Achatina fulica

Achatina fulica is a species of large land snail that belongs in the family Achatinidae. It is also known as the African giant snail or giant African snail or giant African land snail.[1][2] It shares the common name "giant African snail" with other species of snails such as Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata.

This snail species has been considered a significant cause in pest issues around the world. Internationally, it is the most frequently occurring invasive species of snail.[3]

Outside of its native range, this snail thrives in many types of habitat in areas with mild climates. It feeds voraciously and is a vector for plant pathogens, causing severe damage to agricultural crops and native plants. It competes with native snail taxa, is a nuisance pest of urban areas, and spreads human disease.[1] This snail is listed as one of the top 100 invasive species in the world.[4]

Achatina fulica
Snail in Ubud, Bali, 2010 (1)
Achatina fulica in Ubud, Bali
Scientific classification
A. fulica
Binomial name
Achatina fulica
(Férussac, 1821)
  • Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Férussac, 1821)· accepted, alternate representationAchatina fulica (Férussac, 1821)
  • Achatina hamillei Petit, 1859 (junior synonym)
  • Helix (Cochlitoma) fulica Férussac, 1821 (basionym)
  • Helix fulica Férussac, 1821 (original combination)
  • Lissachatina fulica (Férussac, 1821)


Subspecies within this species:

  • Achatina fulica hamillei Petit, 1859[5]
  • Achatina fulica rodatzi Dunker, 1852
  • Achatina fulica sinistrosa Grateloup, 1840
  • Achatina fulica umbilicata Nevill, 1879


The species is native to East Africa,[5] but it has been widely introduced to other parts of the world through the pet trade, as a food resource, and by accidental introduction.[6]

This species has been found in China since 1931[7] and its initial point of distribution in China was Xiamen.[8] The snail has also been established in the Pratas Islands, of Taiwan,[9] throughout India, the Pacific, Indian Ocean islands, Southeast Asia[10][6] and the West Indies. The species was established in the United States in 1936. They were brought to the U. S. through imports. They were intended to be used for educational uses and to be pets. Some were also introduced because they were accidentally shipped with other cargo.[11] Eradication is currently underway in Florida.[12]

The species has recently been observed in Bhutan (Gyelposhing, Mongar), where it is an invasive species. It has begun to attack agricultural fields and flower gardens. It is believed there that dogs have died as a result of consuming the snail and being infected by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis.


The adult snail is around 7 centimetres (2.8 in) in height and 20 centimetres (7.9 in) or more in length.

The shell has a conical shape, being about twice as high as it is broad. Either clockwise (dextral) or counter-clockwise (sinistral) directions can be observed in the coiling of the shell, although the right-handed (dextral) cone is the more common. Shell colouration is highly variable, and dependent on diet. Typically, brown is the predominant colour and the shell is banded.[13] The shell is particularly tough and has the highest heavy metal content of any snail species.

Achatina fulica shell 2
Apertural view of the shell
Achatina fulica shell 3
Lateral view of the shell
Achatina fulica shell 4
Abapertural view of the shell
Achatina fulica shell 5

Adult shell size range

Two achatinas

Adult and juvenile

Achatina fulica shell 6

Three shells of increasing maturity



The giant African snail is native to East Africa, and can be traced back to Kenya and Tanzania. It is a highly invasive species, and colonies can be formed from a single gravid individual. In many places, release into the wild is illegal. Nonetheless, the species has established itself in some temperate climates and its habitat now includes most regions of the humid tropics, including many Pacific islands, southern and eastern Asia, and the Caribbean. The giant snail can now be found in agricultural areas, coastland, natural forest, planted forests, riparian zones, scrub and shrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.


Achatina fulica
Feeding on Crinum leaves

The giant African snail is a macrophytophagous herbivore; it eats a wide range of plant material, fruit, and vegetables. It will sometimes eat sand, very small stones, bones from carcasses and even concrete as calcium sources for its shell. In rare instances the snails will consume each other.

