked and captured some positions out of Puerto Alonso. The Independence, anchored upriver, was charged with thirty tons of high quality rubber, and focused on the passage by the Bolivian batteries to bring the river rubber down, which could be sold. The Plácido forces used the money to buy weapons and ammunition. On January 24, the Bolivians in Puerto Alonso surrendered to the rebels, who had taken the entire region. Three days later, on January 27, the Third Republic of Acre was proclaimed, now with the support of President Rodrigues Alves and his Foreign Minister, the Baron of Rio Branco, who ordered the Acre occupation and established a military government under the command of General Olimpio da Silveira.

The besieging force advanced towards the place where the rivers Chipamanu (also called Manuripe) and Tahuamanu meet to form the Rio Orton. Soon, a Bolivian force under the command of General Jose Manuel Pando, the Bolivian President, took the opposite bank. However, before it did any significant combat, as a result of the excellent work of diplomacy by the Baron of Rio Branco, the governments of Brazil and Bolivia signed a preliminary treaty on March 21, 1903; finally ratifying the Treaty of Petrópolis on November 11, 1903.

By said treaty Bolivia gave up Acre in exchange for Brazilian territory from the State of Mato Grosso, the payment of 2 million pounds (~ 640 million reales) and the promise to construct the Madeira-Mamoré Railroad; linking the Mamoré River and the Madeira River in order to allow the flow of regional production, particularly rubber. Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brazil actively participated in the negotiations with Bolivia, representing the Brazilian government in its signature. The Bolivian Syndicate was compensated with 110,000 pounds (~ $35 million reales). The taxes collected from Brazilian Acre financed the damages and the loan for the construction of the railway over a course of 30 years.

The first of Placido Castro`s decrees took place on January 26, 1903, applying Brazilian law until the enactment of a state constitution. It considered valid all land titles issued by Bolivia or the state of Amazonas, defined the Portuguese language as official and adopted the Brazilian monetary standard.

The Treaty of Petrópolis, signed in 1903 by the Baron of Rio Branco and Assis Brazil, was approved by Brazilian federal law on February 25, 1904, and regulated by a presidential decree of April 7, 1904, incorporating Acre as part of Brazil. Placido de Castro, who died on August 11, 1908, was the first president of the Acre Territory. Castro, the Baron of Rio Branco and Assis Brazil became namesakes of the state capital (Rio Branco) and two counties (Assis Brazil and Plácido de Castro).

The Acrean Revolution demonstrated Brazil's advantage over their neighbors because of its downstream location in relation to the rivers that run almost the entire continent, being born in the Andes and flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil could send reinforcements to the disputed area by the rivers, while the Bolivians had to cross the Andes.

Apparently the Bolivian effort was fully funded by the rubber barons, particularly Nicolás Suárez Callaú. For the second time, Bolivia lost in a war of their plains populated sparsely for a stronger and well managed neighbor (the first was in the War of the Pacific).

Treaty of Petrópolis

In 1877 the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship". or Ayacucho Bolivia Treaty. had yielded 164.242 square kilometers of area which were annexed by Brazil to the then-province and present state of Amazonas. The Treaty of Petrópolis is a peace treaty signed between Bolivia and Brazil in the Brazilian city of Petrópolis on November 17, 1903. Bolivia yielded an approximate area of 191,000 square kilometers, which mainly correspond to the current state of Acre, Brazil.

External links

Acre (state)

Acre (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈakɾi]) is a state located in the northern region of Brazil. Located in the westernmost part of the country with a two hours time difference from Brasília, Acre is bordered clockwise by Amazonas to the north and northeast, Rondônia to the east, the Bolivian department of Pando to the southeast, and the Peruvian regions of Madre de Dios, Ucayali and Loreto to the south and west. It occupies an area of 152,581.4 km2, being slightly smaller than Tunisia.

Its capital and largest city is Rio Branco. Other important places include Cruzeiro do Sul, Sena Madureira, Tarauacá and Feijó.

The intense extractive activity, which reached its height in the 20th century, attracted Brazilians from many regions to the state. From the mixture of sulista, Southeast Brazil, nordestino, and indigenous traditions arose a diverse cuisine, which unites sun-dried meat (carne-de-sol) with pirarucu, a typical fish of the region. Such dishes are seasoned with tucupi, a sauce made from manioc.

Fluvial transport, concentrated on the Juruá and Moa rivers, in the western part of the state, and the Tarauacá and Envira Rivers in the northwest, is the principal form of circulation, especially between November and June, when the rain leaves the BR-364 impassable, which connects Rio Branco to Cruzeiro do Sul.

Assis Brasil

Assis Brasil is a municipality located in the south of the Brazilian state of Acre. Its population is 5351 (as of 2007) and its area is 2,876 square kilometres (1,110 sq mi).

The municipality contains part of the Rio Acre Ecological Station.

It also contains part of the 931,537 hectares (2,301,880 acres) Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, a sustainable use environmental unit created in 1990.

