Achterhooks

Achterhooks (Dutch: Achterhoeks, Dutch Low Saxon: Achterhooks) is a Dutch Low Saxon dialect spoken in Gelderland.

Achterhooks
Aachterhoeks, Achterhoek
Native toNetherlands
RegionAchterhoek
Official status
Official language in
The Netherlands
Language codes
ISO 639-3act
Glottologacht1238[1]

Geographic distribution

The Achterhooks language is spoken in the Netherlands in western Europe, Northeast, with speakers concentrated in Gelderland Province.[2]

Status

The language was recognized by the government of the Netherlands in 1996 (as being part of Low Saxonian).[2]

The speech variety has had some growth and development, with Bible portions translated in 2002.[2]

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Achterhoeks". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c Achterhooks at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Achterhoek

The Achterhoek (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɑxtərɦuk]; Dutch Low Saxon: Achterhook) is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands.

Its name (meaning "rear-corner") is geographically appropriate because the area lies in the easternmost part of Gelderland, and therefore in the east of the Netherlands, protruding into Germany. The Achterhoek area lies between the rivers IJssel and Oude IJssel, and the borders with the province of Overijssel and Germany the former region of Zutphen County. The region is predominantly rural, with much open space, forests and farms. The area around the town of Winterswijk is regarded as very beautiful. A well-known beer originates from this region: Grolsch beer was first brewed in Groenlo in 1615.

Dutch Low Saxon

Dutch Low Saxon (Dutch: Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography. The UNESCO Atlas of endangered languages lists the language as vulnerable. Between 1995 and 2011 the numbers of speakers of parents dropped from 34% in 1995 to 15% in 2011. Numbers of speakers of their children dropped in the same period from 8% to 2%.

Dutch language

Dutch (Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands (where it is the sole official language) and Belgium (as one of three official languages). It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it also holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany, and in Indonesia, while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined. The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia.Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them. Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system. Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order. Dutch vocabulary is mostly Germanic and incorporates slightly more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English. As with German, the vocabulary of Dutch also has strong similarities with the continental Scandinavian languages, but is not mutually intelligible in text or speech with any of them.

List of European rivers with alternative names

Many rivers in Europe have alternative names in different languages. Some rivers have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known alternative names for all major European rivers. It also includes some lesser rivers that are important because of their location or history.

This article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real", or "correct" name of any river is or was. Rivers are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name, and then by any historical variants and former names.

Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents may be listed, to provide an answer to the question "What is that name in...?".

List of Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition) languages and dialects spoken by about or more than three billion and 500 million people (roughly half of the world population). Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family. Therefore, Indo-European is the biggest language family in the world by number of mother tongue speakers (but not by number of languages in which it is the 3rd or 5th biggest). Eight of the top ten biggest languages, by number of native speakers, are Indo-European. One of these languages, English, is the De facto World Lingua Franca with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.

Each subfamily or linguistic branch in this list contains many subgroups and individual languages.

Indo-European language family has 10 known branches or subfamilies, of which eight are living and two are extinct. The relation of Indo-European branches, how they are related to one another and branched from the ancestral proto-language is a matter of further research and not yet well known.

There are some individual Indo-European languages that are unclassified within the language family, they are not yet classified in a branch and could be members of their own branch.

The 449 Indo-European languages identified in the SIL estimate, 2018 edition, are mostly living languages, however, if all the known extinct Indo-European languages are added, they number more than 800. This list includes all known Indo-European languages, living and extinct.

A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar , pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility). Because of this, in this list, several dialect groups and some individual dialects of languages are shown (in italics), especially if a language is or was spoken by a large number of people and over a big land area, but also if it has or had divergent dialects.

The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP), at some time in the past, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP) expanded through migration and cultural influence. This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia.

This process gave origin to many languages and branches of this language family.

At the end of the second millennium BC Indo-European speakers were many millions and lived in a vast geographical area in most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).

