Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, acintyabhedābheda in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference. In Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable', bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'non-difference'. The Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition employs the term in relation to the relationship of creation and creator (Krishna, Svayam Bhagavan), between God and his energies. It is believed that this philosophy was taught by the movement's theological founder Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 - 1534) and differentiates the Gaudiya tradition from the other Vaishnava Sampradayas. It can be understood as an integration of the strict dualist (dvaita) theology of Madhvacharya and the qualified monism (vishishtadvaita) of Ramanuja.
Historically within Hinduism there are two conflicting philosophies regarding the relationship between living beings (Jiva or Atma) and God (Ishvara, Brahman or Bhagavan). Advaita schools assert the monistic view that the individual soul and God are one and the same, whereas Dvaita schools give the dualistic argument that the individual soul and God are eternally separate. The philosophy of Achintya-bheda-abheda includes elements of both viewpoints. The living soul is intrinsically linked with the Supreme Lord, and yet at the same time is not the same as God - the exact nature of this relationship being inconceivable to the human mind. The spirit Soul is considered to be part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Same in quality but not in quantity. The Supreme Lord Sri Hari having all opulence in fullness, the spirit soul however having only a partial expression of His divine opulence. The Lord in this context is compared to a fire and the spirit souls as sparks coming off of the flame.
The theological tenet of achintya-bheda-abheda tattva reconciles the mystery that God is simultaneously "one with and different from His creation". In this sense Vaishnava theology is panentheistic as in no way does it deny the separate existence of God (Vishnu) in His own personal form. However, at the same time, creation (or what is termed in Vaishnava theology as the 'cosmic manifestation') is never separated from God. He always exercises supreme control over his creation. Sometimes directly, but most of the time indirectly through his different potencies or energies (Prakrti). Examples are given of a spider and its web; earth and plants that come forth and hair on the body of human being.
"One who knows God knows that the impersonal conception and personal conception are simultaneously present in everything and that there is no contradiction. Therefore Lord Caitanya established His sublime doctrine: acintya bheda-and-abheda-tattva -- simultaneous oneness and difference." (A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada) The analogy often used as an explanation in this context in the relationship between the Sun and the Sunshine. For example, both the sun and sunshine are part of the same reality, but there is a great difference between having a beam of sunshine in your room, and being in close proximity to the sun itself. Qualitatively the Sun and the Sunshine are not different, but as quantities they are very different. This analogy is applied to the living beings and God - the Jiva being of a similar quality to the Supreme being, but not sharing the qualities to an infinite extent, as would the Personality of Godhead himself. Thus there is a difference between the souls and the Supreme Lord.
It is clearly distinguished from the concept of anirvacaniya (inexpressible) of Advaita Vedanta. There is a clear difference between the two concepts as the two ideas arise for different reasons. Advaita concept is related to the ontological status of the world, whereas both Svayam bhagavan and his shaktis (in Lord himself and his powers) are empirically real, and they are different from each other, but at the same time they are the same. But that does not negate the reality of both.
While it applied to relations between Purusha (the Lord) and Prakriti (be it material, marginal, or spiritual powers), in the theology of the concept there are areas of exceptions. Jiva Goswami also accepts that any object and its energy are non-different, such as fire and power of burning. While some maintain that its only a secondary extension of the principle that it is primarily applied to Svayam bhagavan and His energies. It does not, however, apply to differences between Avatars of Svayam bhagavan and Lord Himself, so the difference between Vishnu and His origin, is not covered by the concept of acintya bhedabheda, i.e. it cannot be applied in cases where different levels of Purusha are compared.
