Achaemenides

In Greek and Roman mythology, Achaemenides (Ἀχαιμενίδης Akhaimenides) was a son of Adamastos of Ithaka, and one of Odysseus's crew. He was marooned on Sicily when Odysseus fled the Cyclops Polyphemus, until Aeneas arrived and took him to Italy with his company of refugee Trojans.[1][2][3]

His character seems to have been chosen by Virgil treating the Persian-origin name Achaemenes as Greek and extracting the meaning "he who waits with affliction".

Although not mentioned in Homer's epic, Achaemenides is significant; his stranding and subsequent rescue by Aeneas's fleet make him, along with Macareus, one of two known members of Odysseus's crew to survive the return journey to Ithaca (as every ship besides the flagship was destroyed by the Laestrygonian giants, and those besides Odysseus on the last ship were drowned after his men devoured Helios's sacred cattle).

The episode also provides Virgil with an opportunity to show Aeneas' magnanimity in saving a member of Odysseus's crew, and bearing no grudge for Odysseus's major role in the destruction of Troy, Aeneas' home.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 3.613–614
  2. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 14.158
  3. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Achaemenides", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1, Boston, MA, p. 8

References

(15440) 1998 WX4

(15440) 1998 WX4, provisional designation 1998 WX4, is a dark Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 66 kilometers (41 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 19 November 1998, by astronomers with the Catalina Sky Survey at the Catalina Station near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States. The assumed C-type asteroid belongs to the 60 largest Jupiter trojans. It has a rotation period of 21.43 hours and possibly a spherical shape. It has not yet been named since its numbering in June 2000.

(15502) 1999 NV27

(15502) 1999 NV27, provisional designation 1999 NV27, is a Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 14 July 1999, by astronomers with the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research at the Lincoln Lab's ETS near Socorro, New Mexico, in the United States. The dark Jovian asteroid has a rotation period of 15.1 hours and belongs to the 90 largest Jupiter trojans. It has not been named since its numbering in June 2000.

(15977) 1998 MA11

(15977) 1998 MA11, provisional designation 1998 MA11, is a Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 19 June 1998, by astronomers with the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research at the Lincoln Lab's ETS near Socorro, New Mexico, in the United States. The suspected tumbler is also a slow rotator with a period of 250 hours. It has not been named since its numbering in July 2000.

(32496) 2000 WX182

(32496) 2000 WX182, provisional designation 2000 WX182, is a Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 18 November 2000, by astronomers with the LINEAR program at the Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site near Socorro, New Mexico, in the United States. The dark Jovian asteroid belongs the 100 largest Jupiter trojans and has a rotation period of 23.3 hours. It has not been named since its numbering in November 2001.

(6090) 1989 DJ

(6090) 1989 DJ, provisional designation 1989 DJ, is a Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 70 kilometers (43 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 27 February 1989, by Belgian astronomer Henri Debehogne at ESO's La Silla Observatory in northern Chile. The dark Jovian asteroid belongs to the 50 largest Jupiter trojans and has a rotation period of 18.5 hours. It has not yet been named since its numbering in September 1994.

2456 Palamedes

2456 Palamedes ( PAL-ə-MEE-deez), provisional designation 1966 BA1, is a large Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 90 kilometers (56 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 30 January 1966, by astronomers at the Purple Mountain Observatory in Nanking, China. The assumed C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 7.24 hours and belongs to the 50 largest Jupiter trojans. It was named after Palamedes from Greek mythology.

4708 Polydoros

4708 Polydoros ( POL-ee-DOR-əs), provisional designation 1988 RT, is a Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 55 kilometers (34 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 11 September 1988, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California. The D-type asteroid belongs to the 80 largest Jupiter trojans and has a rotation period of 7.5 hours. It was named after the Trojan prince Polydorus, from Greek mythology.