In captivity, this species can be fed on a wide range of fruit and vegetables, plain unseasoned mince or boiled egg. They can also occasionally be fed cuttlefish bone, which is commonly used as a calcium source for healthy shell growth. It requires about 18.28% of crude protein in its diet for optimal growth.[14]

Life cycle

This species is a simultaneous hermaphrodite; each individual has both testes and ovaries and is capable of producing both sperm and ova. Instances of self-fertilization are rare, occurring only in small populations. Although both snails in a mating pair can simultaneously transfer gametes to each other (bilateral mating), this is dependent on the size difference between the partners. Snails of similar size will reproduce in this way. Two snails of differing sizes will mate unilaterally (one way), with the larger individual acting as a female. This is due to the comparative resource investment associated with the different genders.

Like other land snails, these have intriguing mating behaviour, including petting their heads and front parts against each other. Courtship can last up to half an hour, and the actual transfer of gametes can last for two hours. Transferred sperm can be stored within the body for up to two years. The number of eggs per clutch averages around 200. A snail may lay five to six clutches per year with a hatching viability of about 90%.

Adult size is reached in about six months, after which growth slows, but does not cease until death. Life expectancy is commonly five or six years in captivity, but the snails can live for up to ten years. They are active at night and spend the day buried underground.

Fresh eggs
Achatina fulica eggs
Hatching from eggs
Little achatina
Juvenile snail

The giant African snail is capable of aestivating for up to three years in times of extreme drought, sealing itself into its shell by secretion of a calcerous compound that dries on contact with the air.


Parasites of Achatina fulica include:

As an invasive species

In many places this snail is a pest of agriculture and households with the ability to transmit both human and plant pathogens. Suggested preventive measures include strict quarantine to prevent introduction and further spread. This snail has been given top national quarantine significance in the United States.[17] In the past, quarantine officials have been able to successfully intercept and eradicate incipient invasions on the mainland USA.[18]

In the wild, this species often harbors the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which can cause a very serious meningitis in humans. Human cases of this meningitis usually result from a person having eaten the raw or undercooked snail, but even handling live wild snails of this species can infect a person with the nematode and thus cause a life-threatening infection.[19]

In some regions, an effort has been made to promote use of the giant African snail as a food resource in order to reduce its populations. However, promoting a pest in this way is a controversial measure, because it may encourage the further deliberate spread of the snails.

One particularly catastrophic attempt to biologically control this species occurred on South Pacific Islands. Colonies of A. fulica were introduced as a food reserve for the American military during World War II and they escaped. A carnivorous species (Florida rosy wolfsnail, Euglandina rosea) was later introduced by the United States government, in an attempt to control A. fulica but the rosy wolf snail instead heavily preyed upon the native Partula, causing the extinction of most Partula species within a decade.

Human use

Lissachatina fulica pet '"Morgan" by PaleoGeek
Individual being kept as a pet

Achatina fulica are used by some practitioners of Candomblé for religious purposes in Brazil as an offering to the deity Oxalá. The snails substitute for a closely related species, the African giant snail (Archachatina marginata) normally offered in Nigeria. The two species share a common name (Ìgbín, also known as ibi or boi-de-oxalá in Brazil), and are similar enough in appearance to satisfy religious authorities.[20] They are also edible if cooked properly.[21] In Taiwan, this species is used in the dish of 炒螺肉 (Hot Frying snails) which is a delicacy among the traditional drinking snacks. L. fulica also constitutes the predominant land snail found in Chinese markets.[22]

The snails have also become increasingly popular as pets,[23][24][25] such as in France and the UK,[26] the latter in which various companies have sold the animal both as a pet and means of education.[27] L. fulica is one of the most common snails being sold in the pet trade..