Bolivia

Bolivia ( (listen), Spanish: [boˈliβja]; Guarani: Mborivia [ᵐboˈɾiʋja]; Quechua: Puliwya [pʊlɪwja]; Aymara: Wuliwya [wʊlɪwja]), officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia [esˈtaðo pluɾinasjoˈnal de βoˈliβja]) is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre while the seat of government and financial center is located in La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (tropical lowlands) a mostly flat region in the east of Bolivia.

The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America and the 27th largest in the world.

The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages.

Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines.

After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879. Bolivia remained relatively politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer; Torres was murdered in Buenos Aires, Argentina by a right-wing death squad in 1976. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and later returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001.

Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America; however, it remains the second poorest country in South America. It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, and one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, including tin, silver, and lithium.

Bolivian Colorados Regiment

The 1st Regiment of Foot Infantry "Bolivian Colorados" National Presidential Escort Regiment (Regimiento 1ro. de Infanteria "Colorados de Bolivia") of the Bolivian Army, formerly the 39th Line Infantry Battalion "Colorados" is one of the Army's oldest and most prestigious infantry regiments. It is headquartered in La Paz's Miraflores District, and is under the direct supervision of Bolivian Army headquarters.

Established in 1821, this regiment is mostly a ceremonial unit, being the escort security regiment of the President of Bolivia. This is the Bolivian Army's most represented unit, having a close connection with the Bolivian people, whatever their race, and has a contribution to national history.

Brazil

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, listen ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the eighth largest GDP in the world by both nominal and PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Brazilian Army

The Brazilian Army (Portuguese: Exército Brasileiro) is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it also had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s.Domestically, besides having faced several rebellions throughout these two centuries, with support of local political and economic elites, it also ended the monarchy and imposed on the rest of society its political views and economic development projects during the periods that it ruled the country: 1889–94, 1930–50 (First Vargas period and Dutra years), and 1964–85.

Ismael Montes

Ismael Montes Gamboa (5 October 1861 – 16 October 1933) was a Bolivian general and political figure. He served as the President of Bolivia between 1904 and 1909 and once again between 1913 and 1917.

Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil

Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil (29 July 1857 – 24 December 1938) was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, diplomat, writer and poet. He founded the Liberator Party and was a supporter of republicanism.Together with the Baron of Rio Branco, he signed the Treaty of Petrópolis, which passed the territory of Acre to Brazilian control after the Acre War. The Acrean municipality of Assis Brasil was named after him.

Assis Brasil also introduced livestock to Brazil, including the Jersey cattle, the Devon cattle, the Karakul sheep and the Arabian horse, and contributed to the improvement of the Thoroughbred.

José Manuel Pando

José Manuel Inocencio Pando Solares (27 December 1849 – 17 June 1917) was President of Bolivia between October 1899 and August 1904. Born in Luribay (Department of La Paz), he studied medicine, joined the army during the War of the Pacific against Chile (1879–80), and later dedicated himself to exploring his country's vast and thinly populated lowland forests. In the 1880s he joined the Liberal Party of Eliodoro Camacho (in opposition until 1899), becoming its leader in 1894. Pando served as Congressional Representative from Chuquisaca during the administration of Severo Fernández (1896–99) and was the nucleus around which coalesced the increasingly more vocal and seditious efforts of the Liberal Party to topple the Conservatives from power.

Civil War finally erupted in 1899, under the guise of a regional dispute regarding whether Sucre should continue to be the capital of the country or the latter should be moved to La Paz. At this point, Pando's Liberals rallied around the movement to declare La Paz the capital and gathered considerable popular support behind the idea of turning hitherto unitary Bolivia into a federal republic. An undeniable fatigue of the populace against the Conservatives, who had monopolized power (often by means of electoral fraud) since 1884, was also probably a deciding factor in the upcoming denouement. After routing the Conservatives at the Battle of the Second Crucero, fought in Oruro province and quaintly pitting forces led directly by Pando (the Liberals/Federalists) against President Fernández, Pando became President. He did so first as member of a transitional Liberal Junta and then as sole leader when a hastily convened Congress (1900) named him Constitutional President with a full 4-year term. This kicked off a period of 20-plus years of Liberal domination in Bolivian politics.

Pando's first task was to pacify the country in the wake of the bloody 1899 Revolution, which included the repression of the indigenous rural populations of La Paz and Oruro that had been previously mobilized to fight alongside the Liberal forces, essentially as useful cannon fodder. This done, the President tackled the thorny issue of determining the national capital and settling the federal issue. At the time, La Paz was clearly the largest and most powerful city in the country, but Sucre had the legal titles and the tradition. Rather deftly, Pando acquiesced to making La Paz the permanent seat of the Bolivian government but retained Sucre's status as the official capital, thus sparing everyone's feelings.

Despite the eruption of the brief Acre War against Brazil in 1903, in which Bolivia lost considerable but almost depopulated territory in its Northern frontier, Pando's term was as a whole rather peaceful, as he proved to be a popular leader. The main Liberal plank was not too different from that of the Conservatives in that it was pro-free trade and elitist (native Bolivians did not have the vote and hardly participated in the political affairs of the nation at all). On the other hand, some concessions were made to the masses, including the institution of a modest program of education for Indians. Also, the new party in power established freedom of religion and recognized civil marriages, fostering some friction with the Catholic Church.