Apaurusheya (Sanskrit: अपौरुषेय, apauruṣeya, lit. means "not of a man"), meaning "superhuman"., or "impersonal, authorless", is a context used to describe the Vedas, the earliest scripture in Hinduism.Apaurusheya shabda ("impersonal words, authorless") is an extension of apaurusheya which refers to the Vedas and numerous other texts in Hinduism.Apaurusheya is a central concept in the Vedanta and Mimamsa schools of Hindu philosophy. These schools accept the Vedas as svatah pramana ("self-evident means of knowledge"). The Mimamsa school asserts that since the Vedas are composed of words (shabda) and the words are composed of phonemes, the phonemes being eternal, the Vedas are also eternal. To this, if asked whether all words and sentences are eternal, the Mimamsa philosophers reply that the rules behind combination of phonemes are fixed and pre-determined for the Vedas, unlike other words and sentences. The Vedanta school also accepts this line of argument.Bhedabheda
Bhedābheda Vedānta is a subschool of Vedānta, which teaches that the individual self (jīvātman) is both different and not different from the ultimate reality known as Brahman.Brahma Sampradaya
The Brahma Sampradaya (Brahma-sampradāya) refers to the disciplic succession (sampradaya) of gurus starting with Brahma. The term is most often used to refer to the beliefs and teachings of Madhvacharya and his Dvaita philosophy.
The term Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Vaisnava Sampradaya is used to refer to the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his Gaudiya theology.Dakṣiṇācāra
The term Dakshinachara (Right-Hand Path) is a technical term used to refer to Tantric sects that do not engage in heterodox practices. In contrast, Vamachara (Left-Hand Path) is used to describe particular tantric practices that are considered heterodox according to usual Hindu social norms.Gadadhara Pandita
Gadadhara Pandita, also known as Pandita Goswami, was a close associate of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Gadadhara Pandita Goswami is described as a handsome young boy, student of Nyaya (Indian logic) and ranked highest among the inner circle of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's followers.
Pandita Goswami is considered to be Radharani herself. In the later part of his life, Gadadhara Pandita lived in the Tota Gopinatha Temple.. The local legend around the temple is that the deity of Krishna in the temple sat down to accommodate Pandit Goswami's worship after he had become feeble due to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's departure. Others say that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Pandit Goswami disappeared on the same day inside the Gundicha Temple of Puri, Odisha .Hastamalakacharya
Hastamalakacharya (IAST Hastāmalakācārya) (c. 8th century CE) was a disciple of Adi Shankara, the Advaita philosopher. He was made the first Jagadguru (head) of the Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ, the monastery founded by Adi Shankara in Dwaraka. Hastamalaka founded a matha by name Idayil Matham in Thrissur, Kerala.Jiva Goswami
Jiva Goswami (Sanskrit: जीव गोस्वामी, Jīva Gosvāmī; c. 1513 – 1598) was a Hindu philosopher and saint from the Gaudiya Vaishnava school of Vedanta tradition, producing a great number of philosophical works on the theology and practice of Bhakti yoga, Vaishnava Vedanta and associated disciplines. He was a member of Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, being the nephew of the two leading figures, Rupa Goswami and Sanatana Goswami.List of teachers of Nyaya
This is a list of teachers of Nyaya (including Navya-Nyāya), one of the six astika Hindu philosophical systems.