The heparinoid acharan sulfate is isolated from this species.[28]


This article incorporates CC BY-2.0 text from the reference.[20]

  1. ^ a b Achatina fulica. Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. IUCN.
  2. ^ Bouchet, P. (2016). Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821). In: MolluscaBase (2016). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2016-12-31
  3. ^ Thiengo, Silvania (September 21, 2006). "Rapid spread of invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulcia, in Brasil" (PDF). Biological Invasions. 9 (6): 693–702. doi:10.1007/s10530-006-9069-6.
  4. ^ View 100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species. Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. IUCN.
  5. ^ a b Rowson, B.; Warren, B.; Ngereza, C. (2010). "Terrestrial molluscs of Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, and its status as an "oceanic" island". ZooKeys. 70 (70): 1–39. doi:10.3897/zookeys.70.762. PMC 3088446. PMID 21594041.
  6. ^ a b Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Maria, Inna Mikaella P. Sta; Garcia, James Rainier M.; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M. (2014-09-09). "Restricted Genetic Variation in Populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands Points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the Earliest Known Common Source". PLOS ONE. 9 (9): e105151. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j5151F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105151. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4159197. PMID 25203830.
  7. ^ map of distribution in 2007 Archived 2012-09-06 at
  8. ^ Lv, S.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H. X.; Hu, L.; Yang, K.; Steinmann, P.; Chen, Z.; Wang, L. Y.; Utzinger, J. R.; Zhou, X. N. (2009). Knight, Matty, ed. "Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3 (2): e368. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000368. PMC 2631131. PMID 19190771. figure 5.
  9. ^ Wu S.-P., Hwang C.-C., Huang H.-M., Chang H.-W., Lin Y.-S. & Lee P.-F. (2007). "Land Molluscan Fauna of the Dongsha Island with Twenty New Recorded Species". Taiwania 52(2): 145-151. PDF Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng (2017-04-07). "Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia". ZooKeys. 682 (682): 1–94. doi:10.3897/zookeys.682.12999. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 5523159. PMID 28769723.
  11. ^ "National Agriculture Library". National Invasive Species Information Center. March 17, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  12. ^ Campo-Flores, Arian. October 4th, 2011. "Giant Alien Snails Attack Miami, Though They're Not in Much of a Rush: Eradication Teams Go House to House, Nabbing 10,000 Invaders; 'Crunch Under Our Feet'." Wall Street Journal. Link
  13. ^ Skelley, PE; Dixon, WN; and Hodges, G. 2011. Giant African land snail and giant South American snails: field recognition. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. PDF
  14. ^ (in Portuguese) Soares C. M., Hayashi C., Gonçalves G. S., Nagae M. Y. & Boscolo W. R. (1999). "Exigência de proteína para o caracol gigante (Achatina fulica) em fase de crescimento. Protein requirements for giant snail (Achatina fulica) during the growth phase". Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences 21(3): 683-686. abstract, PDF.
  15. ^ a b c Ohlweiler, F. P.; Guimarães, M. C. D. A.; Takahashi, F. Y.; Eduardo, J. M. (2010). "Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the State of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation". Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 52 (4): 211–214. doi:10.1590/S0036-46652010000400009. PDF.
  16. ^ a b c d (in Spanish) Libora M., Morales G., Carmen S., Isbelia S. & Luz A. P. (2010). "Primer hallazgo en Venezuela de huevos de Schistosoma mansoni y de otros helmintos de interés en salud pública, presentes en heces y secreción mucosa del molusco terrestre Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822). [First finding in Venezuela of Schistosoma mansoni eggs and other helminths of interest in public health found in faeces and mucous secretion of the mollusc Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)]. Zootecnia Tropical 28: 383-394. PDF.
  17. ^ Cowie, R. H.; Dillon, R. T.; Robinson, D. G.; Smith, J. W. (2009). "Alien non-marine snails and slugs of priority quarantine importance in the United States: A preliminary risk assessment" (PDF). American Malacological Bulletin. 27: 113–132. doi:10.4003/006.027.0210. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-16.
  18. ^ "PBS "Alien Invasion". Accessed on 6 January 2008". Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  19. ^ Kremer, William (2012-08-03). "African snail: Deadly invasion in South America". BBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  20. ^ a b Léo Neto, N. A.; Brooks, S. E.; Alves, R. M. R. (2009). "From Eshu to Obatala: Animals used in sacrificial rituals at Candomblé "terreiros" in Brazil". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 5: 23. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-23. PMC 2739163. PMID 19709402.
  21. ^ Hayward, Tim (2009-07-03). "African Land Snails Video". The Guardian. Guardian.
  22. ^ Lv, S.; Zhang, Y.; Steinmann, P.; Zhou, X.-N. (2008). "Emerging angiostrongyliasis in mainland China". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (1): 161–164. doi:10.3201/eid1401.061529. PMC 2600175. PMID 18258099.
  23. ^ "(PDF) Into the Andes: three new introductions of Lissachatina fulica (Gastropoda, Achatinidae) and its potential distribution in South America". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  24. ^ Vogler, Roberto E.; Beltramino, Ariel A.; Sede, Mariano M.; Gregoric, Diego E. Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Rumi, Alejandra (2013). "The Giant African Snail,Achatina fulica(Gastropoda: Achatinidae): Using Bioclimatic Models to Identify South American Areas Susceptible to Invasion". American Malacological Bulletin. 31 (1): 39–50. doi:10.4003/006.031.0115. ISSN 0740-2783.
  25. ^ "Giant snails invade, coat Florida in slime". MNN - Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  26. ^ Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Sta. Maria, Inna Mikaella P.; Garcia, James Rainier M.; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M. (2014-09-09). "Restricted Genetic Variation in Populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands Points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the Earliest Known Common Source". PLoS ONE. 9 (9): e105151. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j5151F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105151. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4159197. PMID 25203830.
  27. ^ Dickens, Katrina Leah; Capinera, John Lowell; Smith, Trevor Randall (2018). "Effects of Density and Food Deprivation on Growth, Reproduction, and Survival of Lissachatina fulica". American Malacological Bulletin. 36 (1): 57–61. doi:10.4003/006.036.0115. ISSN 0740-2783.
  28. ^ Gunay, NS; Linhardt, RJ (1999). "Heparinoids: structure, biological activities and therapeutic applications". Planta Med. 65 (4): 301–6. doi:10.1055/s-1999-13990. PMID 10364832.