In 1904, he transferred the Presidential sash to Ismael Montes, also of the Liberal Party, elected in that year's presidential elections.

Despite the emergence of Montes as the new "caudillo" of the Liberal Party, Pando remained universally respected—and increasingly critical of Montes and his efforts to perpetuate himself at the head of the movement. He was especially unhappy with Montes' alleged manipulation of the 1908 elections (which he annulled) and his re-election and return to power for the 1913-17 period. In 1915, Pando and a number of discontented Liberals and former Conservatives formed the Republican Party. It would be at first severely repressed by Montes and his successor, José Gutiérrez, but would eventually come to power in 1920. Pando saw none of this, however, for he was assassinated near La Paz in June 1917. His murder was never fully clarified, but it was largely attributed to the governing (Liberal) elites associated with Montes and Gutiérrez, only increasing the appeal of the Republicans.

In 1950, a monument commemorating José Manuel Pando was placed in the Cementerio General in La Paz, Bolivia.

José Plácido de Castro

José Plácido de Castro (9 September 1873 – 11 August 1908) was a Brazilian soldier, surveyor, rubber producer and politician who led the armed revolt during the Acre War of 1902–03, when the Republic of Acre broke away from Bolivia. He was the president of the state of Acre just before and after it was purchased by Brazil. After the war he became extremely wealthy as a rubber producer, and made many enemies. He was assassinated in 1908. He is considered a hero of Brazil.

List of wars involving Bolivia

This is a list of wars fought by independent Bolivia from 1809 to 1967.

List of wars involving Brazil

This is a list of wars, rebellions and conflicts involving Brazil from the colonial period to the present day.

Pando Department

Pando is a department in the North of Bolivia, with an area of 63,827 square kilometres (24,644 sq mi), in the Amazon Rainforest, adjoining the border with Brazil and Perú. Pando has a population 110,436 (2012 census). Its capital is the city of Cobija.

The department, which is named after former president José Manuel Pando (1899–1905), is divided into five provinces.

Although Pando is rich in natural resources, the poverty level of its inhabitants is high, due largely to the lack of roads effectively linking the province to the rest of the country. In addition, residents suffer from debilitating effects of tropical diseases, typical of life in the Amazonian rain forest. The main economic activities are agriculture, timber and cattle.

At an altitude of 280 metres above sea level in the northwestern jungle region, Pando is located in the rainiest part of Bolivia. Pando has a hot climate, with temperatures commonly above 26 degrees Celsius (80 Fahrenheit).

Pando is the least populous department in Bolivia, the most tropical (lying closest to the Equator in the Amazonian Basin), and the most isolated, due to an absence of effective roads. It was organized at the beginning of the 20th century from what was left of the Acre Territory, lost to Brazil as a result of the so-called Acre War (1903). Its capital city of Cobija (the smallest of all the Bolivian departmental capitals) was named after the much-lamented Bolivian port of the same name on the Pacific Ocean, part of an area lost to Chile following the War of the Pacific.

Although backward and remote, Pando is densely forested and close to navigable waterways leading to the Amazon River and from there on to the Atlantic Ocean. The department had a rubber boom in the late 19th century and early 20th century, along with the northern part of nearby Beni department. The local industry collapsed under competition with rubber cultivated in Southeast Asia, as well as the discovery and manufacture of synthetic rubber.

Culturally, the Pandinos are considered part of the so-called Camba culture of the Bolivian lowlands, similar to the people of the country's other two tropical departments, Beni and Santa Cruz. Many of Pando's original settlers moved from nearby Beni.

Plácido de Castro, Acre

Plácido de Castro is a municipality located in the east of the Brazilian state of Acre on the border with Bolivia.

Roberto Suárez Goméz

Roberto Suárez Goméz (January 8, 1932 – July 20, 2000), sometimes spelled Roberto Suárez Gómez, also known as the King of Cocaine, was a Bolivian drug lord and trafficker who played a major role in the expansion of cocaine trafficking in Bolivia. At his prime, Suárez made $400 million annually, was one of the major suppliers of the Medellin Cartel as well as the leader of the largest Bolivian drug empire, and was considered to be the biggest cocaine producer in the world.Born to a prominent family, Suárez entered the drug trade and made millions from cocaine in the 1970s and 1980s. He is known for financing the 1980 coup d'état, known as the "Cocaine Coup", and was a major supplier of cocaine for various criminal organizations. Suárez was arrested in 1988 and was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but was released after serving half his sentence. He died in July 20, 2000 from a heart attack.

São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul

São Gabriel is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Xapuri

Xapuri (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʃapuˈɾi]) is a municipality located in the southeast of the Brazilian state of Acre.

It was the scene of an early bloodless victory during the war to make Acre independent of Bolivia. The town is known as the birthplace of the rubber tapper, Dr. Adib Domingos Jatene and the environmentalist Chico Mendes.

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