Radhamohan Vidyavachaspati Goswami
Kalishankar Siddhantavagish (1781-1830)
Golaknath Nyayaratna (1807-1855)List of teachers of Vedanta
This is a list of teachers of Vedanta, a Hindu philosophical system.Mahanirvani Akhara
Mahanirvani Akhara or Shri Panchayati Akhada Mahanirvani (श्री पंचायती अखाड़ा महानिर्वाणी in Sanskrit and Hindi) is a Shaivite shastradhari (spiritual script bearer) Akhada. It is one of the 3 major (7 in total) shastradhari akhadas as per the ancient Vedic Hindu tradition.Para Brahman
Para Brahman (Sanskrit:परब्रह्मन्) (IAST: Para Brahman) is the "Highest Brahman" that which is beyond all descriptions and conceptualisations. It is described in Hindu texts as the formless (in the sense that it is devoid of Maya) spirit (soul) that eternally pervades everything, everywhere in the universe and whatever is beyond.Hindus conceptualize the Para Brahman in diverse ways. In the Advaita Vedanta tradition, Nirguna Brahman (Brahman without attributes) is Para Brahman. In Dvaita and Vishistadvaita Vedanta traditions, Saguna Brahman (Brahman with qualities) is Para Brahman. In Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism, Adi Narayana, Parama Shiva and Adi Shakti respectively are Para Brahman.Prabhākara
Prabhākara (active c. 7th century) was an Indian philosopher-grammarian in the Mīmāṃsā tradition. His views and his debate with Kumārila Bhaṭṭa led to the Prābhākara school within Mīmāṃsā. The Prābhākara school is considered to be nastik (atheistic) or Lokayata school. Kumārila said: For in practice the Mimamsa has been for the most part converted into a Lokayata system; But I have made this effort to bring it into a theistic path.Śālikanātha wrote commentaries on Prabhākara in the 8th century.Raseśvara
Raseśvara was a Shaiva philosophical tradition which arose around the 1st century CE. It advocated the use of mercury to make the body immortal. This school was based on the texts Rasārṇava, Rasahṛidaya and Raseśvarasiddhānta, composed by Govinda Bhagavat and Sarvajña Rāmeśvara.Sadikshah Qadri
Sadik Baba of Pashan
Gulam Ghous Qadri Sadikshah baba (Also known as Sadguru Sadikbaba 10 June 1918 – 3 Sep 1978 guru Sadik baba.Saguna brahman
Saguna Brahman (lit. "The Absolute with qualities") came from the Sanskrit saguṇa (सगुण) "with qualities, gunas" and Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) "the Absolute", close to the concept of immanence, the manifested divine presence.Satadushani
Satadushani is a work written by Vedanta Desika who lived in the 12th century. He is considered as one among the most illustrious Acharya of the Vaishnavite tradition and is the leader of the Vadagalai sect of the Vaishnavas. Though the title of the work suggests hundred refutations, only 66 of them are now available. Satadushani is a work of logic otherwise called as Tarka in Hindu philosophy. It is a refutation of the nirvesesha Advaita of Sankaracharya. It establishes the validity of the Vishishtadvaita philosophy of Ramanuja as against the Advaita of sankara. It is said that at the age of around 50 or 55 Vedanta Desika was invited by his disciples at Srirangam to engage in a polemical debate with a group of Advaitins from North India. The arguments made in the form of refutations against these men are said to be the content of this work. The late Surendranath Dasgupta in his magnum opus The history of Indian Philosophy has allotted almost 40 pages for this particular book of Vedanta Desika in the third volume of the series. The late R. Kesava Aiyangar, a senior advocate of the Supreme Court of India has written an exhaustive introduction to this work in English for the book titled Vedanta Desika's Satadushani by Srivatsankacharya.Shankara Vijayam
Shankara Vijayams (IAST Śaṃkaravijayaṃ) are traditional biographies of the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankara. The main Shankaravijayams are:
Madhavīya Shankaravijayam (of Madhava, c. 14th century)
Anandagirīya Shankaravijayam (of Anandagiri, not extant)
Cidvilāsīya Shankaravijayam (of Chidvilasa, c. between 15th century and 17th century
Keralīya Shankaravijayam (extant in Kerala, c. 17th century)
Anantanadagiri Shankaravijayam (extant from 15th century, but controversial in nature)Vinaya Patrika
Vinaya Patrika (Letter of petition) is a devotional poem composed by the 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. 1532 – c. 1623), containing hymns to different Hindu deities especially to Lord Rama in extreme humility (Vinaya).The language of the text is Braj Bhasha.Vinaya Patrika is an important work of medieval Hindi Literature and Bhakti movement.Īśvarism
Īśvarism is one of the religious streams in Hinduism along with other streams such as Brahmanism, Jainism, Buddhism and Lokayata.