External links


Achatina is a genus of medium-sized to very large, air-breathing, tropical land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Achatinidae.

Achatina achatina

Achatina achatina, common name the Giant Ghana African snail, also known as the Giant African snail and giant tiger land snail and gigantocochlea, is a species of very large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. The name "Achatina" is from "achates", Greek for agate. It shares the common name "giant African snail" with other species of snails such as Achatina fulica and Archachatina marginata.


Achatinidae (New Latin, from Greek "agate") is a family of medium to large sized tropical land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks from Africa.

Well known species include Achatina achatina the Giant African Snail, and Achatina fulica the Giant East African Snail.

As of 2011 there were recognized 176 extant species and subspecies in 16 genera within Achatinidae.


The Achatinoidea are a superfamily of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the informal group Sigmurethra.

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a species of nematode from the family Metastrongylidae.

Euglandina rosea

Euglandina rosea, common names the rosy wolfsnail or the cannibal snail, is a species of medium-sized to large predatory air-breathing land snail, a carnivorous terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Spiraxidae. This species is a fast and voracious predator, hunting and eating other snails and slugs. The rosy wolfsnail was introduced into Hawaii in 1955 as a biological control for the invasive African land snail, Achatina fulica. This snail is responsible for the extinction of an estimated eight native snail species in Hawaii. This has caused the snail to be added to the IUCN’s top 100 most invasive species.


The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (having no body cavity), and have no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously.

In traditional medicinal texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria, which are mostly non-parasitic animals such as planarians, and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic, this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments, such as leaf litter. Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates, and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic, segment-like proglottids that detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host.