In the following two millennia the number of speakers of Indo-European languages increased even further.

In geographical area, Indo-European languages remained spoken in big land areas, although most of western Central Asia and Asia Minor was lost to another language family (mainly Turkic) due to Turkic expansion, conquests and settlement (after the middle of the first millennium AD and the beginning and middle of the second millennium AD respectively) and also to Mongol invasions and conquests (that changed Central Asia ethnolinguistic composition). Another land area lost to non-Indo-European languages was today's Hungary due to Magyar/Hungarian (Uralic language speakers) conquest and settlement.

However, in the second half of the second millennium AD, Indo-European languages expanded their territories to North Asia (Siberia), through Russian expansion, and North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand as the result of the age of European discoveries and European conquests through the expansions of the Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and the Dutch (these peoples had the biggest continental or maritime empires in the world and their countries were major powers).

The contact between different peoples and languages, especially as a result of the European discoveries, also gave origin to the many pidgins, creoles and mixed languages that are mainly based in Indo-European languages (many of which are spoken in island groups and coastal regions).

Music of the Netherlands

the Netherlands has multiple musical traditions. Contemporary Dutch popular music (Nederpop) is heavily influenced by music styles that emerged in the 1950s, in the United Kingdom and United States. The style is sung in both Dutch and English. Some of the latter exponents, such as Golden Earring and Shocking Blue, have attained worldwide fame.

Another popular genre of Dutch music is known as "Levenslied", meaning "Song of/about life". These songs have catchy, simple rhythms and melodies, and are always built up on couplets and refrains. Themes are often sentimental and include love, death and loneliness. Traditional Dutch musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are essential to levenslied, though in recent years many levenslied artists also use synthesizers and guitars. Artists in this genre include Koos Alberts and the late André Hazes and Willy Alberti.

Dutch techno, hardstyle, gabber, trance and other styles in electronic dance music conquered the world. Most of the best-known DJs in the EDM scene (and the world) hail from the Netherlands, including Tiësto, Don Diablo, Armin van Buuren, Ferry Corsten, Sander van Doorn, Fedde le Grand, Hardwell, Showtek, Afrojack, Oliver Heldens, Ran-D and Martin Garrix all of whom consistently rank high in the DJ Mag Top 100 DJs and other rankings. The Amsterdam dance event (ADE) is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet. These artists also contribute significantly to the mainstream pop music played over the airwaves all around the world, as they frequently collaborate and produce for many notable artists.

Also hip-hop in the Dutch language (nederhop) is very popular in the Netherlands and Belgium.

New Saxon Spelling

The New Saxon Spelling (Low German/Low Saxon: Nysassiske Skryvwyse, NSS, "New Saxon Writing Method") is a Low German/Low Saxon spelling guideline for the entire Low German language area, on both sides of the Dutch–German border. While many other Low German spelling systems are based on local, dialectal pronunciations of Low German, the NSS aims for maximum readability and clarity across the entire Low German–speaking region, regardless of local pronunciation.

Benefits of the New Saxon Spelling include:

unambiguous spellings of Low German words

readability across the entire Low German–speaking area

equality for all Low German dialects, on both sides of the borderThe NSS can be seen as an extended version of the Algemeyne Schryvwys', which is suited mainly for only Northern Low German/Northern Low Saxon. The NSS also borrows from other, pronunciation-based spelling systems, and from the Middle Low German/Middle Saxon spelling conventions of the Hanseatic period.

The NSS was completed in 2018 by the Warkgruppe AS 2.0 ("Working Group AS 2.0"), a group of language enthusiasts from the Veluwe and Twente regions of the Netherlands, and East Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein in Germany.