5126 Achaemenides

5126 Achaemenides ( AK-ə-MEN-ə-deez), provisional designation 1989 CH2, is a Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 1 February 1989, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California. The dark Jovian asteroid belongs the 100 largest Jupiter trojans and has a long rotation period of 32.4 hours. It was named after one of Odysseus's crew members, Achaemenides, from Greek mythology.

5259 Epeigeus

5259 Epeigeus, provisional designation 1989 BB1, is a mid-sized Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 44 kilometers (27 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 30 January 1989, by American astronomer couple Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California. The D-type asteroid has a rotation period of 18.4 hours. It was named after the Myrmidon hero Epeigeus from Greek mythology.

5284 Orsilocus

5284 Orsilocus ( or-SIL-ə-kəs), provisional designation 1989 CK2, is a Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 1 February 1989, by American astronomers Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California. The D-type asteroid belongs the 100 largest Jupiter trojans and has a rotation period of 10.3 hours. It was named after the hero Orsilochus (Orsilocus) from Greek mythology.

Achaemenes (disambiguation)

The name Achaemenes and similar may refer to:

Achaemenes, supposed founder of the first Persian dynasty

Achaemenes (satrap), the satrap of Egypt from 484 BC until his death in 460 BC

Achaemenides, a minor fictional character in Virgil's Aeneid

Achaemenes (satrap)

Achaemenes (also incorrectly called Achaemenides by Ctesias, from the Old Persian Haxāmaniš) was an Achaemenid general and satrap of ancient Egypt during the early 5th century BC, at the time of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt.

Aeneads

This is for the mythical allies of Aeneas. For the story written about them by Virgil, see AeneidIn Roman mythology, the Aeneads (Αἰνειάδαι in Greek) were the friends, family and companions of Aeneas, with whom they fled from Troy after the Trojan War. Aenides was another patronymic from Aeneas, which is applied by Gaius Valerius Flaccus to the inhabitants of Cyzicus, whose town was believed to have been founded by Cyzicus, the son of Aeneas and Aenete. Similarly, Aeneades (Ancient Greek: Αἰνειάδης) was a patronymic from Aeneas, and applied as a surname to those who were believed to have been descended from him, such as Ascanius, Augustus, and the Romans in general.The Aeneads included:

Achates

Acmon, son of Clytius (son of Aeolus),

Anchises

Creusa, wife of Aeneas and mother of Ascanius

Ascanius

Iapyx

the Lares

Mimas

Misenus, Aeneas' trumpeter

the Penates

Sergestus

Achaemenides, one of Odysseus' crew the Aeneads picked up in Sicily (strictly speaking not an Aenead as he was not Trojan, but Greek).

Aeneid

The Aeneid (; Latin: Aeneis [ae̯ˈneːɪs]) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed.

The hero Aeneas was already known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas's wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and his description as a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous pietas, and fashioned the Aeneid into a compelling founding myth or national epic that tied Rome to the legends of Troy, explained the Punic Wars, glorified traditional Roman virtues, and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders, heroes, and gods of Rome and Troy.

The Aeneid is widely regarded as Virgil's masterpiece and one of the greatest works of Latin literature.

Cyclops

A cyclops ( SY-klops; Ancient Greek: Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes sy-KLOH-peez; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead. The word cyclops literally means "round-eyed" or "circle-eyed".Hesiod described three one-eyed cyclopes who served as builders, blacksmiths, metalworkers, and craftsmen: Brontes, Steropes, and Arges, the sons of Uranus and Gaia, brothers of the Titans. Homer described another group of mortal herdsmen or shepherd cyclopes, the sons of Poseidon. Other accounts were written by the playwright Euripides, poet Theocritus and Roman epic poet Virgil. In Hesiod's Theogony, Zeus releases three cyclopes from the dark pit of Tartarus. They provide Zeus' thunderbolt, Hades' "helmet of darkness", and Poseidon's trident, and the gods use these weapons to defeat the Titans.