Because they do not have internal body cavities, Platyhelminthes were regarded as a primitive stage in the evolution of bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry and hence with distinct front and rear ends). However, analyses since the mid-1980s have separated out one subgroup, the Acoelomorpha, as basal bilaterians—closer to the original bilaterians than to any other modern groups. The remaining Platyhelminthes form a monophyletic group, one that contains all and only descendants of a common ancestor that is itself a member of the group. The redefined Platyhelminthes is part of the Lophotrochozoa, one of the three main groups of more complex bilaterians. These analyses had concluded the redefined Platyhelminthes, excluding Acoelomorpha, consists of two monophyletic subgroups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora, with Cestoda, Trematoda and Monogenea forming a monophyletic subgroup within one branch of the Rhabditophora. Hence, the traditional platyhelminth subgroup "Turbellaria" is now regarded as paraphyletic, since it excludes the wholly parasitic groups, although these are descended from one group of "turbellarians".

Two planarian species have been used successfully in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, New Guinea, and Guam to control populations of the imported giant African snail Achatina fulica, which was displacing native snails. However, there is now concern that these planarians may themselves become a serious threat to native snails. In northwest Europe, there are concerns about the spread of the New Zealand planarian Arthurdendyus triangulatus, which preys on earthworms.


Heliciculture, also known as heliculture, commonly known as snail farming, is the process of raising land snails specifically for human use, either to use their flesh as edible escargot or, more recently, to obtain snail slime for use in cosmetics and snail eggs for human consumption as a type of caviar.

Perhaps the best known edible land snail species in the Western world is Helix pomatia (also known as Roman snail or Burgundy snail). This snail is located throughout much of Europe. Cornu aspersum (also known as Helix aspersa), the next most known, were found originally in the Mediterranean region, but are now also common in many parts of North America, Central America, and Australasia.

List of fauna of Batu Caves

The following species have been collected from the Dark Cave, Batu Caves, Selangor in Malaysia:

Pheretima indica (Haplotaxida: Magascolecidae)

Dichogaster sp. (Haplotaxida: Octochaetidae[1])

Dichogaster bolavi (Haplotaxida: Octochaetidae)

Sarax brachydactylus (Amblypygi: Tarantulidae)

Damarchus cavernicolus (Araneae: Ctenizidae)

Heteropoda robusta (Araneae: Heteropodidae)

Liphistius batuensis (Araneae: Liphistiidae)

Psiluderces crinitus (Araneae: Ochyroceratidae)

Spermophora miser (Araneae: Pholcidae)

Psechrus curvipalpus (Araneae: Psechridae)

Scytodes magnus (Araneae: Scytodidae)

Theriheridion rufipes (Araneae: Therididae)

Uloborus spelaeus (Araneae: Uloboridae)

Paracheyletia sp. (Eleutherengona: Cheyletidae)

Ornithodorus bauensis (Ixodida: Argasidae)

Belba sp. (Oribatida: Belbidae)

Galumna sp. (Oribatida: Galumnidae)

Vaghia sp. (Oribatida: Galumnidae)

Scheloribates exuvium (Oribatida: Oribatulidae)

Scheloribates sp. (Oribatida: Oribatulidae)

Trombicula batui (Parasitengona: Trombiculidae)

Trombicula insolli (Parasitengona: Trombiculidae)

Cryptocheiridium lucifugum (Pseudoscorpionida: Ideronicidae)

Dhanus sumatranus (Pseudoscorpionida: Ideronicidae)

Dhanus doveri (Pseudoscorpionida: Ideronicidae)

Cunaxa setirostris (Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae)

Scutigera decipiens (Scutigeromorpha: Cambalidae)

Glyphiulus sp. (Sphaerotheriida: Cambalidae)

Doratodesmus sp. (Sphaerotheriida: Cambalidae)

Brachystomella contorta (Collembola: Brachystomellidae)

Cunaxa spp. (Collembola: Cunaxidae)

Willemia nadchatrami (Collembola: Neogastruridae)

Aderus mcclurei (Coleoptera: Aderidae)

Euglenes batuensis (Coleoptera: Aderidae)

Euglenes cephalicus (Coleoptera: Aderidae)

Euglenes malayanus (Coleoptera: Aderidae)

Euglenes troglodytes (Coleoptera: Aderidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Aethriostoma undulata (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Trinodes sp. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Cardiophorus carduelis (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

Melanoxanthus near dohrni (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

Platynuchus sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Endomychidae)