Normaal

Normaal was a rock band from the Netherlands, more specifically from the Achterhoek region, who sung in Achterhooks, a local variety of the Low Saxon language group. Bennie Jolink, who was an arts student at an arts academy, stationed in Amsterdam in the 1970s, started the band in 1975 as a reaction to disco and glamrock, in addition to the overall "Dutch snobbery" towards people from the Low Saxon-speaking regions, and use of the English language by many other Dutch artists. "Normaal" meaning "normal", suggesting the same: "act normally". The band has since gained national fame, and have had more top 40 hits in the Dutch chart than any other Dutch band. Despite this fact, the band never reached number one. The music could be typified as "heavy country rock", and possibly as a rowdier version of ZZ Top or Status Quo.

Tweants dialect

Tweants (Tweants pronunciation: [tʋɛːn(t)s]; Dutch: Twents, pronounced [tʋɛnts]) is a group of non-standardised, closely related Westphalian, Dutch Low Saxon dialects, descending from Old Saxon. It is spoken daily by approximately 62% of the population of Twente, a region in the eastern Dutch province of Overijssel bordering on (Germany).

Tweants is part of the larger Low Saxon dialect continuum, spreading from the Veluwe region in the middle of the Netherlands to the German-Polish border. As a consequence, it shares many characteristics with surrounding dialects, such as Sallandic and Achterhooks in the Netherlands, and West-Munsterlandic in Germany.

All towns and villages in Tweante have their own local, but mutually intelligible variety. Due to this fragmentation and lack of a standard variety, many speakers of Tweants call it by the locality their variety is from (e.g. a person from Almelo would say they speak "Almeloos" rather than "Tweants"). Alternatively, speakers combine the names: a speaker from Rijssen could say they speak "Riessens Tweants".

In less precise circumstances, its speakers mostly call Tweants plat, which may either be an abbreviated form of Plattdeutsch, or a loanword from Dutch that means 'vernacular'. A widespread misconception is the assumption that it is a variety of Dutch. It is a variety of Dutch Low Saxon, recognised by the Dutch government as a regional language according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. As such, institutions dedicated to Tweants receive minor funding for its promotion and preservation.

Its revaluation as a dialect of Low Saxon rather than Standard Dutch is a relatively recent development. Due to ongoing stigmatisation, the use of the language declined in the decades following the Second World War. It was considered an inappropriate way of speaking, and thought to hinder children's language learning abilities and diminish their future prospects. Due to a general rise in regional pride, interests in preserving and promoting the language have risen, resulting in dialect writing competitions, teaching materials, festivals, and other culturally engaging projects.

Twente

Twente (English: Twenthe, Dutch: Twente [ˈtʋɛntə], Tweants dialect: Tweante) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands. It encompasses the most urbanised and easternmost part of the province of Overijssel. Twente is most likely named after the Tuihanti or Tvihanti, a Germanic tribe that settled in the area and was mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus. The region's borders are defined by the Overijssel region of Salland in the northwest and west (the river Regge roughly defines the western border), the German County of Bentheim in the northeast and east (the river Dinkel roughly defines the eastern border) and the Gelderland region of the Achterhoek in the south.

Twente has approximately 620,000 inhabitants, most of whom live in its three largest cities: Almelo, Hengelo and Enschede, the latter being the main city of the region. It comprises fourteen municipalities: Almelo, Borne, Dinkelland, Enschede, Haaksbergen, Hellendoorn, Hengelo, Hof van Twente, Losser, Oldenzaal, Rijssen-Holten, Tubbergen, Twenterand and Wierden. The whole of Hellendoorn and the western parts of both Rijssen-Holten and Twenterand historically belong to the cultural region of Salland, but to the city region of Twente.

West Low German

West Low German, also known as Low Saxon (German: Westniederdeutsch, literally West Low German, or Niedersächsisch (in a stricter sense), literally: Low Saxon, Nether-Saxon; Low German: Nedersassisch, Nedersaksies; Dutch: Nedersaksisch) is a group of Low German (also Low Saxon; German: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch, Dutch: Nederduits) dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark (in North Schleswig by the German minority). It is one of two groups of mutually intelligible dialects, the other being East Low German dialects.

Languages and dialects of Benelux

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