In an episode of Homer's Odyssey, the hero Odysseus encounters the cyclops Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon and Thoosa, who lives with his fellow cyclopes in a distant country. The connection between the two groups has been debated in antiquity and by modern scholars. It is upon Homer's account that Euripides and Virgil based their accounts of the mythical creatures. The ancient Greek geographer Strabo describes another group of seven Lycian cyclopes, also known as "Bellyhands" because they earned from their handicraft. They had built the walls of Tiryns and perhaps the caverns and the labyrinths near Nauplia, which are called cyclopean.

Nasser Pourpirar

Nasser Pourpirar, (Persian: ناصر پورپیرار‎; born Nasser Banakonandeh Persian: ناصر بناکننده‎; pen name: Naria, Persian: ناریا‎) (b. 1940 or 1941 in Tehran – d. 27 August 2015 in Tehran) was a famous Iranian writer and historical revisionist. He was known for his controversial theories questioning the academically recognized historiography of Iran from Achaemenids to the beginning of the Safavid period.

Parallels between Virgil's Aeneid and Homer's Iliad and Odyssey

When writing the Aeneid, Virgil (or Vergil) drew from his studies on the Homeric epics of the Iliad and the Odyssey to help him create a national epic poem for the Roman people. Virgil used several characteristics associated with epic poetry, more specifically Homer's epics, including the use of hexameter verse, book division, lists of genealogies and underlying themes to draw parallels between the Romans and their cultural predecessors, the Greeks.

Polyphemus

Polyphemus (; Greek: Πολύφημος Polyphēmos) is the giant son of Poseidon and Thoosa in Greek mythology, one of the Cyclopes described in Homer's Odyssey. His name means "abounding in songs and legends". Polyphemus first appears as a savage man-eating giant in the ninth book of the Odyssey. Some later Classical writers link his name with the nymph Galatea and present him in a different light.

Vergilius Vaticanus

The Vergilius Vaticanus or Vatican Virgil (Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3225) is a Late Antique illuminated manuscript containing, in its form today, fragments of Virgil's Aeneid and Georgics. It was made in Rome in about 400 A.D., and is one of the oldest surviving sources for the text of the Aeneid and is the oldest and one of only three ancient illustrated manuscripts of classical literature. The two other surviving illustrated manuscripts of classical literature are the Vergilius Romanus and the Ambrosian Iliad.

There are 76 surviving leaves in the manuscript with 50 illustrations. If, as was common practice at the time, the manuscript contained all of the canonical works of Virgil, the manuscript would originally had about 440 leaves and 280 illustrations. The text was written by a single scribe in rustic capitals. As was common at the time, there is no separation between words. The scribe worked first leaving spaces for the illustrations. The illustrations were added by three different painters, all of whom used iconographic copybooks. The illustrations are contained within frames and include landscapes and architectural and other details. The miniatures are set within the text column, although a few miniatures occupy a full page. The human figures are painted in classical style with natural proportions and drawn with vivacity. The illustrations often convey the illusion of depth quite well. The gray ground of the landscapes blend into bands of rose, violet, or blue to give the impression of a hazy distance. The interior scenes are based on earlier understanding of perspective, but occasional errors suggest that the artists did not fully understand the models used. The style of these miniatures has much in common with the surviving miniatures of the Quedlinburg Itala fragment and have also been compared to the frescos found at Pompeii.

The manuscript was probably made for a pagan noble. Annotations in the manuscript indicate it was in Italy until the 7th century and in Tours in the second quarter of the 9th century. A French scribe made further notes around 1400. Later it reached Rome, and belonged to collectors including Pietro Bembo and Fulvio Orsini, who bequeathed it to the Vatican Library in 1600.The Vergilius Vaticanus is not to be confused with the Vergilius Romanus (Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3867) or the unillustrated Vergilius Augusteus, two other ancient Vergilian manuscripts in the Biblioteca Apostolica.

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