Platycladoxena near angulosa (Coleoptera: Erotylidae)

Thallisellodes limbooliati (Coleoptera: Erotylidae)

Cercyon gebieni (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)

Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)

Lychnocrepis antricola (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Melyridae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Orthoperidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Pselaphidae)

Trox costatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Scydmaenidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

Unidentified (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

Coeloecetes cavernicola (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Chelisoches morio (Dermaptera: Forficulidae)

Chelisoches brevipennis (Dermaptera: Forficulidae)

Unidentified (Diptera: Cecidomyidae)

Atrichopogon jacobsoni (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Culicoides huffi (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Culicoides peregrinus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Culicoides prob. arakawai (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Forcipomyia spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Stilobezzia sp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Eusmittia cavernae (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Paratendipes inarmatus (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Pentaneura batuensis (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Podonomus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Tricimba batucola (Diptera: Chloropidae)

Chyromya prob. dubia (Diptera: Chyromyidae)

Gymnochiromyia sp. (Diptera: Chyromyidae)

Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Uranotaenia sp. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Condystylus sp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

Drosophila ananassae (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Desmometopa spp. (Diptera: Milichiidae)

Leptometopa mcclurei (Diptera: Milichiidae)

Milichia sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae)

Phyllomyza cavernae (Diptera: Milichiidae)

Fannia leucosticta (Diptera: Muscidae)

Ophyra chalcogaster (Diptera: Muscidae)

Chetoneura cavernae (Diptera: Mycetophilidae)

Eucampsipoda sundaicum (Diptera: Nycteribiidae)

Nycteribosca prob. gigantea (Diptera: Nycteribiidae)

Diploneura peregrina (Diptera: Phoridae)

Brunettia sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus anodontis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus anondontis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus asperules (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus lutea (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus makati (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus malayica (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus savaiiensis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Phlebotomus stantion (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda acanthostyla (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda alternata (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda aponesos (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda harrisi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda malleola (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda pellucida (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Psychoda vagabunda (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Sycorax malayensis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Telmatoscopus albipuntatus (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Telmatoscopus kulas (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Telmatoscopus mcclurei (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Trichomyia batu (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Trichomyia malaya (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Unidentified (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Bradysia flagellicornis (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Bradysia leucocerca (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Bradysia platytergum (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Bradysia leucocerca (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Phorodonta malayana (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Plastosciara near brevicalcarata (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Soudekia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Leptocera brevicostata (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae)

Sargus metallinus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

Helius cavernicolus (Diptera: Tipulidae)

Cleon sp. (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

Myiophanes fluitaria (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

Unidentified (Hemiptera: Cydnidae)

Bagauda lucifigus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

Reduvius gua (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

Fulvinus brevicornis (Hemiptera: Miridae)

Apanteles carpatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Apanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Aulosaphes sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Epitranus lacteipennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

Epitranus stantoni (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

Bathroponera rufipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Bathroponera tridentata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Leptogenys diminuta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Pheidole javana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Ponera sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Pristomyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Hypsicerca cavicola (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Hypsicerca fullawayi (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Trogaspidio sp. (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae)

Opogona cerodelta (Lepidoptera: Lyonetidae)

Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturnidae)

Tinea antricola (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)

Tinea palaechrysis (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)

Neglurus vitripennis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleonidae)

Diestrammena gravely (Orthoptera: Gryllacridae)

Gryllotalpa fulvipes (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

Mermecophilus dubius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

Pycnoscelus striatus (Orthoptera: Blattidae)

Liposcelis sp. (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae)

Parasoa haploneura (Psocoptera: Lepidopsocidae)

Psyllipsocus batuensis (Psocoptera: Psyllipsocidae)

Ectopsocus maindroni (Psocoptera: Peripsocidae)

Parasoa haploneura (Psocoptera: Forficulidae)

Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae)

Parabathynella malaya (Bathynellacea: Bathynellidae)

Armadillo intermixtus (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae)

Philoscia dobakholi (Isopoda: Oniscidae)

Unidentified (Podocopida: Cyprididae)

Chaerilus prob. celebensis (Scorpionida: Chactidae)

Bufo asper (Anura: Bufonidae)

Bufo melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae)

Callula pulchra (Anura: Microhylidae)

Rana calconota (Squamata: Scincidae)

Collocalia sp. (Apodiformes: Apodidae)

Hirundo daurica (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae)

Myophoneus flavirostris (Passeriformes: Turdidae)

Taphozous melanopogon (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae)

Eonycteris spelaea (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Hipposideros armiger debilis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Hipposideros bicolor (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Hipposideros diadema vicarius (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Hipposideros galiterus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Rhinolophus affinis superans (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Rhinolophus luctus morio (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Myotis mystacinus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

Rattus rattus jalorensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

Crocidura malayana (Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

Elaphe taeniura (Squamata: Colubridae)

Dryophiops rubescens (Squamata: Colubridae)

Ahaetulla formosa (Squamata: Colubridae)

Gecko marmorata (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

Lygosoma scotophilum (Squamata: Scincidae)

Paludomus buccula, Paludomus buccula var. minuta (Thiaridae)

Opeas doveri (Stylommatophora: Stenogyridae)

Opeas dimorpha (Stylommatophora: Stenogyridae)

Achatina fulica (Pulmonata: Achatinidae)

Dugesia sp. (Seriata: Scincidae)

List of introduced molluscs of Venezuela

This is a list of 52 species of molluscs that have been introduced into Venezuela, that are living in the wild, and that have been reported in the literature.

Marine gastropods: 7 species

Freshwater gastropods: 5 species

Land gastropods: 22 species

Marine bivalves: 18 species

Estuarine bivalves: 2 species

Total number of introduced mollusc species: 52

List of invasive species in Colombia

Colombia's governmental organization that oversees and manages natural parks within its national borders, Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia, has provided an official list of species that are considered to be invasive under the following resolutions:

Resolution 848 of 2008

Resolution 132 of 2010

Resolution 207 of 2010

Resolution 654 of 2011

List of non-marine molluscs of Brazil

The non-marine molluscs of Brazil are a part of the molluscan fauna of Brazil.

There are at least 1,074 native nominal species of non-marine molluscs living in Brazil.

There are at least 956 nominal species of gastropods, which breaks down to about 250 species of freshwater gastropods, and about 700 species of land gastropods (590 species of snails and approximately 110(?) species of slugs), plus at least 117 species of bivalves living in the wild.

There are at least 373 species of freshwater molluscs in Brazil.The number of native species is at least 1,074 and the number of non-indigenous molluscs in Brazil is, at minimum, 32 species. The most serious invasive alien species in Paraná State are the land snail Achatina fulica and the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata.

Summary table of number of speciesIn Rio Grande do Sul, 201 species and subspecies of non-marine mollusks were recorded: 156 gastropods (83 land snails + 18 slugs + 55 freshwater snails) and 45 bivalves.In Santa Catarina, 158 species and subspecies of non-marine mollusk were recorded: 135 gastropods (103 land gastropods + 32 freshwater snails) and 23 bivalves.

List of non-marine molluscs of Guadeloupe

The non-marine molluscs of Guadeloupe are a part of the molluscan fauna of Guadeloupe (wildlife of Guadeloupe). Guadeloupe is a Caribbean island in the Lesser Antilles. A number of species of non-marine molluscs are found in the wild in Guadeloupe.

List of non-marine molluscs of Nepal

The non-marine molluscs of Nepal are a complete molluscan fauna of Nepal (wildlife of Nepal, environment of Nepal), because Nepal is landlocked country.

A number of species of non-marine molluscs are found in the wild in Nepal.

Summary table of number of species(Summary table is based on species counted in this list and include also those ones with question marks)

Land slug Limax seticus lives in altitudes 4,700–4,800 m a.s.l. in Nepal. It is the highest locality where occurrence of land slugs was recorded.

List of non-marine molluscs of Venezuela

The non-marine molluscs of Venezuela are a part of the molluscan fauna of Venezuela (which is part of the wildlife of Venezuela). Non-marine molluscs are the snails, clams and mussels that live in freshwater habitats, and the snails and slugs that live on land. Sea-dwelling molluscs are not included in this list.

A number of species of non-marine molluscs are found in the wild in Venezuela.


The Metastrongylidae are a family of nematodes.

Genera in the family Metastrongylidae include:





Pulmonata, or "pulmonates", is an informal group (previously an order, and before that a subclass) of snails and slugs characterized by the ability to breathe air, by virtue of having a pallial lung instead of a gill, or gills. The group includes many land and freshwater families, and several marine families.

The taxon Pulmonata as traditionally defined was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study per Jörger et al., dating from 2010.Pulmonata are known from the Carboniferous Period to the present.Pulmonates have a single atrium and kidney, and a concentrated, symmetrical, nervous system. The mantle cavity is located on the right side of the body, and lacks gills, instead being converted into a vascularised lung. Most species have a shell, but no operculum, although the group does also include several shell-less slugs. Pulmonates are hermaphroditic, and some groups possess love darts.


A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Many tetrapeptides are pharmacologically active, often showing affinity and specificity for a variety of receptors in protein-protein signaling. Present in nature are both linear and cyclic tetrapeptides, tetrapeptides may be cyclized by a fourth peptide bond or other covalent bonds.

Examples of tetrapeptides are:

Tuftsin (L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine) is a peptide related primarily to the immune system function.

Rigin (glycyl-L-glutaminyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine) is a tetrapeptide with functions similar to those of tuftsin.

Postin (Lys-Pro-Pro-Arg) is the N-terminal tetrapeptide of cystatin C and an antagonist of tuftsin.

Endomorphin-1 (H-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin-2 (H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are peptide amides with the highest known affinity and specificity for the μ opioid receptor.

Morphiceptin (H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-NH2) is a casomorphin peptide isolated from β-casein.

Gluten exorphines A4 (H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH) and B4 (H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Trp-OH) are peptides isolated from gluten.

Tyrosine-MIF-1 (H-Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) is an endogenous opioid modulator.

Tetragastrin (N-((phenylmethoxy)carbonyl)-L-tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide) is the C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.

Kentsin (H-Thr-Pro-Arg-Lys-OH) is a contraceptive peptide first isolated from female hamsters.

Achatin-I (glycyl-phenylalanyl-alanyl-aspartic acid) is a neuroexcitatory tetrapeptide from giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

Tentoxin (cyclo(N-methyl-L-alanyl-L-leucyl-N-methyl-trans-dehydrophenyl-alanyl-glycyl)) is a natural cyclic tetrapeptide produced by phytopathogenic fungi from genus Alternaria.

Rapastinel (H-Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr-NH2) is a partial agonist of the NMDA receptor.

HC-toxin, cyclo(D-Pro-L-Ala-D-Ala-L-Aeo), where Aeo is 2-amino-8-oxo-9,10-epoxy decanoic acid, is a virulence factor for the fungus Cochliobolus carbonum on its host, maize.

Elamipretide, (D-Arg-dimethylTyr-Lys-Phe-NH2) a drug candidate that targets mitochondria.

William Henry Benson

William Henry Benson (1803, probably in Dublin - 27 January 1870) was a civil servant in British India and an amateur malacologist. He made large collections of molluscs and described numerous species from the U.K., India and South Africa.He joined Haileybury College in 1819 and joined the East India Company at Bengal. He reached Calcutta on 30 October 1821 and worked in a number of positions including a District Collector and Officiating Judge in Meerut, Bareilly and other parts of northern India. During his stay in India he collected specimens of numerous land snails some of which he sent to Hugh Cuming in England. On the return from a trip to Mauritius he brought a couple of living Achatina fulica which he gave to a friend in Calcutta in April 1847 who subsequently released them in a garden at Chowringhee. The species is today a pest in many parts of India.His son-in-law Major Richard Sankey was executor of his estate and the collections that he bequeathed went to Sylvanus Hanley, who removed the locality labels of all the specimens thus decreasing their value.

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